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Notations and Abbreviations

By Petr Ptáček

Reviewed: April 18th 2014Published: July 2nd 2014

DOI: 10.5772/58614

Downloaded: 1609

The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this book:

q¯The heat flux vector
[p]Isobaric Conditions
[T]Isothermal Conditions
AFrequency factor [s-1]
a, b, c, α, β, γParameters of phase unit cell
Bi,jThe primary breakage distribution
c°pmStandard isobaric molar thermal capacity [J⋅K-1·mol-1]
CiReaction Species, Reactant or Product
DDiameter of mill
EaActivation energy [J⋅mol-1]
ETC, ΛEffective thermal conductivity
FThe Number of Phases in Given Thermodynamic System
fiThe feed rate of size fraction [t⋅h-1]
GGibbs Energy
g(α)Kinetic function (g(α) = kt)
hThe order of matrix of constitution coeficients
HACHigh Alumina Cement
HCVHigh Caloric Value [J⋅mol-1]
KBoltzmann Constant, k = R/ NA = 8.314/ 6.023⋅1023 = 1.381⋅10-23 J⋅K-1.
kThe constant of reaction rate
KEquilibrium constant
kBBoltzmann constant
LCVLower Caloric Value [J⋅mol-1]
LHVLower Heating Value [J⋅mol-1]
MAAlumina module
MHHydraulic Module of Clinker
MHHydraulic module
NNumber of Moles [mol].
nKinetic factor (kinetic exponent)
n+, n-The number of cations, anions
NAAvogadros number (6.02214⋅1023 mol-1)
NCVNet Caloric Value [J⋅mol-1]
PPressure [Pa]
Pc, FcThe sieve size passing 80% of clinker after and before crushing
PC, OPCPortland Cement, Ordinary Portland Cement
PDThe partial pressure of water vapor [Pa]
PSDParticle packing density
RUniversal Gas Constant, R = pst⋅Vst/ Tst = 1.0325⋅105 ⋅ 22.414⋅10-3/ 273.15 = 8.314 J⋅mol-1⋅K-1.
RNumber of independent reaction in the system (according to the Gibbs stoichiometric law).
RcCritical Energy Transfer Distance in Blasse’s Theory
SNumber of Species in Given Thermodynamic System
S°mStandard molar entropy [J⋅K-1⋅mol-1]
SDSrOStrontium saturation factor
SIThe shape index of peak
SiSpecific rate of breakage
TTemperature [K]
tTime [s]
TmThe temperature of peak [K]
TpwThe temperature of wet point [°C]
vNumber of Degrees of Freedom (according to the Gibbs phase law).
w/cThe water to cement ratio
w1/2The half-width of peak [K]
WAAbsolute humidity of air [kg⋅m-3]
WcThe energy consumed for crushing the clinker [kWh⋅t-1]
WmThe mill specific output motor power [kWh⋅t-1]
WRRelative humidity of air [%]
WsSpecific air humidity [kgw⋅kgair -1]
xcCritical Concentrations.
xjMolar Ratio (dimensionless, or 100 xj [%])
ZNumber of formula per unit cell of phase
zStoichiometric factor
ΧPauling´s electronegativity
Δc H°Heat of Combustion [J⋅mol-1]
ΔfH°The standard enthalpy of formation [J⋅mol-1]
ΔG#Gibbs energy of activated complex [J]
ΔH#Enthalpy of activated complex [J]
Δr G°The standard Gibbs energy of reaction [J]
Δr G°(bo)The standard Gibbs energy of reaction recalculated to one mol of basic oxides [J⋅mol-1]
Δr H°The standard enthalpy of reaction [J]
Δr S°The standard entropy of reaction [J⋅K-1]
ΔS#Entropy of activated complex [J⋅K-1]
ΘHeating rate [°C⋅min-1]
αThe fractional conversion or degree of conversion (normalized on range from 0 to 1 or from 0 to 100 %)
ϕijThe structure composition factor.
λThe coefficient of thermal conductivity
λeThe effective thermal conductivity of porous materials
μiChemical Potential
μi°Standard Chemical Potential
νiStoichiometric coefficient for species Ci
νiStoichiometric coefficient
ρDensity [kg⋅m-3]
τThe fraction of condensation energy transferred to the reactant at interface

The following cement chemistry notation is used in this book:

Oxide/ compoundsFormulaAbbreviated symbol
Aluminium oxideAl2O3A
Calcium oxideCaOC
Carbon dioxideCO2C-
Iron oxideFe2O3F
Calcium fluorideCaF2F-
Potassium oxideK2OK
Magnesium oxideMgOM
Sodium oxideNa2ON
Phosphorus oxideP2O5P
Silicon oxideSiO2S
Sulfur oxideSO3S-
Titanium oxideTiO2T

© 2014 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Petr Ptáček (July 2nd 2014). Notations and Abbreviations, Strontium Aluminate - Cement Fundamentals, Manufacturing, Hydration, Setting Behaviour and Applications, Petr Ptacek, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/58614. Available from:

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