The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this book:

The heat flux vector | |

[p] | Isobaric Conditions |

[T] | Isothermal Conditions |

Frequency factor [s^{-1}] | |

, , , α, β, γ | Parameters of phase unit cell |

_{i,j} | The primary breakage distribution |

°_{pm} | Standard isobaric molar thermal capacity [J⋅K^{-1}·mol^{-1}] |

C_{i} | Reaction Species, Reactant or Product |

Diameter of mill | |

_{a} | Activation energy [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

ETC, Λ | Effective thermal conductivity |

F | The Number of Phases in Given Thermodynamic System |

_{i} | The feed rate of size fraction [t⋅h^{-1}] |

G | Gibbs Energy |

α | Kinetic function ((α) = ) |

The order of matrix of constitution coeficients | |

HAC | High Alumina Cement |

HCV | High Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

K | Boltzmann Constant, k = R/ N_{A} = 8.314/ 6.023⋅10^{23} = 1.381⋅10^{-23} J⋅K^{-1}. |

The constant of reaction rate | |

Equilibrium constant | |

_{B} | Boltzmann constant |

LCV | Lower Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

LHV | Lower Heating Value [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

_{A} | Alumina module |

M_{H} | Hydraulic Module of Clinker |

_{H} | Hydraulic module |

N | Number of Moles [mol]. |

Kinetic factor (kinetic exponent) | |

_{+}, _{-} | The number of cations, anions |

_{A} | Avogadros number (6.02214⋅10^{23 }mol^{-1}) |

NCV | Net Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

P | Pressure [Pa] |

_{c}, _{c} | The sieve size passing 80% of clinker after and before crushing |

PC, OPC | Portland Cement, Ordinary Portland Cement |

_{D} | The partial pressure of water vapor [Pa] |

PSD | Particle packing density |

R | Universal Gas Constant, R = p_{st}⋅V_{st}/ T_{st} = 1.0325⋅10^{5} ⋅ 22.414⋅10^{-3}/ 273.15 = 8.314 J⋅mol^{-1}⋅K^{-1}. |

Number of independent reaction in the system (according to the Gibbs stoichiometric law). | |

_{c} | Critical Energy Transfer Distance in Blasse’s Theory |

S | Number of Species in Given Thermodynamic System |

°_{m} | Standard molar entropy [J⋅K^{-1}⋅mol^{-1}] |

_{SrO} | Strontium saturation factor |

The shape index of peak | |

_{i} | Specific rate of breakage |

T | Temperature [K] |

Time [s] | |

_{m} | The temperature of peak [K] |

T_{pw} | The temperature of wet point [°C] |

v | Number of Degrees of Freedom (according to the Gibbs phase law). |

V | Volume |

/ | The water to cement ratio |

_{1/2} | The half-width of peak [K] |

_{A} | Absolute humidity of air [kg⋅m^{-3}] |

_{c} | The energy consumed for crushing the clinker [kWh⋅t^{-1}] |

_{m} | The mill specific output motor power [kWh⋅t^{-1}] |

_{R} | Relative humidity of air [%] |

_{s} | Specific air humidity [kg_{w}⋅kg_{air} ^{-1}] |

_{c} | Critical Concentrations. |

x_{j} | Molar Ratio (dimensionless, or 100 x_{j} [%]) |

Number of formula per unit cell of phase | |

Stoichiometric factor | |

Pauling´s electronegativity | |

_{c} ° | Heat of Combustion [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

°_{f}H | The standard enthalpy of formation [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

^{#} | Gibbs energy of activated complex [J] |

^{#} | Enthalpy of activated complex [J] |

_{r} ° | The standard Gibbs energy of reaction [J] |

_{r} °^{(bo)} | The standard Gibbs energy of reaction recalculated to one mol of basic oxides [J⋅mol^{-1}] |

_{r} ° | The standard enthalpy of reaction [J] |

_{r} ° | The standard entropy of reaction [J⋅K^{-1}] |

^{#} | Entropy of activated complex [J⋅K^{-1}] |

Heating rate [°C⋅min^{-1}] | |

α | The fractional conversion or degree of conversion (normalized on range from 0 to 1 or from 0 to 100 %) |

Porosity | |

_{ij} | The structure composition factor. |

The coefficient of thermal conductivity | |

_{e} | The effective thermal conductivity of porous materials |

_{i} | Chemical Potential |

_{i}° | Standard Chemical Potential |

_{i} | Stoichiometric coefficient for species C_{i} |

_{i} | Stoichiometric coefficient |

Density [kg⋅m^{-3}] | |

The fraction of condensation energy transferred to the reactant at interface |

The following cement chemistry notation is used in this book:

Aluminium oxide | Al_{2}O_{3} | A |

Calcium oxide | CaO | C |

Carbon dioxide | CO_{2} | |

Iron oxide | Fe_{2}O_{3} | F |

Calcium fluoride | CaF_{2} | |

Water | H_{2}O | H |

Potassium oxide | K_{2}O | K |

Magnesium oxide | MgO | M |

Sodium oxide | Na_{2}O | N |

Phosphorus oxide | P_{2}O_{5} | P |

Silicon oxide | SiO_{2} | S |

Sulfur oxide | SO_{3} | |

Titanium oxide | TiO_{2} | T |