1997 update of the 1982 American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for classification of systemic lupus Eeythematosus.
Lupus is an autoimmune disease, which means that the immune system erroneously acts against its own healthy tissues. It usually follows a chronic course and hence can also be termed as a chronic disease. It may involve only a single organ, but in its due course, it usually involves multiple organs of the body. There are various types of rashes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the butterfly‐like rash being the most famous. Up to now, many classifications of lupus have been given, but the classification into the discoid lupus and the disseminated lupus is being most widely accepted. From the time of Hippocrates, it was assumed to be present, and after many research studies, it is still a dreaded disease. Females are more affected than males by this disease. In the past, the survival rate of SLE was very poor. Now the survival rate has increased, thanks to the newer drugs and other strategies taken against this disease. The main causes of death from SLE were renal disease, neoplasm, CVD, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease and infection. It has been found that various genes cause the disease. In a small fraction of patients, the disease may be attributed to a single gene. But majority of the patients with this disease have multiple genes.
- chronic disease
- immune system
- multiple organs
1.1. Definition of lupus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is simply known as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body erroneously onslaughts tissues in various parts of the body which are healthy [1, 2]. It may show only single organ sign or multiple system sign at the onset. It can affect the brain, skin, joints and other parts of the body. It is an autoimmune problem that has a wide‐ranging clinical presentation, encircling various parts of the body (Figures 1 and 2).
1.2. Varieties of lupus skin reactions
Varieties of lupus skin eruptions:
Acute cutaneous lupus (also called as the butterfly lupus rash or malar rash).
The subacute cutaneous lupus: There are two types: (a) the first one is very sensitive to exposure to the sun and depicts red coloured pimples as the skin eruptions development begins. (b) The second variety begins as flat lesions and get larger as they enlarge to the exterior.
Chronic cutaneous lupus (also called discoid lupus erythematosus—DLE): these skin eruptions are found in a very few of SLE patients.
The disease SLE can attack people of all ages, races and both males and females, but it has been observed that more than 90% of new patients having SLE are women in their conceiving years. The prevalence of SLE, which has been reported recently, is 20–150 per 100,000. Data from metropolitan areas in the United States stipulated the prevalence to be 104–170 per 100,000 women . The lowest incidence rates are observed in Caucasian populations .
Up to now, it has been divided into two parts: the discoid lupus and the disseminated lupus.
In 1971, classification criteria for SLE originated for the first time; they were subsequently revised in 1982 , and formally accepted by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) in the year 1997 . Whilst they have been accepted as ‘classification yardstick’, ACR (Figure 3) has been vastly used as diagnostic criteria for SLE. To diagnose a patient with SLE, the patient must have at least 4 of 11 ACR classification (Table 1) yardsticks. In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) foundation re‐evaluated and made it valid [6, 7], and now according to them, the SLE patient must have at least 4 of 17 SLICC yardsticks, which should include at least one immunologic and one clinical criterion.
|1. Malar rash||Fixed erythema, flat or raised, over the malar eminences, tending to spare the nasolabial folds|
|2. Discoid rash||Erythematous raised patches with adherent keratotic scaling and follicular plugging; atrophic scarring may occur in older lesions|
|3. Photosensitivity||Skin rash as a result of unusual reaction to sunlight, by patient history or physician observation|
|4. Oral ulcers||Oral or nasopharyngeal ulceration, usually painless, observed by physician|
|5. Nonerosive arthritis||Involving two or more peripheral joints, characterized by tenderness, swelling, or effusion|
|6. Pleuritis or pericarditis||1. Pleuritis‐convincing history of pleuritic pain or rubbing heard by a physician or evidence of pleural effusion|
| 1. |
|2. Pericarditis‐documented by electrocardigram or rub or evidence of pericardial effusion|
|7. Renal disorder||1. Persistent proteinuria > 0.5 g/d or > than 3+ if quantitation not performed|
| 1. |
|8. Neurologic disorder||1. Seizures—in the absence of offending drugs or known metabolic derangements; e.g., uremia, ketoacidosis, or electrolyte imbalance|
| 1. |
|9. Hematologic disorder||1. Hemolytic anemia—with reticulocytosis|
| 1. |
|2. Leukopenia—<4000/mm3 on > 2 occasions|
| 1. |
|3. Lyphopenia—< 1500/mm3 on > 2 occasions|
| 1. |
|4. Thrombocytopenia—<100,000/mm3 in the absence of offending drugs|
|10. Immunologic disorder||1. Anti‐DNA: antibody to native DNA in abnormal titer|
| 1. |
|2. Anti‐Sm: presence of antibody to Sm nuclear antigen|
| 1. |
|3. Positive finding of antiphospholipid antibodies on:|
|1. An abnormal serum level of IgG or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies,|
|2. A positive test result for lupus anticoagulant using a standard method, or|
|3. A false‐positive test result for at least 6 months confirmed by Treponema pallidum immobilization or fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test|
|11. Positive antinuclear antibody||An abnormal titer of antinuclear antibody by immunofluorescence or an equivalent assay at any point in time and in the absence of drugs|
One of the most important scales to assess disease activity in SLE is the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) [8–10]. One of the famous modified indexes is known as the safety of estrogens in lupus erythematosus national assessment (SELENA) trial also called SELENA‐SLEDAI system .
2. Historical perspective and physiology
Now, the origin of this disease is understandable clearly. It is conjectured that hormonal, environmental, genes, genetic variation and heredity play a significant role in its development . It has been seen that if one member of a twin is affected the chances that the other twin may also be affected is 24%.
Documented proof of lupus can be tracked down to the time of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the year 400 BC, he wrote about herpes esthiomenos , which is conjectured to be lupus only. It has been seen that Hippocrates (Figure 4) mentioned about red, circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue, which may depict present day lupus.
It has also been documented that there was a saint named Lupus, who lived in the sixth century A.D. .
The history can be traced back into three parts as follows:
The traditional or classical phase during which the skin disarray was narrated.
The conventional period during which the entire body symptoms and signs of lupus were found out after careful searching unearthed and organised in a systematic way.
The contemporary period or modern phase which was portended by the unearthing of the LE cell in 1948 and is differentiated by other related discoveries in the field of science.
2.1. Traditional or classical phase
In the biography of St. Martin, for first time, we get an evidence of the word ‘lupus’ being used .
The word ‘lupus’ (which in Latin means ‘wolf’) is officially recognized to be coined by the Rogerius Grugardi, a physician who lived in the thirteenth century. He is accredited with coining ‘noli me tangere’, which means ‘do not touch me’. He gave the term to the lesions and ulcers of the face associated with this disease. As time passed, the term underwent changes as the position of the disease changed. But the term ‘lupus’ remained. He used this term to delineate vicious lacerations of the face, which could be compared to the bite of a wolf. It was told that the characteristic butterfly rash analogous with lupus have a similarity with the teeth marks of a wolf’s onslaught. The other hypothesis remarks that the terrifying impression on the face of a person resembled the impressions on the face of the wolf. The petrifying impression of people afflicted with lupus brings to the mind the terrifying tale of werewolves (Figure 5). These were mythologically described as humans who had magical power to metamorphose into animals. It was, therefore, the superstitious belief of the middle ages that the impressions on people faces afflicted with lupus resembled were wolves [16, 17].
2.2. Conventional or neoclassical phase
A student of Grugardi, Roland of Parma, wrote more about this disease. He also gave a detailed account of its different stages, which are not in use nowadays . Erasmus Wilson (1809–1884) confused lupus with tuberculosis and syphilis  (Figures 6 and 7).
Robert Willan (1757–1812) was the one who first classified lupus based on clinical observations. Before him, the classification of lupus was mainly done according to symptomatology. Willan (Figure 8) segregated his findings into three parts: (i) lupus that extirpates the uppermost layer, (ii) lupus that extirpates the surface up to the bottom and (iii) lupus that is associated with overgrowth and dysplasia . His student Thomas Bateman (1778–1821) helped him in publishing a book regarding lupus [21, 22].
Established and conventional elucidations of the variegated skin manifestations were made by Thomas Bateman.
It was in 1612 that the St. Louis Hospital was built by Biet (a pupil of Bateman) and Alibert. In the beginning, its main purpose was to help victims of plague. From1800, it started treating skin disorders. Laurent Theodore Biett (1781–1840) and Cazenave (1802–1877), who are renowned in the work of lupus, came from this school. Henri Schedel and Cazenave wrote book Abrege Pratique Des Maladies De La Peau in the year 1828.
Notable contributions were also made by Cazenave (Figures 6 and 7), who is credited with formulating the phrase lupus érythémateux (lupus erythematosus) in the mid‐nineteenth century (Figure 9); creditable contributions were also made by Moriz Kaposi (1837–1902) in the late nineteenth century (Figure 10).
The contusions now alluded to as discoid lupus was described in 1833 by Cazenave who gave a characteristic account of the contusions; the typical distribution of the butterfly rash in the face was written by Ferdinand von Hebra in 1846.
The photosensitivity of the lesions of lupus was first described by Jonathon Hutchinson (1828–1913).
The beginning of the conventional period of lupus is accredited to the year 1872 in which Kaposi, a Viennese physician, at first delineated the whole body affecting character of lupus. It was first suggested by Kaposi about the two distinct varieties of lupus erythematosus: the discoid conformation and a disseminated conformation. In addition, he quantified the systemic manifestations of the disseminated form, which included lymphadenopathy, subcutaneous nodules, fever, arthritis with synovial hypertrophy of both small and large joints, anaemia, weight loss and involvement of the central nervous system . Sir William Osler (Figure 11) also contributed much to the SLE concept. It was the works of this founding father of John Hopkins Hospital and Jadassohn (Figure 12) that the disseminated or systemic form of lupus was firmly confirmed [24, 25].
Over the following 30 years, disease studies registered the actuality of wire‐loop lesions in individuals with glomerulonephritis and nonbacterial verrucous endocarditis (Libman‐Sacks disease), discovered and named by Emanuel Libman and Benjamin Sacks [26, 27]; it was these reviews at the autopsy table that led to the fabrication of collagen disease, which was suggested by Kemperer and colleagues in the 1940s . Major advancements in the field of lupus occurred during 1920–1930 by the pathologists working at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York.
The first use of sulphonamides for the treatment of lupus occurred in 1938. Although it was unable to cure the disease, it brought some relief to the patients from the symptoms . For centuries, two principles were being accepted and they were not considered wrong. Giovanni B. Morgagni (1682–1771) stated that a particular organ is affected by each different variety of lupus. Paul Ehrlich (1854–1915) stated the second principle in which he said that autoimmune destruction in lupus is false . A German pathologist, Fritz Klinge (1892–1974), refused to accept the first principle. His study of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis showed that lupus affects connective tissue in addition to the heart .
Wilheim Generich, a German dermatologist, studied extensively and proved that parts of our own body can attack its own .
2.3. The modern phase
In 1948, the unanticipated event in a healthcare in the mid‐1900s which announced the modern era was the finding of the LE cell by Hargraves et al. . These findings set the scene for the present period of the utilization of immunology for studying lupus erythematosus; immunology also facilitated the recognition of people with much lighter forms of the disease. This, along with the use of cortisone for the treatment of this disease made life much easier for mankind .
In 1957, Friou utilized the method of indirect immunofluorescence to show that antinuclear antibodies were present in the blood of people having systemic lupus . After sometime, antibodies to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  and antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP), Sm, Ro, La), etc. were discovered.
Two notable advances in this age have been the invention of animal models of lupus and the discovery of the role of genetic predisposition with lupus occurrence.
The hereditary materialization of systemic lupus was first discovered by Leonhardt in 1954 and later confirmed by various observations by Arnett and Shulman . Eventually, lupus having familial aggregation, the concurrence of lupus in monozygotic twin pairs and the relation of genetic markers with lupus have been delineated and reported over the last 20 years .
3. Epidemiology of lupus
3.1. Incidence and prevalence of SLE
It can be said with evidence from many studies that lupus mainly affects young women, having a peak during the ages of 15–40 years. However, the onset age can be taken from infancy and the last age will be the old age .
Most of the studies on SLE have reported incidence of 1–10 per 100,000 person‐years.
It has been found that the incidence and prevalence of SLE in blacks almost twice or thrice the rate found in whites [40–63]. SLE has been found in all the six continents of the world ((North America, Europe, South America, Australia, Africa and Asia) [64–69]. According to a large study done in Michigan, it was seen that according to the American College of Rheumatology definition, incidence rates were five and a half per 1 lakh population‐years, 95% confidence interval being 5–6.1. It was found that female populations had a comparatively higher incidence (the 95% confidence interval being almost nine) and the male population had a lesser 95% confidence limit (in between one and two). It was observed that blacks had a higher incidence rate than whites. Black females also had a higher incidence rate than white females. It was seen that the age‐standardised prevalence was more almost six times more in blacks than in whites . Another study, which was done in a predominantly white population in the United States, showed that the incidence rate was almost 3%. It was also seen that the incidence in women was much more (almost nine times more in women than in men) than that in men .
Many studies (epidemiological) have found that Caucasians have a twofold to threefold lower incidence and prevalence rates than Asians [72–79]. Moreover, it was found in many studies that Asians had more severe symptoms and signs of the disease, more aggressive kidney involvements, and the autoantibody positivity was also higher in Asians than in non‐Asians [76, 79–83].
3.2. Progression of the disease
It has been seen that kidney involvement is more common in males than in females—males also had kidney damages earlier in the course of their disease than females, who got the disease late in their disease course .
Regardless of age/other factors involved, it has been found that American, Hispanic, Asian and African SLE patients tend to have more renal serosal, hematological and neurological manifestations [69, 85–90]. It may be possible that differences seen in the different ethnic groups may be due to genetic causes, or, possibly due to socio‐economic conditions which have been prevalent from ages [91–93].
There is a lupus also known as pediatric lupus it usually presents before 16 years of age. In this disease, major organ systems are involved and the patient presents with neuropsychiatric complications [88, 94–99].
When lupus occurs late in life, it usually has a more gradual onset. They have less organ systems involved, and the disease is mild in them, but the progress and natural course, for some unknown reasons, is bad [100–108].
3.3. What is the mortality rate in these patients?
In the past, the survival rate of SLE was very poor. Now the survival rate has increased, thanks to the newer drugs and other strategies taken against this disease. Also, the detection of the milder forms of this disease or detection of the disease in the earlier stages has also made it possible to increase the survival rate. Improved survival rate has been noted in studies from patients in Sweden, Taiwan, Canada, Minnesota and California [41, 109–112].
Up to now, according to many surveys, the risk of death for SLE patients is still two times that of normal patients. The 95% CI is 2.3–3.8 approximately .
3.4. Causes of death in patients with SLE
In 2014, Thomas et al. reported that the main causes of death from SLE were renal disease, neoplasm, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease and infection . This data was also supported by a Canadian study .
It was seen in many other studies that treatment of infection with prednisone and other immunosuppressive agents was related to the death of SLE patients [116, 117]. In addition, acute confusional states, seizures were reported to cause a higher proportion of deaths in SLE [118–123].
4. Relationship of SLE with heredity and genes
SLE is a long‐standing disease of variable stringency, sometimes becoming more severe and sometimes becoming less severe, with courses that can be fatal—if not treated early. The pre‐clinical phase of the disease is denoted by autoantibodies which can be found in other systemic autoimmune diseases and results in a noticeable autoimmune phase.
The finding of SLE in identical twins, first‐degree relatives having increased rate of SLE, and the sons and daughters of SLE patients having more risk of developing the disease contemplate an inheritance determined by polygenes. It has been found that various genes cause the disease. In a small fraction of patients (<5%), the disease may be attributed to a single gene. For instance, patients having homozygous deficiencies of some parts of complement have a danger of evolving SLE or a lupus‐like disease . But majority of the patients require multiple genes. Researches have proved that it is estimated that at least four sensitive genes are required for the formation of the disease [125, 126]. In addition, many other types of genes, especially polymorphic non‐MHC genes have been reported to occur in SLE, especially genes that encode mannose‐binding protein (MBP), tumour necrosis factor a, the T cell receptor, interleukin 6 (IL‐6), CR1, immunoglobulin Gm and Km allotypes, FcgRIIA and FcgRIIIA (both IgG Fc receptors), and heat shock protein 70 [127, 128].
SLE patients have imperfect removal of immune complexes by phagocytic cells . This is due to the decreased numbers of CR1 receptors for complement and defective receptors on cell surfaces [32, 33]. It has also been found from a recent study that non‐inflammatory swallowing up of apoptotic cells is damaged in patients with SLE .
Handout on Health: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. 2015. Available from: http://www.niams.nih.gov[Accessed: 12 June 2016]
Shankar S, Behera V. Advances in management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19:28‐36
Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NM. Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1997; 84(3):223‐243
Danchenko N, Satia JA, Anthony MS. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus: A comparison of worldwide disease burden. Lupus. 2006; 15(5):308‐318
Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1982; 25:1271‐1277. DOI: 10.1002/art.1780251101. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatology. 1997; 40:1725. DOI: 10.1002/art.1780400928. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Petri M, Orbai AM, Alarcόn GS, Gordon C, Merrill JT, Fortin PR, et al. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatology. 2012; 64:2677‐2686. DOI: 10.1002/art.34473. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Lam GKV, Petri M. Assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2005; 23:S120‐S132. [PubMed]
Urowitz MB, Gladman DD. Measures of disease activity and damage in SLE. Baillieres Clinical Rheumatology. 1998; 12:405‐413. DOI: 10.1016/S0950‐3579(98)80027‐7. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Petri M, Genovese M, Engle E, Hochberg M. Definition, incidence and clinical description of flare in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatology. 1991; 34:937‐944. DOI: 10.1002/art.1780340802. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Smith CD1, Cyr M. The history of lupus erythematosus. From Hippocrates to Osler. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1988; 14:1‐14
Petri M, Kim MY, Kalunian KC, Grossman J, Hahn BH, Sammaritano LR, et al. Combined oral contraceptives in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 353:2550‐2558. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa051135. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Adams F. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins CD; 1939. pp. 300‐330
de voragnine J, Ryan G, Ripperger H. The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine. In: Ryan G, Ripperger H, trans. New York: Arno Press; 1969. pp. 515–516
Lisnevskaia L, Murphy G, Isenberg D. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet (London, England). 2014; 384(9957):1878‐1888. DOI:10.1016/s0140‐6736(14)60128‐8. PMID 24881804
Bateman T. A Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases. 4th ed. Philadelphia, London: Collins & Croft: 1818. p. 305
Wilson E. On Disease of the Skin. 5th ed. Philadelphia, London: Blanchard & Lea; 1863. p. 315
Holubar K. Terminology and iconography of lupus erythematosus. A historical vignette. The American Journal of Dermatopathology. 1980; 2:239‐242
Bateman T. A Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases, According to the Arrangements of Dr. Willan. 8th ed. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman; 1936
Wallace D, Dubois HB. Lupus Erythematosus. 5th ed. USA: Williams & Wilkins; 1997. p. 3‐16
Lahita RG. Introduction. In: Lahita RG, editor. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1987. pp. 1‐3 (fifth edition published 2010)
Boltzer JW. Systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Historical aspects. Maryland State Medical Journal. 1983; 37:439
Kaposi MH. Neue Beitrage zur Keantiss des lupus erythematosus. Archives of Dermatological Research. 1872; 4:36
Osler W. On the visceral manifestations of the erythema group of skin diseases (third paper). The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1904; 127:1
Jadassohn J. Lupus erythematodes. In: Mracek F, editor. Handbach der Hautkrakheiten. Wien: Alfred Holder; 1904. pp. 298‐404
Libmann E. Sacks B. A hitherto undescribed form of volvular and mural endocarditis. Archives of Internal Medicine Journal. 1924; 33:701
Hoffman BJ. Sensitivity to sulfadiazine resembling acute disseminated lupus erythematosus. Archives of Dermatological Research. 1945; 51:190‐192
Klemperer P, Pollack AD, Baehr G. Landmark article May 23, 1942: Diffuse collagen disease. Acute disseminated lupus erythematosus and diffuse scleroderma. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1984; 251:1593‐1594
Rich AR. Hypersensitivity in disease, with special reference to periarteritisnodosa, rheumatic fever, disseminated lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Harvey Lectures. 1947; 42:106‐147
Baehr G, Klemperer P, Schifrin A. A diffuse disease of the peripheral circulation usually associated with lupus erythematosus and endocarditis. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians Journal. 1935; 50:139
Klemperer P. Pollack AD, Baehr G. Pathology of disseminated lupus erythematosus. Archives of Pathology (Chicago). 1941; 32:569
Hargraves MM, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow elements: The tart cell and the LE cell. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings Mayo Clinic. 1948; 23:25
Hench PS. Introduction: Cortisone and ACTH in clinical medicine. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings Mayo Clinic. 1950; 25:474‐476
Moore JE, Lutz WB. The natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus: An approach to its study through chronic biological false positive reactions. Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1955; 2:297
Friou GJ. Clinical application of lupus serum nucleoprotein reaction using fluorescent antibody technique. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1957; 36:890
Deicher HR, Holman HR, Kunkel HG. The precipitin reaction between DNA and a serum factor in SLE. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1959; 109:97
Arnett FC, Shulman LE. Studies in familial systemic lupus erythematosus. Medicine 1976; 55:313
Hochberg MC. The application of genetic epidemiology to systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 1987; 14:867‐869
Ward MM, Pyun E. Studenski S. Long‐term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. Patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1995; 38:274‐283
Uramoto KM, Michet Jr. CJ, Thumboo J, Sunku J, O’Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. Trends in the incidence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus, 1950‐1992. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1999; 42:46‐50. [PubMed: 9920013]
Naleway AL, Davis ME, Greenlee RT, Wilson DA, McCarty DJ. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in rural Wisconsin. Lupus. 2005; 14:862‐866. [PubMed: 16302684] Pons‐Estel et al. Page 7 Semin Arthritis Rheum. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 February 1. NIH‐PA Author Manuscript NIH‐PA Author Manuscript NIH‐PA Author Manuscript
Peschken CA, Esdaile JM. Systemic lupus erythematosus in North American Indians: A population based study. Journal of Rheumatology. 2000; 27:1884‐1891. [PubMed: 10955328]
Nossent JC. Systemic lupus erythematosus on the Caribbean island of Curacao: An epidemiological investigation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1992; 51:1197‐1201. [PubMed: 1466595]
Vilar MJ, Sato EI. Estimating the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a tropical region (Natal, Brazil). Lupus. 2002; 11:528‐532. [PubMed: 12220107]
Stahl‐Hallengren C, Jonsen A, Nived O, Sturfelt G. Incidence studies of systemic lupus erythematosus in Southern Sweden: Increasing age, decreasing frequency of renal manifestations and good prognosis. Journal of Rheumatology. 2000; 27:685‐691. [PubMed: 10743809]
Jonsson H, Nived O, Sturfelt G, Silman A. Estimating the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a defined population using multiple sources of retrieval. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1990; 29:185‐188. [PubMed: 2357500]
Voss A, Green A, Junker P. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Denmark: Clinical and epidemiological characterization of a county‐based cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 1998; 27:98‐105. [PubMed: 9572634]
Nossent HC. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the Arctic region of Norway. Journal of Rheumatology. 2001; 28:539‐546. [PubMed: 11296955]
Hopkinson ND, Doherty M, Powell RJ. Clinical features and race‐specific incidence/prevalence rates of systemic lupus erythematosus in a geographically complete cohort of patients. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1994; 53:675‐680. [PubMed: 7979581]
Nightingale AL, Farmer RD, de Vries CS. Incidence of clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus 1992‐1998 using the UK General Practice Research Database. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2006; 15:656‐661. [PubMed: 16389657]
Somers EC, Thomas SL, Smeeth L, Schoonen WM, Hall AJ. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in the United Kingdom, 1990‐1999. Arthritis Rheumatology. 2007; 57:612‐618. [PubMed: 17471530]
Gudmundsson S, Steinsson K. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Iceland 1975 through 1984. A nationwide epidemiological study in an unselected population. Journal of Rheumatology. 1990; 17:11621167. [PubMed: 2290155]
Lopez P, Mozo L, Gutierrez C, Suarez A. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in a northern Spanish population: Gender and age influence on immunological features. Lupus. 2003; 12:860‐865. [PubMed: 14667105]
Alamanos Y, Voulgari PV, Siozos C, Katsimpri P, Tsintzos S, Dimou G, et al. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in northwest Greece 1982‐2001. Journal of Rheumatology. 2003; 30:731‐735. [PubMed: 12672191]
Maskarinec G, Katz AR. Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Hawaii: Is there a difference between ethnic groups? Hawaii Medical Journal. 1995; 54:406‐409. [PubMed: 7737852]
Boyer GS, Templin DW, Lanier AP. Rheumatic diseases in Alaskan Indians of the southeast coast: High prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 1991; 18:1477‐1484. [PubMed: 1765971]
Hochberg MC. Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in England and Wales, 1981‐2. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1987; 46:664‐666. [PubMed: 3499873]
Molokhia M, McKeigue P. Risk for rheumatic disease in relation to ethnicity and admixture. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2000; 2:115‐125. [PubMed: 11094421]
Gourley IS, Patterson CC, Bell AL. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Northern Ireland. Lupus. 1997; 6:399‐403. [PubMed: 9175027]
Al‐Arfaj AS, Al‐Balla SR, Al‐Dalaan AN, Al‐Saleh SS, Bahabri SA, Mousa MM, et al. Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2002; 23:87‐89. [PubMed: 11938371]
Bossingham D. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the far north of Queensland. Lupus. 2003; 12:327‐331. [PubMed: 12729060]
Segasothy M, Phillips PA. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Aborigines and Caucasians in central Australia: A comparative study. Lupus. 2001; 10:439‐444. [PubMed: 11434580]
Hart HH, Grigor RR, Caughey DE. Ethnic difference in the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1983; 42:529‐532. [PubMed: 6625702]
McCarty DJ, Manzi S, Medsger Jr. TA, Ramsey‐Goldman R, LaPorte RE, Kwoh CK. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Race and gender differences. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1995; 38:1260‐1270. [PubMed: 7575721]
Johnson AE, Gordon C, Palmer RG, Bacon PA. The prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Birmingham, England. Relationship to ethnicity and country of birth. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1995; 38:551‐558. [PubMed: 7718010]
Hopkinson ND, Doherty M, Powell RJ. The prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Nottingham, UK, 1989‐1990. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1993; 32:110‐115. [PubMed: 8428221]
Chakravarty EF, Bush TM, Manzi S, Clarke AE, Ward MM. Prevalence of adult systemic lupus erythematosus in California and Pennsylvania in 2000: Estimates obtained using hospitalization data. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2007; 56:2092‐2094. [PubMed: 17530651]
Samanta A, Feehally J, Roy S, Nichol FE, Sheldon PJ, Walls J. High prevalence of systemic disease and mortality in Asian subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1991; 50:490‐492. [PubMed: 1877855]
Hochberg MC. The incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Baltimore, Maryland, 1970‐1977. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1985; 28:80‐86. [PubMed: 3966940]
Somers EC, et al. Population‐based incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: The Michigan lupus epidemiology and surveillance program. Arthritis Rheumatology 2014; 66(2):369‐378. DOI: 10.1002/art.38238
Jarukitsopa S, et al. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus and cutaneous lupus in a predominantly white population in the United States. Arthritis Care & Research (Hoboken). 2015; 67(6):817‐828. DOI: 10.1002/acr.22502
Ferucci ED, Johnston JM, Gaddy JR, et al. Prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a population‐based registry of American Indian and Alaska Native people, 2007‐2009. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2014; 66:2494‐2502
Lim SS, Bayakly AR, Helmick CG, et al. The incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus, 2002‐2004: The Georgia Lupus Registry. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2014; 66:357‐368
See L, Kuo C, Chou I, et al. Sex‐ and age‐specific incidence of autoimmune rheumatic diseases in the Chinese population: A Taiwan population‐based study. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2013; 43:381‐386
Jakes RW, Bae S, Louthrenoo W, et al. Systematic review of the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in the Asia‐Pacific region: Prevalence, incidence, clinical features, and mortality. Arthritis Care & Research. 2012; 64:159‐168
Flower C, Hennis AJM, Hambleton IR, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in an Afro‐Caribbean population: Incidence, clinical manifestations and survival in the Barbados national lupus registry. Arthritis Care & Research. 2012; 64:1151‐1158
Pons‐Estel GJ, Alarco’n GS, Scofield L, et al. Understanding the epidemiology and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2010; 39:257‐268
Mok CC, To CH, Hod LY, et al. Incidence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus in a southern Chinese population, 2000‐2006. Journal of Rheumatology. 2008; 35:1978‐1982
Mok C. Epidemiology and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese. Lupus. 2011; 20:767‐771
Golder V, Connelly K, Staples M, et al. Association of Asian ethnicity with disease activity in SLE: An observational study from the Monash Lupus Clinic. Lupus. 2013; 22:1425‐1430
Connelly K, Morand EF, Hoi AY. Asian ethnicity in systemic lupus erythematosus: An Australian perspective. Internal Medicine Journal. 2013; 43:618‐624
Ong C, Nicholls K, Becker G. Ethnicity and lupus nephritis: An Australian single centre study. Internal Medicine Journal. 2011; 41:270‐278
Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and immunologic patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1000 patients. The European Working Party on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore). 1993; 72:113‐124
Pons‐Estel GJ. Understanding the epidemiology and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2010; 39(4):257. DOI: 10.1016/j. semarthrit.2008.10.007
Alarcon GS, Friedman AW, Straaton KV, Moulds JM, Lisse J, Bastian HM, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups: III. A comparison of characteristics early in the natural history of the LUMINA cohort. LUpus in MInority populations: Nature vs Nurture. Lupus. 1999; 8:197‐209
Pons‐Estel BA, Catoggio LJ, Cardiel MH, Soriano ER, Gentiletti S, Villa AR, et al. The GLADEL multinational Latin American prospective inception cohort of 1,214 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Ethnic and disease heterogeneity among “Hispanics”. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004; 83:1‐17. [PubMed: 14747764]
Cooper GS, Parks CG, Treadwell EL, St Clair EW, Gilkeson GS, Cohen PL, et al. Differences by race, sex and age in the clinical and immunologic features of recently diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patients in the southeastern United States. Lupus. 2002; 11:161‐167. [PubMed: 11999880]
Ward MM, Studenski S. Clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Identification of racial and socioeconomic influences. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1990; 150:849‐853. [PubMed: 2327845]
Alarcón GS, McGwin Jr. G, Petri M, Reveille JD, Ramsey‐Goldman R, Kimberly RP. Baseline characteristics of a multiethnic lupus cohort: PROFILE. Lupus. 2002; 11:95‐101. [PubMed: 11958584]
Bastian HM, Roseman JM, McGwin Jr. G, Alarcón GS, Friedman AW, Fessler BJ, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XII. Risk factors for lupus nephritis after diagnosis. Lupus. 2002; 11:152‐160. [PubMed: 12004788]
Alarcón GS, McGwin Jr. G, Bartolucci AA, Roseman J, Lisse J, Fessler BJ, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. IX. Differences in damage accrual. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2001; 44:2797‐2806. [PubMed: 11762940]
Rivest C, Lew RA, Welsing PM, Sangha O, Wright EA, Roberts WN, et al. Association between clinical factors, socioeconomic status, and organ damage in recent onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 2000; 27:680‐684. [PubMed: 10743808]
Cooper GS, Treadwell EL, St Clair EW, Gilkeson GS, Dooley MA. Sociodemographic associations with early disease damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2007; 57:993‐999. [PubMed: 17665464]
Font J, Cervera R, Espinosa G, Pallares L, Ramos‐Casals M, Jimenez S, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in childhood: analysis of clinical and immunological findings in 34 patients and comparison with SLE characteristics in adults. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1998; 57:456‐449. [PubMed:9797549]
Bakr A. Epidemiology treatment and outcome of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus in Egypt. Pediatric Nephrology. 2005; 20:1081‐1086. [PubMed: 15940546]
Lehman TJ, McCurdy DK, Bernstein BH, King KK, Hanson V. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the first decade of life. Pediatrics. 1989; 83:235‐239. [PubMed: 2913553]
Carreno L, Lopez‐Longo FJ, Monteagudo I, Rodriguez‐Mahou M, Bascones M, Gonzalez CM, et al. Immunological and clinical differences between juvenile and adult onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1999; 8:287‐292. [PubMed: 10413207]
Sibbitt Jr. WL, Brandt JR, Johnson CR, Maldonado ME, Patel SR, Ford CC, et al. The incidence and prevalence of neuropsychiatric syndromes in pediatric onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 2002; 29:1536‐1542. [PubMed: 12136916]
Quintero‐Del‐Rio AI, Van M. Neurologic symptoms in children with systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Child Neurology. 2000; 15:803‐807. [PubMed: 11198495]
Mak SK, Lam EK, Wong AK. Clinical profile of patients with late‐onset SLE: Not a benign subgroup. Lupus. 1998; 7:23‐28. [PubMed: 9493145]
Pu SJ, Luo SF, Wu YJ, Cheng HS, Ho HH. The clinical features and prognosis of lupus with disease onset at age 65 and older. Lupus. 2000; 9:96‐100. [PubMed: 10787005]
Ho CT, Mok CC, Lau CS, Wong RW. Late onset systemic lupus erythematosus in southern Chinese. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1998; 57:437‐440. [PubMed: 9797573]
Formiga F, Moga I, Pac M, Mitjavila F, Rivera A, Pujol R. Mild presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in elderly patients assessed by SLEDAI. SLE Disease Activity Index. Lupus. 1999; 8:462‐465. [PubMed: 10483015]
Ward MM, Polisson RP. A meta‐analysis of the clinical manifestations of older‐onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1989; 32:1226‐1232. [PubMed: 2803325]
Maddison P, Farewell V, Isenberg D, Aranow C, Bae SC, Barr S, et al. The rate and pattern of organ damage in late onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 2002; 29:913‐917. [PubMed:12022349]
Costallat LT, Coimbra AM. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and laboratory aspects related to age at disease onset. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1994; 12:603‐607. [PubMed: 7895393]
Boddaert J, Huong DL, Amoura Z, Wechsler B, Godeau P, Piette JC. Late‐onset systemic lupus erythematosus: A personal series of 47 patients and pooled analysis of 714 cases in the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004; 83:348‐359. [PubMed: 15525847]
Bertoli AM, Alarcón GS, Calvo‐Alen J, Fernandez M, Vila LM, Reveille JD. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort. XXXIII. Clinical [corrected] features, course, and outcome in patients with late‐onset disease. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2006; 54:1580‐1587. [PubMed: 16645994]
Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Abu‐Shakra M, Farewell VT. Mortality studies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results from a single center. III. Improved survival over 24 years. Journal of Rheumatology. 1997; 24:1061‐1065. [PubMed: 9195509]
Pistiner M, Wallace DJ, Nessim S, Metzger AL, Klinenberg JR. Lupus erythematosus in the 1980s: A survey of 570 patients. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1991; 21:55‐64. [PubMed: 1948102]
Bjornadal L, Yin L, Granath F, Klareskog L, Ekbom A. Cardiovascular disease a hazard despite improved prognosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Results from a Swedish population based study 1964‐95. Journal of Rheumatology. 2004; 31:713‐719. [PubMed: 15088296]
Wang LC, Yang YH, Lu MY, Chiang BL. Retrospective analysis of mortality and morbidity of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus in the past two decades. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 2003; 36:203‐208. [PubMed: 14582566]
Yurkovich M, Vostretsova K, Chen W, et al. Overall and cause specific mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A meta‐analysis of observational studies. Arthritis Care & Research. 2014; 66:608‐616
Thomas G, Mancini J, Jourde‐Chiche N, et al. Mortality associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in France assessed by multiplecause‐of‐death analysis. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2014; 66:2503‐2511
Bernatsky S, Boivin JF, Joseph L, et al. Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2006; 54:2550‐2557
Xu G, Liu M, Yu K. A prospective study of nosocomial infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Chinese Journal of Rheumatology. 2003; 7:216‐219
Danza A, Ruiz‐Irastorza G. Infection risk in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: Susceptibility factors and preventive strategies. Lupus. 2013; 22:1286‐1294
Zhou H, Zhang F, Tian X, et al. Clinical features and outcome of neuropsychiatric lupus in Chinese: Analysis of 240 hospitalized patients. Lupus. 2008; 17:93‐99
Li M, Zhang W, Leng X, et al. Chinese SLE treatment and Research group (CSTAR) registry: I. Major clinical characteristics of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2013; 22:1192‐1199
Hanly JG, McCurdy G, Fougere L, et al. Neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus: Attribution and clinical significance. Journal of Rheumatology. 2004; 31:2156‐2162
Sanna G, Bertolaccini ML, Cuadrado MJ, et al. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence and association with antiphospholipid antibodies. Journal of Rheumatology. 2003; 30:985‐992
Mok CC, Lau CS, Wong RW. Neuropsychiatric manifestations and their clinical associations in southern Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology. 2001; 28:766‐771
Kasitanon N, Louthrenoo W, Piyasirisilp S, et al. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in Thai patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology. 2002; 20:179‐185
Walport MJ, Davies KA, Botto M. C1q and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunobiology. 1998; 199:265‐285
Schur PH. Genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1995; 4:425‐437
Sullivan KE. Genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical implications. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 2000; 26:229‐256
Salmon JE, Millard S, Schachter LA, et al. Fc gamma RIIA alleles are heritable risk factors for lupus nephritis in African Americans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1996; 97:1348‐1354
Mir A, Porteu F, Levy M, et al. C3b receptor (CR1) on phagocytic cells from SLE patients: Analysis of the defect and familial study. Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 1988; 73:461‐466
Kiss E, Csipo I, Cohen JH, et al. CR1 density polymorphism and expression on erythrocytes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity. 1996; 25:53‐58.
Herrmann M, Voll RE, Zoller OM, et al. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cell material by monocyte‐derived macrophages from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 1998; 41:1241‐1250
Haggstrom, M. Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014. Wiki Journal of Medicine. 2014; 1(2). DOI: 10.15347/wjm/2014.008. ISSN 2002‐4436. Public domain
The Jack and Belle Linsky Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art; 1984. p. 101. ISBN 978‐0‐87099370‐1
Cazenave PLA, Schedel HE. Abrege Pratique des maladies de la peau. 3rd ed. Paris: Bechet jeune; 1838. p. 11