Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Anticancer Plants in Islamic Traditional Medicine

Written By

Behjat Javadi, Milad Iranshahy and Seyed Ahmad Emami

Submitted: May 29th, 2014 Reviewed: June 23rd, 2015 Published: September 2nd, 2015

DOI: 10.5772/61111

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Abstract

Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM) is a holistic and comprehensive medical school that has antecedents over 12 centuries ago.

Keywords

  • Anticancer Plants
  • Cancer treatment

1. Introduction

Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM) is a holistic system of medicine which flourished during the Islamic Golden Age (750-1258 AD). It was practiced and taught throughout the Islamic territory. In that era, Muslim and non-Muslim medical scholars, especially Iranian physicians and pharmacists, translated the scientific knowledge which they inherited from ancient Greece and Iran. They endeavored to revive and develop this medical knowledge, remove superstitious ideas and faults from it, and establish an authentic medical school. Although most ITM scientists were not Arabs, the majority of their books are written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. Razi (Razhes; 865-925 AD), Ahwazi (Haly Abbas; 930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037AD), Jorjani (1042-1136 AD), and Aqili Khorasani (18th century) are eminent Iranian physicians who had the most contributions to ITM promotion.

Although significant progress has been made in cancer control in the last few decades, the effectiveness of modern therapeutic approach is often limited by toxic effects on other organs. Moreover, a large number of people in the world have limited or no access to cancer treatment services. Accordingly, utilizing information from traditional medicine systems to identify alternative methods to prevent and control cancer would be desirable. Furthermore, use of traditional medicine can lead to the discovery of new bioactive compounds as well as available, safe and affordable drugs.

In Islamic medicine, cancer was a known disease with many options for treatment. In the majority of ITM textbooks there is a chapter dedicated to cancer definition, symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management.

In this chapter we will discuss cancer, its etiology and management in the view of Islamic Traditional Medicine. In addition, ITM medicinal plants used to treat different types of cancers and modern pharmacological data confirming their traditional usage will be inserted in tables.

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2. Cancer definition from ITM point of view

ITM is based on the theory of humorism which posits that the human body consists of four basic fluids, namely humors. The four humors are blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile and each one corresponds to paired qualities: blood is hot and wet, phlegm is cold and wet, yellow bile is hot and dry, and black bile is cold and dry. A proper balance between humors is essential to maintaining health. Accordingly, all diseases and disabilities including cancer result from an excess or putridity of these humors.

According to ITM, cancer is a kind of black bile swelling which is accompanied by pain, pulsation, inflammation, and angiogenesis [1]. Blood vessels surrounding a tumor are overfilled and stiff and contain a dark and black blood [2]. The reason for the appellation “cancer” is due to the similarity between the shape of a cancerous tumor affecting an organ and a crab grasping its prey. It may also due to the spherical shape and darkness of tumor and origination of blood vessels from its milieu which resembles crab’s feet [3]. Cancer frequently affects soft and porous organs and for this reason, it mainly involves breast and innervated organs (such as uterus) in females, and throat, larynx, testicles and penis in males [1].

Initially, cancer is the size of a broad bean or smaller, hard, spherical, mobile, dark, and slightly warm [3]. It will then begin to grow gradually and reach to the size of a walnut or larger. It might be curable during its early stages of development, but diagnosis is difficult in these stages. On the other hand, upon progression and appearance of clinical manifestations, treatment of cancer would be difficult or even impossible [1].

Ocular, nasal cavity, breast, uterine, liver, and other visceral organs and skin cancers are among the most frequently mentioned cancers in ITM texts. Cancers are divided into two main types: ulcerative and nonulcerative cancers.

Some cancerous tumors are easily ulcerated but some others are not. Cancerous wounds usually spread centripetally and their discharges are purulent. Use of appropriate medications can prevent the ulceration of susceptible tumors. In contrast, some cancerous tumors that are not prone to ulceration would be ulcerated following the administration of improper drugs [1].

Advanced and large tumors are very sensitive and painful, with a distinctive red to yellow color and a caustic and burning pain. Such tumors might erupt spontaneously and a purulent and bloody discharge may appear on wound surface. The resulting wounds are very sensitive and can produce corrosion in surrounding tissues [2].

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3. Cancer etiology

According to ITM, excessive accumulation of abnormal black bile in a body site is the main cause of cancer. Aging, prolonged stress exposure, consuming cold and dry food items and hardwork are leading causes of increasing black bile production [1]. In some cases, hemorrhage (such as menstruation, abnormal uterine hemorrhage, or hemorrhoids bleeding) is a defending mechanism against the accumulation of bad humors in the body. Therefore, completely stopping the bleeding by surgical procedures and other medications can result in a black bile accretion and consequently increasing the risk of cancer and other diseases originating from excessive black bile (including cancer, melancholia, liver problems, psoriasis, etc.) [2].

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4. Cancer management

Islamic traditional medicine suggested multiple strategies to the control and treatment of cancer. Surgical manipulation, venesection, diet adjustment, and use of natural medicines including solid, semisolid, and liquid dosage forms with oral and external route of administration are among these methods.

4.1. Surgery and manipulation

Surgery is used to eradicate tumors in their early stages of development. Small tumors which are distant from vital organs are good candidates for surgery. The tumor should be cut from its origin and some parts of adjacent nonaffected tissues should be excised as well. In addition, bleeding should be allowed until large blood volumes come out and surrounding tissue should be pressed in order to expel blood mixed with black bile thoroughly. Afterwards, the injured site should be salved or cauterized. However, if the cancerous tumor is located in the vicinity of sensitive and vital organs, surgical procedure and cauterization would be very dangerous and may change the cancer to a nonhealing ulcer [2, 4].

Regular venesection is also suggested during the initial phases of cancer, to withdraw black bile blood from body.

4.2. Nutrition therapy

In Islamic traditional medicine, dietary recommendations have been proposed to slow the progression of advanced tumors that cannot be manipulated due to metastasis concerns. In these cases, nutritional care would increase the longevity of patients. Food items with wet temperament which produce high-quality blood like beer, almond oil, fresh small fishes, soft-boiled egg yolk, lamb, bird meat, ripe and sweet apples, sweet plums, bananas, raisin, black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), pumpkin, light wine, and fresh cow’s milk and dough are administered [1]. On the other hand, excessive intake of foodstuffs which induce black bile production in the body (such as eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), beef, black and thick wine, and salt-cured meat) is severely restricted [5].

4.3. Pharmacotherapy

As mentioned above, from the Islamic Traditional Medicine point of view, an excess of abnormal black bile in various body sites can lead to cancer formation. In order to treat cancer, black bile should be expelled from the body by using an appropriate purgative, and then preventing the generation and accumulation of black bile in vessels as far as possible [2]. For this purpose, many single and compound medications of herbal, animal, and mineral origin have been recommended.

The essential point in pharmacotherapy of cancers and tumors is avoiding the use of caustic and irritant medications to prevent further stimulation and ulceration [2].

Cancer medications can be administered internally (oral, enemas, vaginal douches, etc.) or applied topically (cataplasms, topical oils, liniments, lotions, dusting powders, etc.) [1, 3]. Administration of local anticancer drugs has the following purposes: cancer eradication, metastasis prevention, preventing ulceration, and healing ulcerated tumors.

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5. Mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs

Anticancer drugs act through different mechanisms:

  1. Black bile purgatives are common anticancer drugs which can facilitate elimination of abnormal black bile from whole body. Purgatives should be administered frequently. From the ITM point of view, clover dodder (Cuscuta epithymum Murr.) is the most valuable black bile purgative, which is commonly used to treat diseases caused by a surplus or imbalance of this humor such as all types of cancer, melancholia, leprosy, vitiligo, etc. For this purpose, a mixture of clover dodder with cheese whey or hydromel should be administered frequently. A decoction of the plant in oxymel is also prescribed [3]. Common polypody (Polypodium vulgare L.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), colocynth [Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.], and black hellebore (Helleborus niger L.) are other potent black bile purgatives.

  2. Antiulcer drugs can inhibit ulceration of tumors. Urtica pilulifera L. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. are examples of such plants.

  3. Wound-healing medications accelerate healing of cancerous wounds. Althaea officinalis L., Brassica oleracea L., and Viola odorata L. have wound-healing activity.

  4. Analgesic drugs relieve cancer pain. Parietaria officinalis L. and Solanum nigrum L. are plants with analgesic effect.

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6. Anticancer plants

One hundred and seven plant species from 53 families have been mentioned to be effective in the management and curing of different types of cancers. Plants Latin and Arabic names, their families, medicinal parts, dosage forms, and routes of administration are given in Table 1.

Scientific name Family Arabic common
name
Part used Cancer type Administration and locality Ref.
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile
syn. Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd.
Fabaceae samgh G eye ocular suppository [3]
Allium ampeloprasum L.
syn. Allium porrum L.
Liliaceae korrath Le all types decoction(O) [6]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Liliaceae sabr Sa uterus
ulcerating tumor
internal organs
unguent
powder(E)
decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1, 3]
Alpinia officinarum Hance Zingiberaceae khawlanjan Rh all types electuary(O) [8, 9]
Althaea officinalis L. Malvaceae khatmi R all types
uterus
liniment
cataplasm
vaginal bath
[1, 3]
[2, 7]
Alyssum homalocarpum (Fisch. & C. A.Mey.) Boiss. Brassicaceae tudari
urisimun
Se internal organs
skin
cataplasm [2, 5, 9-11]
Amaranthus blitum L. Amaranthaceae baghlat al-yamaaniah Ap uterus cataplasm [7]
Anchusa azurea Mill.
syn. Anchusa italica Retz.
Boraginaceae lesan al-thawr Le all types syrup [7]
Anethum graveolens L. Apiaceae shebeth Ap uterus unguent
topical oil
[1, 3]
Beta vulgris L. Chenopodiaceae salq Le all types decoction(O) [6]
Boswellia sacra Flueck.
syn. Boswellia carteri Birdw.
Burseraceae kondor Ogr eye condensed smoke as collyrium [2, 3, 5,
8, 9]
Brassica oleracea L. Brassicaceae karnab Le
Fl
uterus
all types
skin
unguent
decoction(E)
vaginal bath
cooked(O)
cooked (E)
[1, 3, 7]
[6, 8, 9]
Capparis spinosa L. Capparaceae kabar Rb uterus
all types
unguent
cataplasm
[3]
[1, 5]
Carthamus tinctorius L. Asteraceae moasfar Se all types raw seeds(O) [6]
Carum carvi L. Apiaceae kerawia Se all types raw seeds(O) [6]
Cassia fistula L. Fabaceae khiar shanbar Lg tongue
ulcerated cancer
uterine
extract (E) [3]
[12]
Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. syn. Anthemis nobilis L. Asteraceae babunaj Fl uterus unguent
topical oil
decoction(E)
[1, 3, 7, 12]
Cicer arietinum L. Fabaceae homs Se skin
all types
ulcerating tumor
cooked(O)
infusion(E)
cataplasm
[8, 9]
[2]
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae hindeba Le uterus
all types
ulcerating tumor
extract(E)
cataplasm
extract(O)
cataplasm
[1, 6, 8]
[7]
Cinnamomum cassia (L.)
J.Presl
Luraceae salikhah Br liver electuary [2]
Cistus creticus L.
syn. Cistus ladaniferus Curtis
Cistaceae ladan Fl all types oil (E) [3]
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Cucurbitaceae hanzal Fr internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1]
Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. Burseraceae moql Ogr uterus unguent [1, 3, 7]
Convolvulus pseudoscammonia C. Koch Convolvulaceae saqmunia Rdj internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1]
Cordia myxa L. Boraginaceae debgh Fr uterine cancer decoction(O) [12]
Coriandrum sativum L. Apiaceae kozborah Le
Se
eye
uterus
skin
all types
extract(E)
cataplasm
vaginal douche
cataplasm
extract (E)
[1]
[1, 3]
[2, 7, 9]
[8, 9]
[6, 7]
Crocus sativus L. Iridaceae za`afaran St eye
uterus
metastatic ulcerating tumor
liver
cataplasm
cataplasm
cataplasm
electuary
[3]
[1, 2, 11, 13]
[12]
[2]
Cucurbita maxima Duchartre,
Cucurbita pepo L.
Cucurbitaceae qar`a Fr internal organs cooked (O)
extract lotion
[1, 6-8]
Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. Cuscutaceae aftimun Ap all types
ulcerating tumor
powder(O)
decoction(O)
[1-4, 6, 8-10]
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. Poaceae ezkher Fl liver electuary [2]
Cynara scolymus L. Asteraceae kankarzad G cataplasm [2]
Dorema ammoniacum D. Don Apiaceae oshaq Ogr all types unguent [3, 8, 14]
Dracunculus vulgaris Schott syn. Arum dracunculus L. Araceae luf al-hayyah Be
Se
nose
breast
testicle
extract
decoction(E)
[2, 3, 5, 8-10]
[2]
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae qetha al-hemar Fr all types liniment(E) [1, 3]
Erysimum × cheiri (L.) Crantz
syn. Cheiranthus ×cheiri L.
Brassicaceae kheiri Fl all types
uterus
oil(E) [3, 7]
[12]
Ferula gummosa Boiss. Apiaceae ghennah Ogr all types unguent [8]
Ficus carica L. Moraceae teen Fr tongue
all types
ulcerating tumor
uterus
cooked(E)
cooked (O)
cataplasm
cataplasm
[3]
[6]
[12, 13]
[7]
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Fabaceae sous R all types
uterus
syrup
vaginal douche
[7, 15]
Helleborus niger L. Ranunculaceae kharbaq aswad R internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1, 7, 10]
Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae sha`eer Se all types decoction(O) [1, 3, 6, 7]
Inula helenium L. Asteraceae rasan R skin lotion [14]
Iris × germanica L.
syn. Iris ×florentina L.
irsa R uterus unguent [3]
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb.
razeqi Fl uterus unguent
topical oil
[3]
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae Jawz G ulcerating tumor dusting powder(E) [2, 14]
Lactuca sativa (L.) Mill. Asteraceae khas Le all types
uterus
extract(E)
cataplasm
[1, 3]
[6, 7]
Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae hab al-ghar Se tongue
uterus
cataplasm
cataplasm
[1, 3]
[7]
Lavandula stoechas L. Lamiaceae ostokhoddus Ap internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1]
Lawsonia inermis L Lythraceae henna Le uterus unguent
oil(E)
[3]
Lens culinaris Medik.
syn. Lens esculenta Moench
Fabaceae adas Se uterus
ulcerating tumor
vaginal douche
cataplasm
[3]
[7]
Lilium candidum L. Liliaceae susan Fl uterus unguent
oil (E)
[1, 3]
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae katan Se
Mu
all types
uterus
unguent
oil (E)
vaginal bath
decoction (E)
[3]
[1, 2, 7]
Liquidambar orientalis Mill. Altingiaceae mi`a Ba all types unguent [3]
Lycium afrum L Solanaceae hozoz Le
Fs
uterus extract
vaginal douche
[15]
Malva pusilla Sm.
syn. Malva rotundifolia L.
Malvaceae khabaazi Fl uterus vaginal bath
cataplasm
[7]
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Fabaceae eklil al-malek pod eye
uterus
cataplasm [1, 3]
[2]
Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae badranjbuyeh Le all types syrup [7]
Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae as Se
Le
all types topical oil
extract enema
[14]
Narcissus tazetta L. Amaryllidaceae narjes Fl uterus unguent
topical oil
[1, 3]
Olea europaea L. Oleaceae zeytun Fr uterus
metastatic cancerous wounds
topical oil
oil sediment (E)
cataplasm
[1, 3]
[13]
Opopanax chironium W.D.J.Koch Apiaceae jawshir Ogr all types unguent [3, 14]
Origanum syriacum L.
syn. Origanum maru L.
Lamiaceae mormahur Ap metastatic cancerous wounds cataplasm [13]
Papaver somniferum L. var. album (Mill.) M.A. Veselovskaya Papaveraceae khashkhash Se
Sa
eye
uterus
ocular suppository
cataplasm
[3]
[1-3, 5, 12]
Parietaria officinalis
L.
Urticaceae hashishatah al-zojaj Le all types extract(E) [5]
Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae tamr Fr tongue decoction(E) [3]
Physalis alkekengi L Solanaceae kaknaj Fr all types
uterus
extract(E)
unguent
[7]
[15]
Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D.Don Pinaceae jalghuzah N all types [6]
Pinus spp. Pinaceae ratinaj Re uterus cataplasm [7]
Pistacia atlantica Desf.
Pistacia terebinthus L.
Anacardiaceae elk al-anbat Ogr uterus
all types
unguent [1, 3, 6, 8]
Pistacia lentiscus L. Anacardiaceae mastaki Ogr all types unguent
oil(E)
[1, 3]
[6]
Plantago indica L.
syn. Plantago psyllium L.
Plantaginaceae bazr qotuna Se
Mu
ulcerating tumor
intestine
all types
liniment
enema
[3, 8]
[14]
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae lesan al-hamal Se
Mu
Le
uterus
ulcerating tumor
vaginal douche
cataplasm
[1-3, 7, 12]
Plantago ovata Forssk.
syn, Plantago ispaghula Roxb. ex Fleming
Plantaginaceae isbaghul Se
Mu
all types
uterus
vaginal douche [1, 6]
[7]
Platanus orientalis L. Plantanaceae dolb Le skin decoction (E)
vaginal bath
[2]
Polygonum aviculare L Polygonaceae asa al-ra`ee Ap uterus unguent
extract (E)
[7, 15]
Polypodium vulgare L. Polypodiaceae basfayaj Rh internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1, 7]
Polyporus officinalis (Vill.) Fr. Polyporaceae ghariqun all types decoction(O) [4, 7]
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulaceae rejlah Le ulcerating tumor
all types
uterus
extract liniment enema
extract(O)
[3, 8]
[1]
[6]
[7]
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb Rosaceae samgh al-llawz G
So
Se
uterus
all types
unguent
oil (O)
[1, 3, 6, 12]
Punica granatum L. Punicaceae romman Fr
Fp
nose
ulcerating tumor
juice(O) [1]
[7]
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin
syn. Raphanus sativus L.
Brassicaceae fojl tro all types decoction(O) [6]
Rhus coriaria L. Anacardiaceae sumaagh
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae kherwa`a Se uterus unguent
oil (E)
[1, 3]
Rosa × damascena Herrm. Rosaceae ward Fl eye
uterus
ulcerating tumor
oil(E)
cataplasm
vaginal douche
oil
[1]
[2, 3, 7, 12]
Salix aegyptiaca L. Salicaceae khelaf W skin dusting powder(E) [2]
Sempervivum tectorum L. Crassulaceae hay al-alam Fl all types extract
liniment
[3, 7]
Sesbania bispinosa
(Jacq.) W. Wight
Fabaceae sisban Le cataplasm [9]
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.
syn. Erysimum officinale L.
Brassicaceae arismun, khabbe Se hard swelling cancer nonulcerating tumor
ear
breast
testicle
cataplasm
cataplasm
cataplasm
cataplasm
[8, 9]
[2]
Smilax china
L.
Smilacaceae khashab sini R skin decoction(O) [8]
Solanum americanum Mill.
syn. Solanum nigrum L.
Solanaceae enab al-tha`alab Le uterus
all types
skin
cataplasm
extract
cataplasm
[1-3, 6, 7]
[7]
[5, 8-10]
Spinacia oleracea L. Chenopodiaceae esfanakh Le internal organs cooked (O) [1, 6]
Tamarix gallica L. Tamaricaceae tarfa Le
R
Sh
all types
spleen
decoction(O) [5]
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. Asteraceae oqhowan Fl skin
uterus
extract cataplasm
unguent
oil(E)
[9]
[1, 3]
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Combretaceae amolaj Fr all types liniment [7]
Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae ehalilaj kaboli Fr internal organs decoction(O)
pill(O)
[1]
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fabaceae holbah Se
mu
tongue
uterus
all types
infusion(E)
oil(E)
decoction(E)
[3]
[1, 6, 7]
Triticum spelta L. Poaceae khondorus Se all types baked(O) [6]
Urtica pilulifera L. Urticaceae anjorah Se
Le
all types
skin
ulcerating tumor
cataplasm
ash dusting powder(E)
[3, 8, 9, 11, 13]
[2]
Valeriana celtica L. Valerianaceae sonbol R liver electuary [2]
Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper syn. Phaseolus mungo L. Fabaceae maash Se internal organs cooked(O) [1, 6]
Viola odorata L. Violaceae banafsaj Ap uterus decoction(E)
vaginal bath
[7, 15]
Vitis vinifera L. Vitaceae enab Urf verjuice
Rf
Fr
Fl
all types
tongue
all types
skin
ulcerating tumor uterine cancer
uterus
cataplasm
concentrated juice(O)
raw Fr(O)
cataplasm
decoction(E)
unguent
[3, 6, 7]
[6]
[6, 10]
[10]
[12]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae zanjabil Rh liver
skin
electuary
lotion
[2]
[14]
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.
syn. Ziziphus vulgaris Lam.
Rhamnaceae onnab Fr ulcerating tumor
uterus
decoction(O) [12]

Table 1.

Medicinal plants mentioned in Islamic Traditional Medicine textbooks effective in the management of cancer.

Use: E = external use, O = oral use. Part used Ap = aerial parts, Ba = balsam, Be = berries, Br = bark, Ff = fresh fruit, Fl = flowers, Fp = fruit pericarp, Fr = fruit, G = gum, Gre = gum resin, Le = leaves, Mu: mucilage, N = nuts, O = oil, Ogr = oleo-gum resin, Ore = oleoresin, R = root, Rb = root bark, Re = resin, Rdj = Root dry juice, Rf = Ripe fruit, Rh = rhizome, Se = seeds, Sh =shoots, So = seed oil, St = stigma, Tap root = Tro, Sa = sap, Urf = Unripe fruit, W = wood, Wp = whole plant.


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7. Anticancer and cytotoxic activities of ITM plant species

Many ITM-suggested plants have been shown to exert anticancer activities with different mechanisms such as cytotoxic, antitumor, antiproliferative, cytostatic, and cell-migration-inhibiting effects. Pharmacological data reinterpreting ITM evidence of cancer phytotherapy are given in Table 2.

Species Plant part(s)/compound Solvent Activity Cell line Ref.
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. Stem bark ethanol cytotoxic K-562, Raji, Jurkat, HEL, Colo38, HL-60, CEM, B-16, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 [16-18]
methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane Brine shrimp [19]
Stem bark, roots and leaves/Zeorin, dustanin, aegeline, epilupeol, lupenone and marmin - CEM-SS [20]
1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene- carboxaldehyde (marmelin) - antitumor HCT-116 colon cancer cell tumor xenograft in nude mice [21]
Allium porrum L. Bulbs/12-keto-porrigenin and 2,3-seco-porrigenin - antiproliferative J774, WEHI 164, P388 and K3R-1 [22]
Bulbs/Porrigenins A and B - IGR-1, J774, WEHI 164 and P388 [23]
Saponins - J774 and WEHI 164 [24]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Leaves aqueous ethanolic extract (70%) cytotoxic K562 [25]
Flavonoids - MCF-7 [26]
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate - K562, HL60 and U937 [27]
Aloe-emodin - cytotoxic and antitumor Neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, IMR-5, AF8, and SJ-N-KP), pPNET cells (TC32) and Ewing’s sarcoma cells (TC106) [28]
PC3 [29]
cytotoxic MCC [30]
U-373MG and U87 glioma cells [31, 32]
T24 human bladder cancer cells [33]
Gastric cancer cells [34]
MCF-7 [35]
antitumor Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma (EAC) [36]
Anthemis nobilis L. Sesquiterpene lactones - cytotoxic HeLa and KB [37]
Beta vulgris L. Root extract and betanin water cytotoxic and antitumor MCF-7, PC3 and HepG2 [38-41]
Boswellia carteri Birdw. α and β-boswellic acid acetate from resin -

cytostatic-
inhibits cell migration
KB,
HCT-8, A2780 and B16F10
[42]
cytotoxic HT-1080
Triterpene acids from resin IMR-32, NB-39 and SK-N-SH [43]
Frankincense oil The bladder carcinoma J82 [44]
Verticilla-4(20),7,11-triene Hep-G2 [45]
Brassica oleracea L. Sulforaphane - cytotoxic MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3 [46]
Erucin CACO-2, HL60, K562 and LNCaP [47]
Leaves acidified methanol HeLa and HepG2 [48]
2-Pyrrolidinone reach extract PC3 and HeLa [49]
Brassinin - PC3 [50]
Capparis spinosa L. Polysaccharides and alkaloids from fruits water cytotoxic and antitumor HepG2 and transplanted ascites tumor H22 [51, 52]
Carthamus tinctorius L. Carthamus tinctorius and Panax ginseng - cytotoxic and antitumor MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell and normal human mammary gland cell lines [53]
Polysaccharide
- antitumor T739 lung cancer and S180 Sarcoma in mice [54]
Not mentioned methanol cytotoxic HT-29 [55]
Carum carvi L. Thymoquinone from seeds - cytotoxic TNBC cells [56]
Cassia fistula L. Rhein from flowers - cytotoxic COLO 320 DM [57]
Stem bark methanol [58]
Furanoflavones from stem bark - NB4, A549, SHSY5Y, PC3, and MCF7 [59]
Fistulaquinone A from fruits NB4 and PC3 [60]
Cicer arietinum L. C-25 protein - cytotoxic KB cell line [61]
Cichorium intybus L. Leaves chloroform antiproliferative HeLa, MCF7 and A431 [62]
Lactucin and 13,14-seco-stigma 9(11),14(15)-dien-3alpha-ol - cytotoxic A2780 [63]
Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl Cinnamaldehyde - cytotoxic HL60 [64]
Bark methanol/hexane/ethyl acetate HeLa, A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF-498 and HCT-15 [65]
aqueous SiHa [66]
2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde - LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 [67]
Coumacasia HL60 and A549 [68]
Cistus creticus L. Labdane-type diterpenoids from leaves - cytotoxic KB, P-388; and NSCLC-N6 [69]
CCRF-CEM, MOLT3, H33AJ-JA-13, HUT78, H9, KM3, NAMALWA, JIYOYE, DAUDI, SDK, K562, HL60 and U973 [70-72]
Shoot ethanol HeLa, MDA-MB-453 and FemX [73]
Commiphora mukul Engl.
Guggulsterones - cytotoxic PC3, HL60 and U973 [74]
Coriandrum sativum L. Linalool - antitumor Sarcoma-180 solid tumor [75]
Leaves ethanol cytotoxic HT-29 [76]
Crocus sativus L.
Stigma ethanol antitumor Sarcoma-180 (S-180), Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) [77]
cytotoxic HeLa, A549 and HepG2 [78, 79]
Crocin, crocetin, safranal and picrocrocin
- HeLa, MCF-7, PC3, k562 and HepG2 [80-86]
Crocin antitumor C26 colon carcinoma [87]
Cucurbita maxima Duchartre, Seeds methanol cytotoxic Brine shrimp [88]
Aerial parts antitumor Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma [89]
Triterpenes - cytotoxic HL60 and P388 [90]
Cucurbita pepo L. Leaves hydroalcoholic cytotoxic HepG2 and CT26 [91]
Cuscuta epithymum Mur. Aerial parts chloroform and hydroalcoholic cytotoxic HeLa, HT29 and MDA-MB-46 [92]
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbitacin E - cytotoxic ZR-75-1, COLO 679, OV_95_CC3 and PC-3 [93, 94]
Fruits water AGS and KYSE30 [95]
Cucurbitacin-D - NSCLC-N6 [96]
Ficus carica L. Leaves, fruits and latex ethanol, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane cytotoxic HeLa [97]
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Root cytotoxic 4T1 [98]
Inula helenium L. Root methanol cytotoxic HT-29, MCF-7, Capan-2 and G1 [99]
ethanol cytotoxic MDA-MB-23 [100]
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
Leaves ethanol cytotoxic Brine shrimp [101]
Juglans regia L. Juglanin A and B - cytotoxic Hep G2 [102]
Leaves chloroform BHY, MCF7,
and HT-29
[103]
Juglanones A and B - A549, MCF-7, BEL-7402, HeLa, COLO205, BGC-823, and
SK-OV-3
[104]
5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone and regiolone MCF-7 and BHY [105]
Lactuca sativa (L.) Mill. Sesquiterpene lactones - cytotoxic HeLa and HCT-116 [106]
Laurus nobilis L. Leaves n-hexane cytotoxic Brine shrimp [107]
Sesquiterpene lactones - Jurkat
, HL-60 and LoVo
[108]
A2780 [109]
Essential oil - C32, ACHN, LNCaP, and MCF-7 [110]
Lawsonia inermis L. Bicoumarin, biflavonoid, and biquinone compounds from flowers - cytotoxic MCF-7, Hela, HCT-116, and HT-29 [111]
Linum usitatissimum L. Secoisolariciresinol and anhydrosecoisolariciresinol - cytotoxic MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 [112]
Melissa officinalis L. Essential oil - cytotoxic A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562 and B16F10 [113]
Aerial parts ethanol HCT-116 [114]
Leaves water cytotoxic and antitumor MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231; DMBA-induced mammary tumors [115]
Citral and essential oil - cytotoxic GBM [116]
Myrtus communis L. Phloroglucinols
- cytotoxic MT-4 cells,
HepG2 and DU145
[117]
Narcissus tazetta L. Alkaloids - [118]
Stems and leaves alkaloid extraction cytotoxic HL-60, K562, KT1/A3, and A3 [119]
Olea europaea L. Erythrodiol - cytotoxic HL-60 [120]
Hydroxytyrosol rich extract from leaves methanol/water MCF-7 [121]
Maslinic acid - HT29 [122]
Tyrosol esters MCF10A [123]
Papaver somniferum L. var. album (Mill.) M.A. Noscapine - anticancer Refractory Multiple Myeloma, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia [124]
Physalis alkekengi L. 5α-Hydroxy-25,27-dihydro-4,7-didehydro-7-deoxyneophysalin A - cytotoxic PC-3 and LNCaP [125]
Physalin HT1080 and A375-S2 [126, 127]
Pistacia atlantica Desf.
Polyphenol-rich extract
ethanol/water cytotoxic HT29 [128]
Pistacia lentiscus L. Gum extract hexane cytotoxic HCT116 [129]
Plantago major L. Leaves hot water cytotoxic Antileukemia and anticarcinoma [130]
Luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside - TK-10, MCF-7 and UACC-62 [131]
Platanus orientalis L. Flavonoids - cytotoxic Human leukemic cell lines and skin cancer cell lines [132-136]
Polygonum aviculare L Aerial parts methanol cytotoxic MCF-7 [137]
Portulaca oleracea L. Triterpenoids - cytotoxic HepG2 [138]
Not mentioned methanol CNE-1, HeLa
and HT-29 and MCF-7
[139]
Seed HepG2 [140]
Alkaloids - K562, A549, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435 [141]
Punica granatum L. Genistein and extract not mentioned cytotoxic MCF-7, MMTV-Wnt-1, [142]
Polyphenols juice cytotoxic and antitumor BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 [143]
Fruit rind extract and fowers methanol cytotoxic A549 and MCF-7 [144-146]
Galactomannan polysaccharide
- cytotoxic and antitumor A375, HCT116, and HepG2; DLA and EAC murine ascites and EAC solid tumor mouse models [147]
Raphanus sativus L. 4-(Methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate - cytotoxic murine leukaemia cell line (L1210) [148]
4-Methylthio-butanyl derivatives - cytotoxic A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 [149]
Ricinus communis L. Leaves volatile oil cytotoxic SK-MEL-28 and HeLa [150]
Rosa × damascena Mill. Flowers volatile oil cytotoxic SW742 [151]
Smilax china
L.
Phenylpropanoid glycosides - cytotoxic
KB, HeLa, DLD-1, MCF-7, A-549 and Med [152]
Kaempferol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside A375 and HL60 [153]
Polyphenols MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 [154]
Solanum nigrum L. Steroidal glycosides
- cytotoxic
HT-29, HCT-15, LNCaP, PC-3, T47D, HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, SF-268 and MDA-MB-231 [155, 156]
Glycoprotein MCF-7, HCT-116 and HT-29 [157-160]
Aerial parts methanol cytotoxic HeLa and Vero [161]
Leaves water AU565 [162]
Not mentioned hydro-alcoholic HepG2 and CT26 [91]
Solamargine - K562 [163]
Polyphenol rich extract water PZ-HPV-7 [164]
Berries ethanol Jurkat and HL-60 [165]
Tanacetum parthenium L. Parthenolide - anticancer Leukemia [166]
Terminalia chebula Willd. ex Flem. Tannins - cytotoxic A-549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF-498 and HCT-15 [167]
Fruits methanol HOS-1 [168]
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Seeds water cytotoxic HL-60
TCP, B-cell lymphomas, FRO and MCF7 [169]
Diosgenin - A549
Viola odorata L. Cyclotides - cytotoxic MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR [170]
Vitis vinifera L. Resveratrol - cytotoxic 3T6 and HL60 [171]
Seed extract methanol KB cells [172]
Viniferin-enriched extracts ethanol/water HCC1954, HCC1500 and MCF7 [173, 174]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe [6]-Paradol and structurally related compounds - cytotoxic KB [175]
Gingerols and diarylheptanoids - HL-60, A431, K562, HeLa, HCT-116, HT-29 and K562/ADR [176-181]

Table 2.

Anticancer activities of ITM plant species.

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8. Conclusion

Taken together, it can be concluded that what physicians of Islamic medicine used for cancer treatment is proven through modern research. Out of 107 plant species which are introduced in Islamic Iranian medicine for cancer treatment, 59 plants or their chemical compounds have proven to possess cytotoxic and antitumor activity in recent investigations and some have entered clinical trials and their effectiveness has been evaluated on humans.

These findings show the profound insight of Islamic physicians on cancer treatment. In spite of the lack of modern facilities and developed equipment, they introduced anticancer plants that have shown cytotoxic properties in new researches. The correlation between these findings signifies the originality of past experiences and studies, representing a worthwhile fund and valuable science dating back more than twelve centuries. This heritage is based on the experiences of thousands years of Greek, Indian and ancient Iranian physicians and relies on immense number of clinical trials on thousands of people. Furthermore, the application of traditional medicinal knowledge reinterpreted by modern data can lead to more effective and evidence-based use of medicinal plants, which can contribute to therapeutic decisions on different illnesses.

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Written By

Behjat Javadi, Milad Iranshahy and Seyed Ahmad Emami

Submitted: May 29th, 2014 Reviewed: June 23rd, 2015 Published: September 2nd, 2015