Sensitivity and specificity of serological tests for brucellosis with conventional and recombinant antigens
Brucellosis is considered the major zoonosis in developing countries. In susceptible animal species, diagnosis of brucellosis remains a challenge due to the variety of clinical signs that it shares with a wide range of diseases. At present, isolation of Brucella is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of brucellosis; because of its low sensitivity and becoming potentially hazardous to laboratory technicians, serology is used for the detection of specific antibodies induced by infection. However, since traditional methods commonly show drawbacks and do not differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected animals, it is necessary to search and test immunoreactive molecules for specific diagnosis of Brucella-infected cattle, thus significantly reducing the killing of suspected herds mainly due to vaccination. Advances in biotechnology have allowed exploring the use of recombinant proteins as antigens to avoid the risk involved in the use of viable Brucella strains. The benefit of using recombinant proteins, such as outer membrane proteins (OMP) and other non-lipopolysaccharide (non-LPS) molecules as antigens, for serological diagnosis is promising, but there are still many concerns about their application. The aim of the present work is to show advances in the use of recombinant antigens and discuss their advantages and potential use as markers for the serological diagnosis in brucellosis.
- recombinant protein
1.1. Diagnosis of brucellosis
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus
Brucellosis serology is usually performed using antigens derived from
Various tests are generally used to improve the final specificity, in which an initial screening assay, such as the buffered
2. Immunodominant antigens
The following immunodominant antigens have been identified within the genus
2.1. Brucella spp lipopolysaccharide
Lipopolysaccharide present in smooth species of
2.1.1. Brucella outer membrane proteins
On the other hand, 8 immuno-reactive non-LPS proteins were identified  using proteomics and then tested with
2.2. Recombinant antigens in serology of brucellosis
Advances in biotechnology have allowed exploring the use of recombinant proteins as antigens to avoid the risk involved in the use of viable
Other studies focused in the type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the
At present, FAO-OIE-WHO work together in strategies to prevent a worldwide emergent, re-emergent, and cross-border spread of human and animal infectious diseases . Brucellosis remains a major zoonotic disease in the world and its control and eradication will be possible only with the complete collaboration of all sectors involved in health and animal production. As a significant part of the strategy,
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