The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this book:



The heat flux vector 
[p]  Isobaric Conditions 
[T]  Isothermal Conditions 

Frequency factor [s^{1}] 

Parameters of phase unit cell 

The primary breakage distribution 

Standard isobaric molar thermal capacity [J⋅K^{1}·mol^{1}] 
C_{i}  Reaction Species, Reactant or Product 

Diameter of mill 

Activation energy [J⋅mol^{1}] 
ETC, Λ  Effective thermal conductivity 
F  The Number of Phases in Given Thermodynamic System 

The feed rate of size fraction [t⋅h^{1}] 
G  Gibbs Energy 

Kinetic function ( 

The order of matrix of constitution coeficients 
HAC  High Alumina Cement 
HCV  High Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{1}] 
K  Boltzmann Constant, k = R/ N_{A} = 8.314/ 6.023⋅10^{23} = 1.381⋅10^{23} J⋅K^{1}. 

The constant of reaction rate 

Equilibrium constant 

Boltzmann constant 
LCV  Lower Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{1}] 
LHV  Lower Heating Value [J⋅mol^{1}] 

Alumina module 
M_{H}  Hydraulic Module of Clinker 

Hydraulic module 
N  Number of Moles [mol]. 

Kinetic factor (kinetic exponent) 

The number of cations, anions 

Avogadros number (6.02214⋅10^{23 }mol^{1}) 
NCV  Net Caloric Value [J⋅mol^{1}] 
P  Pressure [Pa] 

The sieve size passing 80% of clinker after and before crushing 
PC, OPC  Portland Cement, Ordinary Portland Cement 

The partial pressure of water vapor [Pa] 
PSD  Particle packing density 
R  Universal Gas Constant, R = p_{st}⋅V_{st}/ T_{st} = 1.0325⋅10^{5} ⋅ 22.414⋅10^{3}/ 273.15 = 8.314 J⋅mol^{1}⋅K^{1}. 

Number of independent reaction in the system (according to the Gibbs stoichiometric law). 

Critical Energy Transfer Distance in Blasse’s Theory 
S  Number of Species in Given Thermodynamic System 

Standard molar entropy [J⋅K^{1}⋅mol^{1}] 

Strontium saturation factor 

The shape index of peak 

Specific rate of breakage 
T  Temperature [K] 

Time [s] 

The temperature of peak [K] 
T_{pw}  The temperature of wet point [°C] 
v  Number of Degrees of Freedom (according to the Gibbs phase law). 
V  Volume 

The water to cement ratio 

The halfwidth of peak [K] 

Absolute humidity of air [kg⋅m^{3}] 

The energy consumed for crushing the clinker [kWh⋅t^{1}] 

The mill specific output motor power [kWh⋅t^{1}] 

Relative humidity of air [%] 

Specific air humidity [kg_{w}⋅kg_{air} ^{1}] 

Critical Concentrations. 
x_{j}  Molar Ratio (dimensionless, or 100 x_{j} [%]) 

Number of formula per unit cell of phase 

Stoichiometric factor 

Pauling´s electronegativity 

Heat of Combustion [J⋅mol^{1}] 

The standard enthalpy of formation [J⋅mol^{1}] 

Gibbs energy of activated complex [J] 

Enthalpy of activated complex [J] 

The standard Gibbs energy of reaction [J] 

The standard Gibbs energy of reaction recalculated to one mol of basic oxides [J⋅mol^{1}] 

The standard enthalpy of reaction [J] 

The standard entropy of reaction [J⋅K^{1}] 

Entropy of activated complex [J⋅K^{1}] 

Heating rate [°C⋅min^{1}] 
α  The fractional conversion or degree of conversion (normalized on range from 0 to 1 or from 0 to 100 %) 

Porosity 

The structure composition factor. 

The coefficient of thermal conductivity 

The effective thermal conductivity of porous materials 

Chemical Potential 

Standard Chemical Potential 

Stoichiometric coefficient for species C_{i} 

Stoichiometric coefficient 

Density [kg⋅m^{3}] 

The fraction of condensation energy transferred to the reactant at interface 
The following cement chemistry notation is used in this book:



Aluminium oxide  Al_{2}O_{3}  A 
Calcium oxide  CaO  C 
Carbon dioxide  CO_{2} 

Iron oxide  Fe_{2}O_{3}  F 
Calcium fluoride  CaF_{2} 

Water  H_{2}O  H 
Potassium oxide  K_{2}O  K 
Magnesium oxide  MgO  M 
Sodium oxide  Na_{2}O  N 
Phosphorus oxide  P_{2}O_{5}  P 
Silicon oxide  SiO_{2}  S 
Sulfur oxide  SO_{3} 

Titanium oxide  TiO_{2}  T 