Landscape architecture is a multidisciplinary of different fields of knowledge that combines various artistic, technical, and scientific sphere aspects such as visual arts, design, descriptive geometry, history and architecture theory, urbanism, fundamental notions of botany, pedagogy, hydrology, sociology, economics, and so on. It supports a clear combination between designing and managing according to certain principles and techniques of external functional spaces in which human activities will take place, where the activity of the landscape architect addresses both urban and rural environments, irrespective of its jurisdiction (private or public). The landscape painter deals with both small-scale projects (landscaping and landscaping, etc.) and large-scale projects (urban design, parks, etc.). Among the activities, it includes many extra areas such as gardens, terraces, green/brown roofs, vertical gardens, parks, urban squares, green strips and street alignments, protection plantations, university campuses, botanical and zoological gardens, cemeteries, residential complexes, design urban, and so on. Over time, the range of plants has widened, and gardens are beginning to have ornamental and recreational characters, offering shades and coolness. In the orient, due to the warm climate and torrential summers as well as extensive desert and arid lands, the gardens were regarded as true oases of coolness, relaxations, rests, and pleasure. The creation of these gardens required the creation of water supply and irrigation systems, being stimulated by the development of architecture by creating palaces, temples, and sumptuous residences. The orient gardens were synonymous with the notion of Paradise or Heaven on earth, being, in fact, privileged places that offered pleasure and relaxation through the greenery and the shade offered by the numerous woody species, the aromas of the various aromatic species, or the cooling of the water in the form of waterfalls or ponds. The concept of landscape architecture is involved in open spaces surrounded by fences and also by open spaces without any fence or wall, such as squares, parks zone, green belts, and wild landscapes. The critical difference between the two is that gardens tend to be enclosed and to be designed for the private individual, whereas landscape architecture is concerned with open space, the public realm, and the relationship between the humanity’s development activities and the natural environment. Landscape architecture is concerned with the public good, with community values and with human development and its impact on the land. The scale of landscape planning may be regional or even national: landscape architects can design the whole new agricultural landscapes and forests . The portion of territory overlooked, forming it as a natural state or through human intervention, which had the intention to create an esthetic ensemble. Landscape architecture, or green space design, is the art of land planning, design, management, preservation, and repair, as well as the development of artificial structures. Landscape role in urban sector is to directly influence the physical and biological environment and diminish many operative impressions of metropolitan development through decreasing the negative effects of climate and saving energy as well as eliminating carbon dioxide, adjusting the operative rainfall runoffs, improving the air quality, sinking the acoustic levels, protecting the nature, and improving the attractiveness of metropolises . The history of landscape architectural discipline, an element which has to be analyzed, is related to the gardening sector, but not confused with it. The two disciplines labor with the confirmation of plantations and external adaptations, where gardening is more interested in public and private areas by enclosed or fenced spaces, such as parks and gardens. A worthy landscape architecture directly influences the physical and biological environments and diminishes the efficiency in many impacts of urban development by moderating the macro- and micro-climate, conserving the energy, improving the air quality, controlling the rainfall runoffs and flooding’s, lowering the acoustic levels, harboring the wildlife, and improving the desirability of cities . In other words, it represents the interference of discipline, with a high rank of art and science, which deals with development and arrangement of the system of green spaces. That has to be a whole and of the green spaces, in particular, according to certain principles and techniques, by associating the natural elements (vegetation, water, soil, and rocks) with the artificial elements (buildings, installations, etc.) to fulfill certain functions. Landscape architecture includes planning, design, and landscape management. Accordingly, landscaping involves the subordinate landscapingand design of the outdoor environment. Landscape refers to all cultural and natural land and water areas in the city and the countryside. Minor areas such as parks, squares, gardens, and walkways make up various components of the landscape. In an architectural domain, landscape not only shows the relationship between man and nature but also expresses the cultural content. Human civilization is the beginning of the face of all things to create a human world. The “symbiotic ecological” relationship between mankind and its living environment is often times forgotten . Consequently, the “landscape architecture” caring is from the natural land of the humanities to the urban and rural areas, communities, home environment planning, and space design. The efficient process of a comfortable and esthetically valuable environment is carried out with the help of natural materials (relief, water, vegetation, etc.) and architectural structures while maintaining existing and creating artificial landscapes and designing landscaping and recreational zones. In contrast to landscape architecture, the subject is much broader and consists of the organization of many components of the spatial environment of human life. The scope of this book includes landscape design, environmental restoration, land preparation, residential development, parks and recreational planning, and historic preservation, which are closely related to geography, architectural design, urban design, town planning, and regional planning. In other words, landscape architecture represents a 3D spatial organization of the territory, the combination of natural, building, and architectural components into an elemental composition bearing a certain artistic image. Like architecture and town planning, landscape architecture refers to spatial types of art. Landscape architecture can therefore alternatively be described as the overall knowledge as a practitioner used by a landscape architect in the implementation of projects. At the same time, the process of creating green areas in the sites is not the mere filling of the empty spaces between buildings with different natural elements such as stones, grass, flowers, and trees . It requires profound philosophy of the organization of these areas in the harmonious form by using diverse plant forms, the dynamic chromaticity of the flowers and leaves, water mobility, and the relief of the trees in contrast with different construction backgrounds. Landscape, in general, represents the culture and the nature where human being needs productive, practical, beautiful, and lasting scenery in cities, settlements, and natural areas. Landscape dialogs and activity elements carry neighbors in a composed form, melting variances between racial and ethnic communities, where the effect of landscape elements becomes an operative device to unite localities. Landscape in a set form upon urban areas represents a worldwide language, which can bring the community objectively to be together. Besides the major role of landscape, it contributes effectively to reduce the domestic violence levels in communities . Landscape architecture is a profession search for procedures that comprehend evident spirit, where the main goal of the career is to weigh the interests and values into an attractive, long-term, and sustainable consequence of a whole subject. The subject anchoring is found in the history of landscape architecture, social architecture and garden art, the theories of landscape architecture, and the esthetic experience, with artist-like working methods. Within the landscape architecture, a variety of methods are used. However, the core subject is the design method of the freer—heuristic architect through sketches, drawings, images, and physical and digital models. Green areas help much in reduction of environment pollution where the function of the reduction of environmental pollution can be achieved precisely by the ability of the vegetation to retain, fix, and sediment particles suspended in the atmosphere, fine powders, or smoke . Solutions will be talented to touch the main objectives of the topic. In fact, the landscape is the survival of the human state in the earth on the specific performance.
2. Natural lighting as a tool of the flourishing process of landscape architecture concept
In landscape architecture discipline, the light is an important element that must take cognizance of all design processes where the light can create harmony, contrast, drama, and life. It is possible to work consciously with the light, taking advantage of the shining backlight, a light opening in the decoy, and the reflections of a living water surface. The specialization must be used by landscape architects as a tool to exploit the importance of light for the experience of shapes, colors, febricity, and spaciousness. The specialization is experience-oriented, not oriented toward technical calculations. The specialty thus depicts the light as you experience it, not the light, as a light meter would indicate, or an engineer would calculate it . At the end of the thesis, the light is described as a design tool. Based on the experiences from the theory and theories’ example, the section gives examples of how landscape architects can affect the nature of the lighting and the experience of form, color, febricity, and spaciousness. Landscape architects can work consciously with light contrasts, such as when the light in a water pillar of a fountain is seen against a shadowy background. We can choose from the different light sources, such as the bright-colored sunlight or the weaker diffuse skylight, and we can utilize the direction of light. We can work with screens to filter the light and surfaces to receive and reflect it, and we can create static or dynamic light experiences. In the theory of theory, the light, as well as the sensing device, describes the eye and consciousness—which together allows the person to perceive space, its surfaces, and objects. There are four variables that describe the light. These are the strength of light, the color of light, the hardness of light, and the direction of light. Hereafter, the light is described from the different natural light sources—sunlight, skylight, and reflected and transmitted light. It describes how the light influences the experience of shapes, colors, febricity, and spatiality and finally describes the variability of light throughout the day and the year.
3. Cultural environment analysis as a tool for reaching landscape architecture
Landscape architecture and cultural environment, like the nature and the environment, should be managed with a special care. The development of recent decades has meant that landscape architecture and cultural environment resources have been lost, and the diversity and quality of landscape and cultural history are threatened. The characteristics of the affected landscape architecture and cultural environment can be identified by describing dominant features/main features, distinctive elements, and the special nature. The dominant features of landscape architecture are linked to the scale of the landscape (small scale/large scale), forms (hilly/flat), water areas, spatial effects (open/closed), and so on. The significant elements can, for example, be the valley, the lake, or the marked hill. The particular nature can be attributed to the characteristics of the land, the use of land, the degree of insanity, and so on. The cultural history features can be linked to a cultivation system, the overall structure of buildings, and so on. The bearing historical elements can, for example, be the station in the station city, the main farm, and its road and garden . The special character can, for example, be linked to a time span (share time, prehistoric time, etc.) or a function (fishing, infrastructure, etc.) or the landscape context. An important point is that each of the landscape architecture and cultural environment has its own characteristics, which may be more or less sensitive to the impacts of the current project. It is, therefore, crucial to identify these properties in order to assess the impact. Similarly, it is important to retrieve the relevant data and information and not, for example, build the entire cultural environment description solely on registered memorials. Criteria for determining the values associated with landscape and cultural environment may be designations that appear in regional plans, conservation plans, municipal atlas, conservation, and so on. It may be necessary to make a concrete assessment of the value in the current situation. An important tool for sustainable exploitation of landscape architecture and cultural environmental resources is environmental impact assessments.
4. A creative project of landscape architecture “analyzing process”
In an effective analyzing process of a creative landscape architecture project, it is important to work systematically with different data and information of an existing situation. Analysis process has to be considered and should obey the following steps.
4.1. Screening of target region
The core aim of the screening is to clarify whether an environmental impact assessment is to be carried out in connection with a proposal landscape project. This should be done by the estimated procedure of a preliminary assessment to have a significant impact on the environment . For a landscape architecture expert, “natural areas” mean areas that are designed to achieve substantial protection of, inter alia, landscapes and cultural values. It is important to note that the designation of valuable cultural environments takes place as a progressing process. It is also different from region to region if there are selected valuable landscapes and/or landscapes and cultural environments, which are included in the selection of natural areas. Therefore, a concrete assessment should always be made up of whether important landscape architecture or cultural environments are affected. It should be noted that in connection with, for example, projects in historical urban areas or plans for major changes in land use, it may also be relevant to conduct a screening under the regular rules. The main objective of the screening of external expertise in the landscape and cultural environment, inspection, and so on depends directly on the current situation, including the plot foundation and the competent authority’s expertise and local knowledge. In order to assess whether there is a planned risk, plants can significantly affect landscape. It is important that urban planners, designers, and ecologists, therefore, need to focus on urban green space strategies that are ‘just green enough’ and that explicitly protect social as well as ecological sustainability .
4.2. Scoping of the main conception zone
The main aim of scoping is to ensure that the following environmental impact study contains all relevant information related to the impact of the project or plan on landscape area and cultural environment while avoiding unnecessary studies. As a part of the scoping phase, an investigation of the project or plan’s potential significant impacts on landscape and cultural environment. There are requested ideas and suggestions from the citizens, where the essential issues related to landscape and cultural environment are drawn forward. The main elements and the methodology shown in the description of the screening phase should be used in the scoping analysis. The call for ideas and suggestions may partly result in additional information about the landscape and cultural-historical conditions that should be incorporated into its investigation and in alternative proposals.
4.3. The input to the study program
The requirement for alternatives, justification measures, and the main issues to be addressed in the further investigation is clarified and elaborated by supplementary studies of the affected areas. Here too, it is about identifying the dominant landscape features, cultural history features, distinctive elements, and the special nature. The properties are valued, and the vulnerability to the project is described in order to clarify the need for (complimentary) alternatives and the main issues for the subsequent study. As in the other phases of the process, this happens in the interaction between many considerations—also with input from interests other than the landscape and cultural environment.
4.4. Respecting of study programs: alternatives and influences impact zones
An important part of the scoping phase is to determine the alternatives and the geographical area to be investigated. It may be a good idea to make sure that the zone is not set too narrow, so that you can start from the beginning. The extent of the influenza zone (research area) will vary widely, inter alia depending on the nature of the project, the alternatives to be investigated, and the nature of the affected area, which are determining alternatives. An important element of the scoping phase is to determine alternatives or identify, where future options for alternative solutions should be investigated. Landscape and cultural environmental considerations are one of several considerations that can justify alternatives, nevertheless an important input for the development of alternatives. The size of the geographical area to be examined—the influenza zone—naturally depends on the alternatives to be investigated and their location.
4.5. Environmental impact study
That is sure that employment of more plants in green areas and similar in dense urban environments, annoying to put excessively much nature in the city in the form of big open green spaces can reduce the thickness to the point, where everyone has to make everywhere, with negative environmental consequences. It also reduces the energy of the city . The scope and content of the environmental impact study are laid down in scoping study program. The study consists of three main elements, such as screening and scoping analyzes the nature and impact of the project, the nature of the landscape and the environment, and an analysis of the extent and nature of the consequences. The impact assessment must, in a transparent manner—and as far as possible “measurable” way, describe the consequences of the project on the landscape and the environment. The analysis of the nature and impact of the project, on the one hand, and the characteristics of the landscape and the environment, on the other hand, must determine the vulnerability of the area to the current measures. The two analyses take place simultaneously, so that the necessary information about the project and its effects is obtained on the basis of the previously completed studies of landscape and cultural environment. These previous analyses have given a preliminary characterization of the landscape and the environment. In some situations, the landscape will be divided into different landscape types. Public consultation and preliminary analyses may have resulted in the setting of alternatives whose consequences for landscape and environment will now be examined further. It is necessary to engage researchers in the worldwide greenly architecture community and for those interested in biophilic architecture .
4.6. Analysis of landscape and cultural environment
The previous analyses were supplemented with more detailed study within the framework of the study program and under the impression of the project options to be investigated. A part of this is to identify and define distinctive landscapes that may have different vulnerabilities to the project. Similarly, characteristic cultural-historical contexts are defined—cultural environments. If a project affects a large geographic area or area with very different landscapes, it may be necessary to “break down” the landscape into smaller areas with each of their characteristics and vulnerability to the project. In other situations, where the landscape is very uniform or the extent of the impact is limited, it will not be relevant for a subdivision of the landscape. The landscape is a wide-ranging concept with many dimensions, and there is not one method for analyzing the landscape. Therefore, in the analysis of the landscape, the facts that are most relevant in the specific situation must be taken into account. In order to identify the landscape profile, it will typically be natural to treat topics such as natural land, historical development, terrain conditions, wetlands/coasts, vegetation, farm structure, housing patterns, and infrastructure (roads, lanes, and pipelines).
4.7. Landscape characteristics and value
The main objective of the analysis is to identify the significant landscapes, elements, and structures that characterize the landscape features and that can be influenced by the current project. In addition, their significance is valued. The landscape with its towns and villages tells the story of how we have utilized natural resources over time, power relations and religion, technological development, and so on. The combination of natural conditions—geology, soil, and climate—and historical development differs in different ways with each region and each local area. It is important in the analysis of the landscape to find out the special landscape profile—the special characteristics—which characterizes the area. The analysis of landscape properties consists of two elements: first, an analysis of the “physical landscape” with the dominant landscapes, vegetation, and settlement patterns as well as distinctive landscape elements such as a hilltop, river valley, and churches and second, a spatial/visual analysis of the appearance of the landscape and the individual forms, patterns, and elements, state and undisturbedness. The significant elements can be sub-areas and/or structures, and they can, for example, be characterized as strong or weak in relation to being bearable/representative of the landscape character on the determined area.
4.8. Implicated the characteristic and the value of the cultural environment
The main goal of the analysis is to identify the cultural-historical main features and bearing elements within the delimited cultural environments that may be affected by the current project. In addition, their significance is valued. However, in order to characterize and value the designated cultural environments, it is important to understand the landscape and historical context as they are part of. The cultural-historical main features are linked to both physical and functional conditions. The starting point can be the overall housing structure such as the location of the settlement on the edge of the valley, between the high-rise cultivation areas and the wet meadows along the river, which together constitute the resource base of the building. In such cases, the functional context is as important to the identity and value of the environment as the physical structure. But also understanding the mechanisms by which natural environments contribute to stress reduction or restoration is important if this contribution is to be exploited for public health improvement .
5. A sustain reading of historical world’s landscape architecture
Concerns about the arrangement of planted areas, in general, have existed since ancient times, with some ancient peoples having a special cult for this. Human beings have always wanted to shape nature and to be surrounded by the elements of nature (trees, shrubs, grasses, rocks, water, etc.), to harmonize them, and to integrate them into the artificial environment created by it; a fact upon which have marked the culture and traditions of the people concerned. Thus, in the course of history, different conceptions and ways of green spaces were developed. There were many planted areas developed, and others disappeared, found, interfered, enriched, and developed, passing through from one region to another and from one era to the next, shaping well-defined styles and schools with their principles and ways of realizing gardens. Historical proofs such as mural paintings, bas-reliefs, mosaics, historical texts, vestiges of ancient buildings attest to the emergence, and development of gardens in the west and east of Asia and North Africa (Egypt) and later in Europe (Greece, Ionic peninsula) and around the Gulf of Mexico. The antiquity gardens at first had a utilitarian purpose, many of which were grown as food-producing plants, later attained a religious and divine character or a meditative character.
6. Landscape architecture categories
The categories of the landscape are numerous, being different in size, location, facilities, and functions. They can be classified according to several criteria in the following paragraphs.
6.1. Placing and position
Placing area suburban or urban includes recreational green areas, public gardens, squares, green strips, and planted street alignments as well as botanical gardens and plantations beside some public facilities, landscaping on the premises of institutions, businesses, education or social-cultural units, plantations in cemeteries, green roofs—suburban including: cultural and resting parks, recreation areas (recreation forests, park forests, and parks), botanical gardens, plantations of alignment along roads or railways (localities, soil, water, and spa-climatic resorts), and nurseries.
It can be divided into two access forms as follows:
Unlimited access to general usage that is also called public green spaces is managed by the mayoralties, including public parks, gardens and squares, street green spaces or residential neighborhoods, and recreation forests.
Limited access, where the access is made according to certain rules for a fee or just for a given category of people, some green spaces even having a private character (the individual dwellings’ gardens) being administered by legal or physical persons. This can include green spaces within cultural or educational establishments, hospitals, sanatoriums or industrial facilities, sports parks and bases, botanical gardens, and individual dwellings’ gardens—with strict access, where access is only allowed to those who work in these areas, or in the case of studies or works of art, including experimental stations, nurseries, anti-erosion, water protection or traffic routes, and firefighting plantations.
6.3. Urban functions
Green spaces with a recreational role: squares, gardens and public parks, park forests, recreational forests, sports parks, green spaces for children and youth specialty green areas: botanical gardens, exhibition parks, parks and zoos, dendrological parks, rosaries, climbing, green spaces in cemeteries landscaping green spaces with a decorative role of decorative squares, landscaping near administrative, cultural or educational institutions, and private green spaces for dwellings .
Utility and protection green spaces: Alignments along roads or railways, plantations for the protection of watercourses and open water accumulations, parasitic plantations, protection curtains, anti-erosion consolidation plantations, nurseries, lands floral, or lawn production. Landscape architecture aims at an effective spatial design of plants, materials, land, and water. The starting points in landscaping are the landscape as a dynamic system along with the needs, intentions, or interests of the people. Modeling and delivery of alternative development opportunities are central. Landscape architecture continued its development as a design discipline during the twentieth century and took advantage of various movements of design and architecture . At present, the spirit of innovation still offers excellent results in the design of public roads, parks, and gardens. At the moment, the system became the basis of the current geographical information systems (GISs). The system assigned a layer to every qualitative aspect of a place, such as a history, hydrology, topography, and vegetation. At this moment, the system is used universally in landscape architecture for the analysis of materials on and on the ground, in the same way, that they are used by urban planners, geographers, forestry, and natural resource.
7. Woody plants selecting for an operative “open space”
The advantages of using woody plants in different units of green space are to create the form of open spaces, where it represents a model of space unclosed version. Wood species “mainly trees and shrubs” embody more than about 70% of a floral species that represents approximately 5–10% of the total area of the verdant space unit. Woody vegetation is the “main building material” of a grassy space, a material that can be changed in volume, color, texture, and shape over a long period of time. By using woody plants in open spaces, architect and designers can create different landscape arrangements, colors, volumes, and compositions, all at the same time. They can form the harmonizing that binds all anthropogenic elements, which will eventually create landscape unity. The main advantages of using woody vegetation are as follows:
The great malevolence of the contour of woody plants, which are extremely freely (proper to the respective species) or geometric (when certain cuts are used to obtain different desired shapes).
The great diversity of green (summer) and yellow, rust, red or brown (autumn) in fallow species.
The diversity of branches, leaves, flowers, and even fruits of certain species or taxa (including the texture of the crown surface).
The lower cost of propagating material and maintenance work over time.
The higher resistance of specimens of wood species to environmental conditions.
The fulfillment to a much greater extent of the sanitary function compared to the floral or lawn species.
7.1. Species selecting criteria
7.1.1. The ecological requirements of wood species
The most important aspect to consider when choosing wood species is precisely the correlation of local conditions with the requirements of those species. Thus, an account must be taken of as follows: the requirements of the species in relation to climatic ecological factors, such as light, air temperature, atmospheric humidity, and wind; edible environmental factors, such as texture and depth of the soil, soil humidity regime, soil fertility, and the skeleton content; geomorphological factors, such as altitude, exhibition, slope, and terrain configuration; biotic factors, such as animal and vegetal; and anthropogenic factors, such as pollutants . These factors will be taken into account differently in urban green spaces compared to periurban ones. Thus, in urban green spaces that are much smaller than peri-urban areas and where utilities are easier to achieve, some factors can be improved by applying for different special works: irrigation, fertilization, pest prevention, and control. Microstation in urban areas is more sheltered due to the presence of buildings that diminish the intensity of the wind or that increase the temperature of the air by radiation phenomena, which influences the decrease of the daily or annual thermal amplitudes. In periurban green areas, the improvement of these conditions is very difficult, and the species will be chosen in such a way that these conditions correspond to the best ecological requirements of the species.
7.1.2. The biological features of the species
The height of the copies
This is important in choosing, but especially in the combination and location of species, a feature that takes place over time and cannot always be corrected. In designing a particular composition, the landscape artist must “see” in the future how they will look, how much the respective specimens will have, and how they fit into that composition. High-grade species are recommended for recreational forests and alignments; large urban green space units; masking unsightly targets (industrial halls, factories, etc.); shading of buildings; and obtaining vertical accents in different compositions. They can be used alone or in combination with other small species or even big shrubs. Small species and shrubs are recommended for small green areas along the arteries aimed at the shading of pedestrian walkways as well as the containment of exhaust gases, dust, etc.; realization of live fences and shrubs bring diversity to the unity of the composition is highly appreciated for its distinctive decorative effect, its rapid growth, and its ability to blossom in younger ages. Conveniently, the wood species are divided into three categories: trees of size I—over 25 m, size II—15–25 m, and size III—7–15 m; shrubs, species with heights below 7 m, with numerous stems branched from the base, which can be high shrubs with a height between 2 and 7 m, medium shrubs 1–2 m, and dwarf shrubs less than 1 m; liane, voluminous, climbing, clinging, or even creeping wood species, where the stems can have lengths from 1–2 to 10–20 m and even more .
The shape and the size of the crown
The crown of the shafts falls more or less in a geometric form according to the ratio of height to diameter. This distinguishes the type of crown: cylindrical, conical, spherical, oval, obovoid, tabular, and with a sinuous outline. The shape of the crown is noticeable in any season and influences the viewer’s mental state. For example, around the stadiums or along a road, species with columnar or conical crowns will be preferred, and on a sidewalk with a spherical or tabular crown. According to the density of the branches and the richness of the foliage (shape, size, and arrangement of the leaves), there are species with a transparent crown and species with a dense crown. This feature plays an important role in the composition, especially in directing the effects of light—shadow. Dense crown species are used to create the backgrounds for other compositions—mask unsightly objects; balance the volumes of neighboring buildings; and street alignments for protection against sunlight, dust, and wind, especially in the plains and hills. Transparent crown species are used for street alignments in the mountain regions; near certain buildings that are not to be masked, but besides which there is a need for wooden specimens; the recreation area, the creation of multi-story stands, or the installation of an herbaceous rug appropriate to picnic activities.
Plant leaves, color, and shape
The leaves of trees and shrubs vary greatly in their shape, size, and color. Some species have simple or compound leaves, small or large, with a limb of different shapes and sizes: cordate, rhombic, lanceolate, ovoid, obovate, elliptic, and so on. The edge of the tongue may be whole, slightly incised and deeply incised. The leaves of composite leaves may be small (
First, the most plant leaves are green, where the essential role of the most categories of leaves is to convert sunlight energy into carbohydrate, which the plant uses in various ways. The green leaf is green, so it is because the blade absorbs the other colors and reflects the green color, where the wavelengths of the other colors are absorbed, like some energy sources. Because if the same wavelengths were emitted again, the other colors would be emitted from, for example, the magazine, and it would not just be green. Sunlight attacks the chlorophyll, then photosynthesis takes to function. Sunlight is made up of many colors. When sunlight falls against a glass prism, the prism breaks the light into its rainbow of colors. Chlorophyll and carotene are both known as pigments. Inconsistent life, the mixing of pigments, creates diverse colors. In fact, during the summer, green plants must continually create new chlorophyll to replace what has been destroyed. This creation or synthesis of chlorophyll requires not only sunlight but also warm temperatures, so you can see why fall’s cooler weather encourages our trees’ leaves to begin showing colors other than green. There is another substance in many leaves known as carotene, which is a kind of “chlorophyll helper.” This is because carotene absorbs sunlight energy like chlorophyll, but instead of keeping that energy and conducting photosynthesis with it, it passes its energy on to chlorophyll, which then uses that energy to perform photosynthesis. Carotene is known technically as an “accessory absorber.” Carotene holds up much better under sunlight than chlorophyll, so often in the fall when chlorophyll disappears from leaves, carotene is left behind. Flower shape and color, the flowering period for many artistic and arboreal species, the shape, color of the flowers, and the flowering period are the main criteria for choosing them . The color range of flowers is quite varied, although white, cream, or yellow flowers are more common.
8. Green areas scenes and physical elements
Buildings are used as background elements or to fit, maintain, dominate, organize, or enhance the landscape features or shapes. All buildings present in a green space must be aligned with the surrounding landscape in order to achieve the unity of the building with it . Harmonization can be achieved by similarity or by contrast. Designed green spaces are pavilions, kiosks, stairs, balustrades, belvedere, pergolas, trenches, columns, arches and porticos, plant stands, bridges and bridges, benches and chairs (garden furniture), sculptural groups, decorative pots, and green theater.
8.1. View scene between green area and physical elements
Pavilions are constructed with the circular, square, hexagonal, or octagonal base and designed to house visitors, orchestras, or fanfare. These can be made up of wood, concrete, or brick, in a simple yet esthetic form, is located on the Esplanade, at the edge of the water, at the end of alleys, in squares or perspective points. Kiosks are smaller pavilions, light constructions, located in green spaces. They can be opened at the top and side (with only metal bars or wood that serves as a support for hanging plants called natural kiosks and covered but open lateral kiosks). Tempered and closed side kiosks are not recommended. Implementing the semiotic (landscape language) genius with informative, technical data collected and inserted (Figure 2).
8.2. Adapted innovative design by landscape elements
For creating an efficient involvement on the landscape image, it is necessary to (Figure 3):
conserve the major elements of the landscape by adopting the design ideas to the specific character of the site.
involve the minor elements of the landscape. For example, intervention on the “shape” of the landscape through the following actions:
conserving the natural species
destructing the natural form
choosing the natural form
enhancing the natural form
The general scene of landscape character has to be:
dynamic in a form
dramatical in impression
attractive in effect
correspond to an architectural function
The relationship of contrast is the opposition to the landscape through a form of human creation in the idea of obtaining an echoing, balanced anxiety. The relationship that is required to create a contrast effect by creating stable plans, forms, with a possibility of realizing some essential points inside the composition, variation of color, light, and texture . Attention is the correlation of the scale of the ensemble with that of the micro landscape. Forgetting a notion of important beautiful view, the direction of light, gravity trend should be simple. General scenes of landscape architecture have to be able to assemble many types of woody plants, by colors, where the diﬀerent kinds of plants in landscape architecture, which can create by various conceptions.
Holden R, Liversedge J. Landscape Architecture: An Introduction. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd; 2014. p.1
Dwyer JF, McPherson EG, Shroeder HW, Rowntree RA. Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 1992; 18(5):227-234
Asaad Almssad, Amjad Almusaed, Environmental reply to vernacular habitat conformation from a vast areas of Scandinavia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 48, August 2015, Pages 825-834
Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad, Urban Biophilic Theories upon Reconstructions Process for Basrah City in Iraq, Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference, PLEA 2014, Ahmadabad, India
Sullivan WC, Kuo FE. Do trees strengthen urban communities, reduce domestic violence? Arborist News. 1996; 4:33-34
Almusaed A. Grasses, Benefits, Diversities and Functional Roles. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Open Publisher; 2017. p. 6
Amjad Almusaed, Evaporative cooling process adaptive for Baghdad City climate, 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC Conference on Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century, September 2007, Crete island, Greece
Almusaed A, Almssad A. Biophilic architecture: Towards a new potential of healthy architecture. University of Florida, Powell Center for Construction & Environment, Rethinking Sustainable Construction 2006, Florida, USA
Almusaed A, Almssad A. Passive and low energy housing in the context of “ArchiMetrics” concept, building, 3rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment (PALENC 2010), 29 September 2010, Rhodes Island, Greece
Wolch JR, Byrne J, Newell JP. Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landscape and Urban Planning. May 2014; 125:234-244
Amjad Almusaed. Biophilic and Bioclimatic Architecture: Analytical Therapy for the Next Generation of Passive Sustainable Architecture. Springer-Verlag London, 2011, London, England, p. 180
Almusaed A, Almssad A. Biophilic architecture, the concept of healthily sustainable architecture. In: The 23th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference, PLEA 2006, Geneva, Switzerland
Thompson CW et al. More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns. Landscape and Urban Planning. Apr 15, 2012; 105(3):221-229
Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad Building materials in eco-energy houses from Iraq and Iran, Case Studies in Construction Materials, Elsevier, Volume 2, June 2015, Pages 42-54
Almusaed A, Almssad A. Bioclimatic interpretation over vernacular houses from historical city Basrah. In: The 23th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference, PLEA 2006, Geneva, Switzerland
Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad, Vernacular passive houses from Aarhus city. In: The 23th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference, PLEA 2006, Geneva, Switzerland
Almssad A, Almusaed A. Cooling by underground earth tubes, building low energy cooling and advanced ventilation technologies the 21st century. In: PALENC 2007, The 28th AIVC Conference, Crete Island, Greece
Christopher A et al. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press; 1977. pp. 152-155
Francis M. The Meanings of the Garden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1990. p. 86
Hunt JD. Gardens and the Picturesque: Studies in the History of Landscape Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1992
Little CE. Greenways for America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1990. p. 86 (45-52)
Jencks C. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. London: Academy Editions; 1991. p. 73
Rogers EB. Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History. Harry N. Abrams; First Edition, New York: 2001. p. 109