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Contribution to the Moss Flora of Kizildağ (Isparta) National Park in Turkey

Written By

Serhat Ursavaş and Barbaros Çetin

Submitted: March 28th, 2012 Published: April 24th, 2013

DOI: 10.5772/52937

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1. Introduction

The Kızıl Mountain National Park chosen as the study area is in Dedegül Mountain range which is in the 122 important plant areas in Turkey [59]. As a reliable indication of its highly diversed flora. Although the National Park of Kızıl Mountain range was important plant area, was not studied for moss flora, up to now. So, we believed the necessity of studying the mosses of the Kızıl Mountain National Park in Turkey. It is located in a transitional zone of Mediterranean and continental climate. In accordance with its transitional location, Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean flora elements are dominant in the area (Figure 1).

Studies on the bryophyte flora of Turkey were carried out firstly in the 18th century by Müller [1829], Tchihatcheff [1860], Juratzka and Milde [1870], Wettstein [1889], Barbey [1890] and Schiffner [1896, 1897]. The available bryofloristic studies covering a number of localities in Turkey carried out by local and foreing botanists focus only on a small localized area. Especially from late 20th century up to date, many studies were published.

Mosses are important components of forest ecosystems. They have important contributions on biological diversity providing wet habitats for much type living organisms. The study on mosses in Turkey are not extensive as in many other contries, thus the moss flora of Turkey is still largely unknown.

According to the grid system adopted by Henderson [30], the reserch area is between B7 and C12 squares. While the total number of new records for these square grids is 63, new taxa records for B7 is 7, for C12 is 47, as well as both grid squares are 9, respectively.

To date, nearly studies have been deal with the bryophyte flora of southwest of Turkey. The new records belonging to the B7 mosses taxa were found out from the following literatures: Henderson and Muirhead [28], Henderson [27], Robinson and Godfrey [63], Walther [75], Henderson and Prentice [29], Yücel and Tokur [80], Yücel and Magil [79], Erdağ et al. [23], Uyar and Ünal [76], Savaroğlu and Tokur [64], Kürschner and Erdağ [37]. On the other hand, the litratures followed up to obtain the new records belonging to the C12 mosses taxa were: Henderson and Prentice [29], Çetin [12-15, 17], Tonguç and Yayıntaş [67], Kürschner and Nestle [38], Erdağ et al. [21], Abay et al. [2], and Kırmacı and Özçelik [35].

Figure 1.

The flora areas of Turkey

This study was carried out between 2009 and 2011 in Kızıldağ National Park. The results obtained from a research on the bryophyte flora of Kızıldağ National Park (Isparta), Turkey) were reported in this paper. 156 taxa of bryophytes belonging to 66 genera and 29 families from the study area are recorded by the authors. Out of these, one species, Seligeria donniana (Sm.) Müll Hal. was a new record for Turkey. Also Crossidium crassinerve (De Not.) Jur. and one endemic species, Cinclidotus vardaranus Erdağ & Kürschner are reported for the second time from Turkey. Moreover, species such as Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop., Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.) Kindb. Isothecium holtii Kindb. and Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. reported many times for the northern part of Turkey, are reported for the first time for the southern part of Turkey.

The aim of this study was to explore the moss flora of Kızıldağ National Park. We hope that this study will serve as a valuable contribution to the knowledge of the bryophyte of Turkey and gives a base for future biodiversity and nature conservation surveys.

1.1. Description of the study area

Turkey contains a great variety of natural habitats, ranging from Mediterranean (e.g., Muğla, Antalya and Mersin cities), Aegean (e.g., Aydın and İzmir cities), and Black Sea beaches to towering coastal and interior mountains, (e.g., Zonguldak, Kastamonu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, and Rize cities) from deeply incised valleys to expansive steppes (e.g., Altındere, Hatilla, Ihlara, Kelebek, Munzur valleys), and from fertile alluvial plains to arid, rocky hill slopes (e.g., Cihanbeyli, Haymana, Yazılıkaya and Bozok plains). Different community types (e.g., Cedrus libani with Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana; Abies cilicica with Quercus coccifera) and habitat mosaics ocur (e.g., Beyşehir Lake and Dedegül Mountain), containing a rich mixture of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic [33, 54]. Endemic plants for Kızıl Mountain National Park is 201 some of them Quercus vulcanica (Boiss. Heldr. ex) Kotschy, Abies cilicica (Ant. & Kotschy) Carr. ssp. isaurica Coode & Cullen, Consolida raveyi (Boiss.) Raveyi, Nigella lancifolia Hub.-Mor. Papaver apokrinomenon Fedde, Alyssum filiforme Nyar, etc. Endemic animals for Kızıl Mountain National Park is 5, this is Gobio gobio microlepidotus Battalgil, Pseudophoxinus battalgili Bogutskaya, Chondrostoma beysehirensis Bogutskaya, Alburnus akili Battalgil, and Cobitis bilseli Battalgil [5]

The study areas' climate data were taken from the Yenişarbademli meteorological station (1150 m). According to the Anonymus [5], the annual average temperature is 20.9 ºC. The highest temperature is 25.4 ºC in July and the lowest is -7.2 ºC in February. The annual rain precipitation is 631.7 mm [5]. The annual temperature and rain rates recorded during the last 25 years (1980-2005) by the above mentioned meteorological observation station were considered also for a water balance graph according to Thornthwaite method was obtained (Figure 2). The climate type of the area is “moist and semi-humid” [5]. Thus, the components and the resource values such as biological diversity, wetlands, endemic species, medicinal and aromatic plants, natural ecosystems of the park are very diverge [5].

The Kızıldağ National Park was declared fist time as a national park in 1969 occupying 2316 hectares. Later, the area of the national park was expanded to 59400 hectares in 1993. The national park is situated in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The geographical position of the park, encircling the north and east of Beyşehir Lake, lies between 370 38l 32ll – 380 03l 21ll Northern Latitudes and 310 14l 59ll – 310 29l 58ll East longitudes [5].

National Park district is surrounded by Şarkikaraağaç town and Beyköy province in the nort, Beyşehir Lake in the easth, Beyşehir town, Kurucuova village, Gavur hill, Tozan hill, Kuzgun hill, Yeropkunu hill, Karakaya hill, Dedegül hill, in the south, Üzümkarı hill, Melikler plateau, Dörtkardeşler hill, Mehmetkırı hill, Hacıbey plateau, Altınoluk hill, Höyük hill, Kızıldağ hill, Bozyamaç hill, Tuzlabeli hill, Çiçekli hill, Yoncalı hill, Büyükkaç hill in the west [5].

There are some high plateaus and hills such as; Büyükçeşan hill (2390 m), Alataş hill (2208 m), Küçükdağ hill (2302 m), Yumrutaş hill (2437 m), Karakaya hill (2384 m), Karagöl hill (2215 m), Üzüm karı hill (1978 m), Mehmetkir hill (1838 m), Zenit plateau (1755 m), Melikler plateau (1730 m), Saraycık plateau (1700 m),, Küçükseki plateau (1320 m), Küre plateau (1165 m) [5].

The chosen study area, Kızıldağ National Park, encloses very important plant areas (Endemic and Endangered) including the Dedegül Mountain (2996 m) range that is also among the 122 important plant areas in Turkey [59]. The study area is located in the Kızıldağ National Park that is in Isparta province. Its lies in the Beyşehir Lake range, which is running from north to south in the southern part of Turkey. The localities belong to B7 and C12 grid-square according to Henderson’s [30] system (Figure 3).

The geological structure of the field is composed of formations consisting of limestone rocks. Vegetation from the National Park, tree species are: Cedrus libani A. Rich, Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, Abies cilicica Car., and Juniperus species comprising the forest makes up. C. libani A. Rich, Şarkikaraağaç within the boundaries of the Kızıldağ National Park to the south of the town is 5 km north-facing slopes of the rising Kızıldağ shows the natural distributions of 1200-1700 meters. Shrub layer of the Cedrus libani A. Rich is Quercus coccifera L. [5].

Figure 2.

Graphic of the water balance according to Thornthwaite method [5]

Figure 3.

Location of Kızıldağ National Park in Turkey [5]


2. Materials and methods

The moss samples were collected from the study area during different vegetation periods between 2009 and 2011. The stations were selected according to different plant communities, and the geographical condition (Table 1).

The moss sample samples were incised by spatula from their habitats. After the samples were cleaned, they were preserved in plastic bags. Each plastic bag has a label providing the information about the habitat of the area. For example: Samples collecting number, moisture, exposure, substratum, the date of collecting, geographic coordinate, etc.

Identification of the specimens was based on Lawton [39], Crum [11], Smith [65-66], Nyholm [50-53], Gao Chien et al. [7], Cortini [9-10], Lu Xingjiang [41], Wu Peng-cheng et al. [62], Gao Chien [8], Greven [25], Herrnstadt and Heyn [31], Lüth [42-48]. Li Xing-Jiang et al. [40], Wang You-fang et al. [78] and Atherton et al. [6]. After the classificatrion was completed, specimens were placeed in the private collections of Serhat URSAVAŞ (Çankırı, Turkey).

Plants in the division Bryophyta have features that are considered to be rather primitive. These are plants with little specialization of tissue, which are not well-adapted to life in a relatively dry land environment. They also have comparatively simple reproductive processes, and are the only plants which have a dominant gametophyte generation. A study of the features of mosses will illustrate the major characteristics of this plant division [81].

In mosses, the gametophyte is small and at least partially erect, with very little specialization of cells and tissues, specifically, no true leaves, stems, or roots. The moss gametophyte has a shoot portion that appears leafy, and has rhizoids which emerge from its base to attach it to the substratum upon which it grows. The gametophyte is generally green and photosynthetic, and obtains water and other nutrients from the soil by direct absorption into its cells. It contains no cells specializing in the transport of water and/or nutrients (vascular tissue) and therefore cannot grow so large as to prevent contact between the soil and the majority of its cells [81].

At maturity, the moss gametophyte is capable of developing gametangia on its surface. Sperm-producing antheridia can arise amongst the leaf-like structures along the length of the thallus; egg-producing archegonia most often develop at the tip of the erect gametophyte. When fully developed, flagellated sperm are released from an antheridium and swim through a film of water to reach an egg-containing archegonium (Figure 4) [81].

Syngamy of the egg and sperm produce a zygote within the archegonium. This zygote undergoes mitosis to produce an embryo, again retained within the archegonium. Finally, the embryo matures into a sporophyte, consisting of a sporangium (capsule), a seta (stalk), and a foot which remains embedded in the gametophyte tissue. The continued attachment of the sporophyte to the gametophyte allows the sporophyte to absorb most of its needed nutrients from the gametophyte [81].

Meiosis occurring within the sporangium produces spores. Following spore production, the capsule opens up to release the spores, which germinate to produce new moss gametophytes [81].

The firstly recorded taxa from B7 were indicated by asteriks (*), from C12 by two asterisks (**) and from both of them (B7 and C12) by three asterisks (***). The status of the taxa for Turkey was determined by reviewing the related literature [36, 70]. The first record for the Turkish bryophyte flora was indicated by diamond (♦).

In the statements of specimens: The first number shows the Site no., the bold abbreviation shows the habitat, U abbreviations shows collector and identified (Serhat Ursavaş), and the last number shows the collection no.

Habitats in the study area: s: on soil, r: on rock: src: on soil in rock crevices, rc: rock crevices, t: on bark of tree trunk and branch, dt: on dead trunk, ws: wet soil, wr: wet rock.

Figure 4.

Life cycle of moss [81]

Table 1 provides a list of stations from the research area. Subsequently, the lists of taxa determined from the research area species are given.

Site No. Date-Altitude(m) Localites and geographic coordinate Trees and some shrubs
1 29.08.2009-1410 Beş kardeşler, N 38° 22' 55.0" - E 31° 22' 48.7" CL, JO, JE, JC, QC, MC
2 29.08.2009-1310 Ulusazlık pınarı, N 38° 17' 10.0" - E 31° 23' 04.7" CL, JO, JE, JC, QC, MC
3 29.08.2009-1180 Kale, N 37° 59' 83.1" - E 31° 24' 32.4" RP, AA, MC
4 29.08.2009-1140 Karayaka village, N 37° 58' 52.0" - E 31° 25' 20.5" RB, G
5 30.08.2009-1308 Forest cottage, N 38° 02' 33.7" - E 31° 21' 40.1" CL, QC, JE, JC
6 30.08.2009-1960 Büyük sivri hill., N 38° 13' 93.0" - E 31° 21' 84.7" RP, O, JC
7 30.08.2009-1684 Küçük sivri hill., N 38° 02' 00.4" - E 31° 21' 69.4" RP, O
8 31.08.2009-1540 Pınargözü cave, N 37° 41' 78.3" - E 31° 18' 46.1" PN, PT, SA, JC, JE, CB
9 31.08.2009-1120 Pınarbaşı district, N 37° 45' 01.6" - E 31° 24' 95.3" JO, JE, JC, RP
10 01.09.2009-1550 Ince oluk pınarı, N 37° 42' 90.1" - E 31° 19' 80.1" PN, JE, JC, SA, RP
11 01.09.2009-1810 Vali Çeşmesi, N 37° 42' 93.4" - E 31° 17' 57.0" PN, JC
12 15.06.2010-980 Kızıl hill, N 37° 53' 90.3" - E 31° 20' 39.2" RP, O, LM
13 15.06.2010-1330 Gedikli village, N 37° 53' 38.0" - E 31° 19' 19.5" JE, JC, JF, AN
14 15.06.2010-1490 Güzel sırt, N 37° 53' 38.0" - E 31° 19' 19.5" CL, JF, JO
15 15.06.2010-1620 Akbel hill, N 37° 53' 17.0" - E 31° 17' 31.5" CL, JF, JO, JC, QV
16 15.06.2010-1720 Katranbaşı hill, N 37° 51' 06.2" - E 31° 18' 52.7" CL, JF, JO, QV, AP
17 15.06.2010-1700 Kaşıklı, N 35° 17' 84.0" - E 41° 90' 09.5" CL, JF, JO, JE, QV, AP
18 15.06.2010-1610 Katran sivri hill, N 37° 50' 46.0" - E 31° 18' 55.4" QV, CL, AP
19 15.06.2010-1440 İncebel hill, N 37° 50' 30.0" - E 31° 20' 39.9" JO, JE
20 16.06.2010-1308 Bungalow, N 38° 02' 33.0" - E 31° 21' 40.3" CL, PN, QC, PT, DO, JO, BI, QP
21 17.06.2010-1251 Pancar hill, N 37° 45' 06.0" - E 31° 22' 52.6" QC, QI, JO, JF, AC
22 17.06.2010-1320 Küçükseki plateau, N 37° 44' 53.0" - E 31° 22' 19.4" AC, JO, JF, JE
23 17.06.2010-1400 Körlük, N 37° 44' 53.0" - E 31° 21' 37.2" AC, QC, QI, PN, JE
24 17.06.2010-1540 Pancar hill., N 37° 45' 09.9" - E 31° 20' 43.1" AC, PN, JE, JF
25 17.06.2010-1555 Pınargözü cave, N 37° 41' 51.0" - E 31° 18' 30.7" PN, PT, SA, JC, JE, CB
26 14.08.2010-1550 Pınargözü cave, N 37° 41' 42.6" - E 31° 18' 24.4" PN, PT, JC, JE, CB
27 14.08.2010-1400 Hızar stream, N 37° 42' 34.0" - E 31° 19' 16.1" PN, PT, SA, QC, QI
28 31.03.2011-1213 Konya road, N 38° 02' 40.89" - E 31° 26' 38.51" PN, BV, CL, QC, JF, JO, PS
29 01.04.2011-1172 Fakılar village, N 38° 02' 19.03" - E 31° 18' 38.04" AN, PS, O, AA
30 01.04.2011-1228 Çeltek village, N 38° 0' 35.52" - E 31° 21' 0.37" CL, RP, O
31 01.04.2011-1148 Karayaka village, N 37° 58' 34.32" - E 31° 25' 27.94 JE, JO, RP
32 01.04.2011-1221 Yassıbel village, N 37° 58' 55.00" - E 31° 26' 31.87" JE, JO, QC, RP
33 02.04.2011-1132 Sarıkaya village, N 37° 55' 23.19" - E 31° 18' 47.90" JE, JO, AN, LM
34 02.04.2011-1137 Gedikli village, N 37° 55' 23.19" - E 31° 18' 47.90" JE, JO, JF, RP, G
35 02.04.2011-1241 Mada valley, N 37° 51' 51.53" - E 31° 20' 28.53" JE, JO, BV, AS, RP
36 31.05.2011-1736 Vali çeşmesi rooad, N 37° 42' 27.46" - E 31° 17' 47.24" PN, PT
37 31.05.2011-1730 Melikler plateau, N 37° 42' 11.08" - E 31° 17' 41.08" JE, JO, BV
38 31.05.2011-1555 Pınargözü cave, N 37° 41' 50.47" - E 31° 18' 34.27" PN, PT, JC, JE, CB
39 31.05.2011-1571 Gedikli village, N 37° 50' 06.28" - E 31° 20' 16.98" CL, JE, JO, JF, QC, QI
40 01.06.2011-1250 Mada island, N 37° 53' 24.40" - E 31° 22' 34.91" JE, JO, JF, QC
41 01.06.2011-1165 Küre plateau, N 37° 51' 3.88" - E 31° 21' 31.63" JE, JO, JF
42 02.06.2011-1387 Hızar stream, N 37° 42' 39.73" - E 31° 20' 13.20" PN, JF
43 02.06.2011-1368 Hızar stream, N 37° 42' 26.35" - E 31° 20' 28.70" PN, PT, SA, QI
44 02.06.2011-1754 Zenit plateau, N 37° 44' 2.58" - E 31° 19' 33.44" G, RP, O
45 02.06.2011-1575 Kirazlı stream, N 37° 45' 01.77" - E 31° 20' 17.87" AC, PN, JE, JO, JF
46 23.07.2011-1234 Küçükçal hill, N 37° 41' 34.88" - E 31° 21' 38.97" PN, PT, SA
47 23.07.2011-1631 Malanda hill, N 37° 41' 12.41" - E 31° 20' 28.22" PN, PT, SA
48 24.07.2011-1518 Fire tower, N 37° 41' 12.41" - E 31° 20' 28.22" PN, JO, BV, AS
49 24.07.2011-1968 Üzüm karı hill, N 37° 41' 15.77" - E 31° 17' 6.22" AS, V, E, O, RP
50 25.07.2011-1812 Mehmetkir hill, N 37° 43' 40.02" - E 31° 18' 46.81" JE, JO, JF, BV, E, V
51 25.07.2011-1755 Zenit plateau, N 37° 43' 54.86" - E 31° 20' 12.46" PN, JE, JF
52 25.07.2011-1775 Karnıccık area, N 37° 45' 42.56" - E 31° 18' 26.49" JE, JO, JF, BV, E
53 25.07.2011-1802 Keşaphane hill, N 37° 46' 1.76" - E 31° 18' 53.60" AC, PN, JE, BV
54 25.07.2011-1571 Dergül stream, N 37° 45' 33.94" - E 31° 20' 37.18" AC, JE, BV
55 25.07.2011-1417 Canavar area, N 37° 46' 9.70" - E 31° 21' 7.48" AC, JE, BV
56 25.07.2011-1154 Yenice district, N 37° 44' 16.14" - E 31° 24' 20.42" RP, JO, BV
57 26.07.2011-1378 Karanlık stream, N 37° 39' 38.92" - E 31° 21' 18.01" PN, JE, QI
58 26.07.2011-1565 Isılyurt hill, N 37° 39' 13.46"- E 31° 20' 23.03" AC, PN, PT, V
59 26.07.2011-2000 Kara lake hill, N 37° 38' 47.80" - E 31° 19' 56.22" RP, O, AS, V
60 26.07.2011-2215 Kara lake, N 37° 38' 18.23" - E 31° 18' 53.85" RP, AS, V
61 27.07.2011-1150 Hamal hill, N 37° 58' 12.96" - E 31° 17' 46.72" CL, AN, AS, V
62 27.07.2011-1138 Trout plant, N 37° 59' 59.14" - E 31° 18' 13.78" SA, RP
63 27.07.2011-1242 Süzmedağ hill, N 37° 58' 39.35" - E 31° 21' 24.32" QC, AS, V, RP
64 27.07.2011-1555 Pınargözü cave, N 38° 17' 10.00" - E 31° 23' 04.70" PN, PT, SA, JC, JE, CB
65 28.07.2011-1850 Dedegül foothill, N 37° 41' 38.69" - E 31° 13' 41.05" JO, BV, AS, E, RP
66 28.07.2011-2410 Dedegül foothill, N 37° 41' 16.76" - E 31° 18' 2.29" AS, E, RP
67 28.07.2011-2885 Dedegül mountain, N 37° 40' 10.43" - E 31° 18' 8.62" RP, O

Table 1.

Site no: Altitude in meters above sea level (m), Localities and geographic coordinates, Trees and some shrubs

AA: Agricultural area, AC: Abies cilicica (Antoine & Kotschy) Carrière, AN: Amygdalus nana L., AP: Acer platanoides L., AS: Astragalus sp., BI: Berberis iberica Steve. & Fisch. ex DC., BV: Berberis vulgaris L., CB: Carpinus betulus L., CL: Cedrus libani A. Rich., DO: Daphne oleoides Schreb., E: Euphorbia sp., G: Grass, JO: Juniperus oxycedrus L., JF: Juniperus foetidissima Willd., JE: Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb., JC: Juniperus communis L., LM: Lake margin, MC: Myrtus communis L., O: Opennes, PN: Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, PS: Paliurus spina-christi Mill., PT: Populus tremula L., RB: Rush bed, RP: Rock place, QC: Quercus coccifera L., QI: Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, QP: Quercus pubescens O. Schwarz, QV: Quercus vulanica Boiss. & Heldr. ex Kotschy, SA: Salix alba L., V: Verbascum sp.,


3. Taxa list

Polytrichaceae Schwägr.
1. **Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. - 59:r, U545; 59:s, U546; 60:s, U547.
Timmiaceae Schimp.
2. **Timmia austriaca Hedw. - 52:src, U540; 52:s, U541.
3. ***Timmia norvegica J.E.Zetterst. - 15:rc, U542; 20:s, U543; 23:s, U544.
Encalyptaceae Schimp.
4. Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw. - 5:r, U854; 8:r, U856; 8:rc, U857; 10:r, U855; 13:r, U858; 16:r, U859; 20:s, U860; 25:wr, U861; 38:r, U862; 40:rc, U863; 41:r, U864; 45:r, U865; 46:s, U866; 49:r, U867; 51:r, U868; 52:r, U869; 53:r, U870; 65:r, U871; 66:r, U872.
5. Encalypta rhaptocarpa Schwägr. - 8:rc, U889; 20:s, U890.
6. Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. - 5:rc, U873; 13:r, U874; 16:r, U875; 30:s, U876; 32:r, U877; 34:r, U878; 39:rc, U879; 40:s, U880; 41:rc, U881; 48:t, U882; 49:r, U883; 52:r, U884; 60:r, 885; 63:r, U886; 65:r, U887; 67:s, U888.
7. Encalypta ciliata Hedw. - 58:r, U891.
Funariaceae Schwägr.
8. **Entosthodon muhlenbergii (Turner) Fife - 41:s, U577; 61:r, U558; 62:src, U559.
9. **Entosthodon pulchellus (H.Philib.) Brugue´s - 29:s, U560; 34:s, U561; 35:s, U562; 40:s, U563; 41:s, U564; 63:s, U565.
10. Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. - 5:s, U550; 33:r, U551; 35:s, U552; 38:r, U553; 44:dt, U554; 57:s, U555; 62:r, U556.
Grimmiaceae Arn.
11. Grimmia anodon Bruch & Schimp. - 1:r, U927; 3:r, U928; 4:r, U929; 15:r, U930; 28:r, U931; 29:r, U932; 49:r, U933; 63:r, U934; 66:r, U935.
12. **Grimmia caespiticia (Brid.) Jur. - 59:r, U949.
13. ***Grimmia funalis (Schwägr.) Bruch & Schimp. - 3:r, U941; 5:r, U942; 8:r, U943.
14. Grimmia hartmanii Schimp. - 41:r, U950.
15. Grimmia laevigata (Brid.) Brid. - 12:r, U946; 30:r, U947; 61:r, U948.
16. ***Grimmia montana Bruch & Schimp. - 6:r, U944; 7:r, U946.
17. Grimmia orbicularis Bruch ex Wilson - 13:r, U951.
18. Grimmia ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb. - 6:r, U936; 7:r, U937; 12:r, U938; 37:r, U939; 58:r, U940.
19. Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. - 1:r, U910; 2:r, U911; 3:r, U912; 4:r, U913; 5:r, U914; 6:r, U915; 7:r, U916; 8:r, U917; 10:r, U918; 15:r, U919; 18:r, U920; 19:r, U921; 21:r, U922; 40:r, U923; 50:r, U924; 56:r, U925; 61:r, U926.
20. Grimmia trichophylla Grev. - 1:r, U892; 2:r, U893; 3:r, U894; 4:r, U895; 5:r, U896; 8:r, U897; 10:r, U898; 13:r, U899; 15:r, U900; 18:r, U901; 19:t, U902; 19:r, U903; 20:r, U904; 22:r, 905; 40:r, U906; 41:r, U907; 46:r, U908; 63:r, U909.
21. **Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. - 37:r, U952.
22. Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. - 5:r, U953; 8:r, U954; 16:r, U955; 23:r, U956; 34:r, U957; 42:r, U958; 43:r, U959; 45:r, U960.
23. *Schistidium atrofuscum (Schimp.) Limpr. - 6:r, U970; 40:r, U971.
24. Schistidium confertum (Funck) Bruch & Schimp. - 1:r, U961; 5:r, U962; 6:r, U963; 8:r, U964; 47:r, U965; 49:r, U966; 59:r, U697; 65:r, U968.
25. Schistidium flaccidum (De Not.) Ochyra - 6:r, U1269.
26. Schistidium helveticum (Schkuhr) Deguchi - 49:r, U969.
27. **Schistidium trichodon (Brid.) Poelt - 8:r, U1270.
Seligeriaceae Schimp.
28. ♦ Seligeria donniana (Sm.) Müll.Hal. - 45:r, U1282.
Fissidentaceae Schimp.
29. **Fissidens taxifolius Hedw. - 47:ws, U549.
30. Fissidens pusillus (Wilson) Milde - 40:r, U1275; 40:s, U1276; 43:s, U1277; 45:r, U1278.
31. Fissidens viridulus (Sw. ex anon.) Wahlenb. - 43:ws, U548.
Ditrichaceae Limpr.
32. ***Ceratodon conicus (Hampe) Lindb. - 6:r, U622; 8:src, U623, 47:s, U624; 60:s, 625.
33. Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. - 4:r, U609; 13:r, U610; 13:s, U611, 19:r, U612; 28:s, U613; 33:s, U614; 37:s, U615; 40:r, U616; 41:r, U617; 59:r, U618; 61:r, U619; 62:r, U620; 65:s, U621.
34. *Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch&Schimp - 8:rc, U601; 25:wr, U602; 40:r, U603; 47:r, U604; 49:r, U605; 52:r, U606; 67:s, U607.
35. **Distichium inclinatum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. - 67:s, U599; 67:r, U600.
36. Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwägr.) Hampe - 1:r, U626; 5:r, U632; 8:r, U627; 8:rc, U628; 15:s, U629; 15:r, U630; 40:r, U631.
Rhabdoweisiaceae Limpr.
37. Dicranoweisia cirrata (Hedw.) Lindb. - 8:t, U633; 10:t, U634.
Dicranaceae Schimp.
38. **Dicranum tauricum Sapjegin - 8:dt, U635; 8:t, U636; 11:t, U637; 15:r, U638; 45:dt, U608; 59:t, U639.
Pottiaceae Schimp.
39. Eucladium verticillatum (With.) Bruch & Schimp. - 27:ws, U1092; 51:wr, U1093; 55:wr, U1094; 57:wr, U1095.
40. **Gymnostomum aeruginosum Sm. - 8:s, 1088.
41. Gymnostomum calcareum Nees & Hornsch. - 49:r, U1089.
42. **Gyroweisia reflexa (Brid.) Schimp. - 41:s, U1090; 44:s, U1091.
43. Pleurochaete squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. - 13:s, U1059; 28:s, U1060; 30:rc, U1061; 34:r, U1062; 47:s, U1063; 63:src, U1064.
44. Tortella fragilis (Hook. & Wilson) Limpr. - 8:t, U1123.
45. ***Tortella inclinata var. densa (Lorentz & Molendo) Limpr. - 1:r, U1126; 6:r, U1127; 7:r, U1128; 15:r, U1129; 17:r, U1130; 18:r, U1131; 66:r, U1132.
46.*Tortella nitida (Lindb.) Broth. - 6:r, U1124; 8:r, 1125.
47. Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. - 1:r, U1133; 5:r, U1134; 7:r, U1135; 8:r, U1136; 15:r, U1137; 15:s, U1138; 16:r, U1157; 17:r, U1139; 19:r, U1140; 21:r, U1141; 23:r, U1142; 24:r, U1143; 39:r, U1144; 40:r, U1145; 43:s, U1146; 46:r, U1147; 48:r, U1148; 48:s, U1149; 49:r, U1150; 51:r, U1152; 60:r, U1153; 65:s, U1154; 66:r, U1155; 67:s, U1156.
48. **Weissia brachycarpa (Nees & Hornsch.) Jur. - 47:s, U1100.
49. Weissia condensa (Voit) Lindb. - 8:t, U1109; 49:r, U1110, 50:r, U1111; 65:r, U1112; 66:r, U1113; 67:r, U1114.
50. Weissia controversa Hedw. - 13:t, U1101; 41:t, U1102; 45:s, U1103; 45:t, U1104; 47:s, U1105; 53:t, U1106; 58:r, U1107; 60:r, U1108.
51. Barbula convoluta Hedw. - 51:src, U1065; 65:r, U1066.
52. **Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw.) P.C.Chen - 50:rc, U1280, 53:r, U1281.
53. Cinclidotus fontinaloides (Hedw.) P.Beauv. - 8:wr, 1118; 25:wr, U1119; 26:wr, U1120; 38:wr, U1121; 43:wr, U1122.
54. Cinclidotus riparius (Host ex Brid.) Arn. - 8:wr, U1115; 25:wr, U1116; 26:wr, U1117.
55. **Cinclidotus vardaranus Erdağ & Kürschner - 8:wr, U1274. (Not: The accuracy of this species were made by Michael Lüth.)
56. **Crossidium crassinerve (De Not.) Jur. - 28:r, U1098.
57. Crossidium squamiferum (Viv.) Jur. - 13:r, U1097, 31:r, U1097; 48:r, U1099.
58. Didymodon fallax (Hedw.) R.H.Zander - 45:r, U1069.
59. Didymodon spadiceus (Mitt.) Limpr. - 51:r, U1071; 57:wr, U1072.
60. Didymodon tophaceus (Brid.) Lisa - 48:r, U1070.
61. Didymodon vinealis (Brid.) R.H.Zander - 8:r, U1067; 45:r, U1068.
62. Phascum cuspidatum var. cuspidatum Hedw. - 29:s, U1078; 34:s, U1079; 63:s, U1080.
63. **Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum (Hedw.) Hook. & Taylor - 29:t, U1081; 35:s, 1082.
64. ***Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R.H.Zander - 1:r, U1073; 4:r, U1074.
65. Pseudocrossidium revolutum (Brid.) R.H.Zander - 13:r, U1075; 30:rc, U1076; 40:rc, U1077.
66. **Pterygoneurum ovatum (Hedw.) Dixon - 4:r, U1083; 13:r, U1084; 28:r, U1085; 29:s, U1086; 30:s, U1087.
67. Syntrichia laevipila Brid. - 1:s, U1235; 34:t, U1236.
68. Syntrichia montana Nees - 13:t, U1201; 15:r, U1002; 16:r, U1203; 17:r, U1204; 22:r, U1205; 24:r, U1206.
69. *Syntrichia norvegica F.Weber - 1:r, U1207; 6:r, U1208; 28:s, U1209; 37:r, U1210; 49:r, U1211; 60:r, U1212; 65:r, U1213; 67:r, U1214.
70. Syntrichia papillosissima (Copp.) Loeske - 1:r, U1245.
71. Syntrichia princeps (De Not.) Mitt. - 40:t, U1215.
72. Syntrichia ruralis var. ruraliformis (Besch.) Delogne - 2:s, U1237; 2:r, U1244; 8:r, U1238; 10:r, U1239; 17:t, U1240; 18:r, U1241; 20:s, U1242; 22:r, U1243.
73. Syntrichia ruralis var. ruralis (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr - 1:r, U1246; 2:r, U1247; 3:r, U1248; 4:r, U1249; 5:r, U1250; 6:r, U1251; 7:r, U1252; 8:r, U1253; 8:t, U1254; 10:r, U1255; 10:s, U1256; 10:t, U1257; 18:r, U1258; 41:r, U1259; 47:rc, U1260; 48:r, U1261; 49:r, U1262; 50:r, U1263; 52:r, U1264; 60:s, U1265; 61:r, U1266; 63:s, U1267; 67:r, U1268.
74. ***Syntrichia virescens (De Not.) Ochyra - 1:r, U1226; 5:r, U1227; 7:s, U1231; 8:r, U1232; 10:r, U1233; 21:t, U1228; 24:r, U1229; 25:r, U1234; 40:t, U1230.
75. **Tortula atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. - 49:r, U1159; 62:r, U1160.
76. **Tortula brevissima Schiffn. - 4:r, U1161; 31:r, U1162; 33:r, U1163; 40:r, U1164; 41:r, U1165; 52:r, U1166; 60:r, U1167; 62:r, U1168.
77. Tortula inermis (Brid.) Mont. - 1:r, U1216; 4:r, U1217; 5:r, U1218; 8:r, U1219; 10:t, U1220; 10:r, U1221; 13:r, U1222; 15:r, U1223; 50:r, U1224; 60:r, U1225.
78. ***Tortula marginata (Bruch & Schimp.) Spruce - 7:s, U1169; 43:rc, U1170; 65:r, U1171.
79. Tortula muralis Hedw. - 6:r, U1295; 10:r, U1191; 16:r, U1196; 28:r, U1197; 35:r, U1198; 53:r, U1199; 57:r, U1193; 62:r, U1194.
80. **Tortula schimperi M.J.Cano, O.Werner & J.Guerra - 47:s, U1200.
81. Tortula subulata Hedw. - 1:s, U1172; 6:s, U1173; 7:s, U1174; 8:s, U1175; 11:s, U1176; 18:s, U1177; 20:s, U1178; 28:s, U1179; 32:s, U1180; 40:r, U1181; 41:s, U1182; 44:s, U1183; 46:s, U1184; 57:s, U1185; 58:s, U1186; 59:s, U1187; 59:r, U1188; 60:r, U1189; 65:s, U1190.
Orthotrichaceae Arn.
82. *Orthotrichum anomalum Hedw. - 1:r, U734; 5:r, U735; 8:r, U736; 10:r, U737; 17:r, U738; 20:r, U739; 21:r, U740; 56:r, U741; 61:r, U742.
83. Orthotrichum cupulatum Hoffm.exBrid. - 1:r, U682; 2:r, U683; 3:r, U684; 4:r, U685; 5:rc, U686; 5:r, U687; 6:r, U688; 8:r, U689; 10:r, U690; 13:r, U691; 16:r, U692; 18:r, U693; 19:r, U694; 20:r, U696; 22:r, U695; 24:r, U697; 25:r, U698; 26:r, U696; 33:r, U700; 38:r, U701; 40:r, U702; 41:r, U703; 43:r, U704; 44:r, U705; 52:r, U706.
84. Orthotrichum urnigerum Myrin - 6:r, U753; 8:rc, U754.
85. Orthotrichum diaphanum Schrad. ex Brid. - 40:t, U759.
86. Orthotrichum rupestre Schleich. ex Schwägr. - 6:r, U723; 7:r, U724; 8:r, U725; 10:t, U726; 19:r, U727; 25:r, U728; 27:r, U729; 46:r, U730; 47:r, U731; 49:r, U732; 58:r, U733.
87. Orthotrichum affine Schrad. ex Brid. - 1:t, U707; 5:t, U708; 6:t, U709; 10:t, U710; 15:t, U711; 16:t, U712; 17:t, U713; 20:t, U714; 21:t, U715; 22:t, U716; 23:t, U717; 24:t, U718; 27:t, U719; 50:t, U720; 54:t, U721; 55:t, U722.
88. Orthotrichum lyellii Hook. & Taylor - 16:t, U755; 20:t, U756; 21:t, U757; 22:t, U758.
89. Orthotrichum speciosum Nees - 5:t, U745; 10:t, U746; 16:t, U747; 17:t, U748; 20:t, U749; 27:rc, U750; 37:t, U751; 58:t, U752.
90. *Orthotrichum striatum Hedw. - 5:t, U743; 7:r, U744.
91. **Ulota crispa (Hedw.) Brid. - 8:t, U760; 45:t, U761; 46:t, U762.
Bartramiaceae Schwägr.
92. Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. - 8:rc, U570; 38:s, U566; 38:s, U567.
93. **Bartramia ithyphylla Brid. - 8:rc, U568; 58:r, U569.
94. **Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid. - 46:wr, U571.
95. **Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. - 10:rc, U572; 10:ws, U573; 27:ws, U574; 44:s, U575; 46:ws, U576; 57:ws, U577; 60:s, U577.
96. **Philonotis tomentella Molendo - 8:rc, U578.
Bryaceae Schwägr.
97. Bryum alpinum Huds. ex With. - 29:ws, U663; 42:s, U664; 44:ws, U665.
98. Bryum argenteum Hedw. - 6:r, U650; 28:r, U651; 60:r, U652; 62:r, U653.
99. Bryum caespiticium Hedw. - 5:rc, U666; 11:s, U667; 39:t, U669; 39:rc, U668; 40:s, U670; 63:s, U671.
100. Bryum capillare Hedw. - 1:r, U654; 5:r, U655; 8:r, U656; 10:s, U657; 20:s, U658; 40:r, U659; 41:rc, U660; 58:r, U661; 60:r, U662.
101. **Bryum creberrimum Taylor - 25:t, U677.
102. Bryum moravicum Podp. - 40:s, U672.
103. **Bryum pallens Sw. ex anon. - 8:src, U673; 28:wr, U674; 45:s, U675.
104. Bryum pallescens Schleich. ex Schwägr. - 44:s, U676.
105. Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) P.Gaertn. et al. - 8:s, U678; 25:r, U679; 27:ws, U681; 58:ws, U680.
106.**Bryum schleicheri DC. - 27:wr, U648; 60:ws, U649.
107. **Bryum torquescens Bruch & Schimp. - 1:s, U1279.
Mielichhoferiaceae Schimp.
108. Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb. - 25:wr, U640; 49:s, U641; 58:r, U642; 67:s, U643.
109. Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) A.J.Shaw - 47:ws, U647.
110. Pohlia wahlenbergii var. wahlenbergii (F.Weber&D.Mohr) A.L.Andrews - 10:s, U644; 42:s, U645; 47:ws, U646.
Mniaceae Schwägr.
111. **Mnium marginatum (Dicks.) P.Beauv. - 8:s, U763; 8:rc, U764.
Plagiomniaceae T.J.Kop.
112. **Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop. - 63:r, U767.
113. Plagiomnium ellipticum (Brid.) T.J.Kop. - 38:ws, U765.
114. **Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop. - 47:s, U768; 47:ws, U769; 58:ws, U770; 63:wr, U771.
115. Plagiomnium rostratum (Schrad.) T.J.Kop. - 25:wr, U766.
Aulacomniaceae Schimp.
116. **Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwägr. - 8:t, U533; 36:dt, U534; 38:t, U535; 42:dt, U536; 45:dt, U537; 47:t, U538; 53:t, U539.
Amblystegiaceae Kindb.
117. Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce - 8:s, U841; 8:wr, U842; 25:wr, U843; 27:s, U844; 30:wr, U845; 38:wr, U846; 42:ws, U847; 42:r, U848; 44:s, U49; 47:wr, U850; 48:wr, U851.
118. **Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst - 44:ws, 852.
119. Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw.) Jenn. - 10:s, U1272.
120. Palustriella commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra - 8:wr, U834; 10:rc, U835; 27:wr, U836; 27:s, U837; 46:ws, U839; 47:ws, U840; 48:wr, U838.
Leskeaceae Schimp.
121. Pseudoleskea incurvata (Hedw.) Loeske - 8:rc, U771; 49:r, U772; 67:r, U773.
122. **Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.) Kindb. - 59:r, U774; 60:r, U775; 65:r, U776.
123. **Pseudoleskeella catenulata (Brid. ex Schrad.) Kindb. - 13:t, U777; 23:r, U778; 45:r, U779; 52:r, U780.
124. **Pseudoleskeella tectorum (Funck ex Brid.) Kindb. ex Broth. - 8:r, U781; 19:t, U782; 23:r, U783; 39:r, U784; 54:r, U785; 55:t, U786.
Brachytheciaceae Schimp.
125. Eurhynchium striatum (Hedw.) Schimp. - 1:r, U1028.
126. Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw.) Dixon - 8:t, U1049; 8:wr, U1050; 47:wr, U1051; 57:wr, U1052; 58:ws, U1053; 58:wr, U1054; 63:wr, U1055.
127. **Rhynchostegium confertum (Dicks.) Schimp. - 42:ws, U1056.
128. Oxyrrhynchium hians (Hedw.) Loeske - 47:wr, U1024; 47:ws, U1025.
129. ***Oxyrrhynchium schleicheri (R.Hedw.) Röll - 8:r, U1026; 25:r, U1027.
130. **Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) Schimp. - 8:rc, U1040; 10:s, U1041; 27:s, U1042;
131. **Brachythecium erythrorrhizon Schimp. - 7:s, U1043; 11:s, U1044; 45:s, U1045; 45:r, U1046; 46:r, U1047; 47:s, U1048.
132. Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. - 27:s, U1035; 38:wr, U1036; 47:wr, U1037; 59:ws, U1038; 63:r, U1039.
133. Eurhynchiastrum pulchellum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen - 7:s, U1029.
134. Brachytheciastrum velutinum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen - 10:s, U1030; 28:s, U1031; 45:t, U1032; 47:t, U1033; 53:t, U1034.
135. Homalothecium aureum (Spruce) H.Rob. - 2:s, U999; 34:s, U1000; 40:r, U1001; 40:s, U1002; 46:s, U1003; 47:t, U1004; 56:r, U1005.
136. Homalothecium lutescens (Hedw.) H.Rob. - 1:r, U977; 2:s, U972; 5:r, U973; 6:r, U974; 7:r, U975; 8:rc, U976; 10:r, U978; 10:t, U979; 15:r, U980; 16:r, U981; 19:s, U982; 20:t, U983; 22:r, U984; 45:s, U985; 54:r, U986.
137. Homalothecium philippeanum (Spruce) Schimp. - 13:r, U1006; 13:t, U1007; 15:r, U1008; 16:r, U1009; 17:r, U1010; 17:s, U1011; 20:r, U1012; 21:r, U1014; 21:t, U1014; 2:r, U1015; 23:r, U1016; 24:r, U1017; 34:r, U1018; 40:r, U1019; 45:r, U1020; 49:r, U1021; 51:r, U1022; 63:r, U1023.
138. Homalothecium sericeum (Hedw.) Schimp. - 1:r, U987; 7:r, U988; 8:r, U989; 11:t, U990; 13:s, U991; 15:r, U992; 17:r, U993; 18:r, U994; 19:r, U995; 20:s, U996; 21:t, U997; 49:r, U998.
Hypnaceae Schimp.
139. **Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske - 8:s, U813.
140. Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt. - 8:rc, U814.
141. Hypnum cupressiforme var. cupressiforme Hedw. - 7:s, U802; 23:r, U803; 23:s, U804; 43:r, U805; 47:t, U806; 55:r, U807.
142. Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum Brid. - 7:s, U808; 7:r, U809; 21:t, U810; 40:t, U811; 46:s, U812; 47:s, U813.
143. **Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum (Taylor) Schimp. - 21:t, U800; 47:r, U801.
Pterigynandraceae Schimp.
144. Habrodon perpusillus (De Not.) Lindb. - 45:t, U799.
145. Pterigynandrum filiforme Hedw. - 8:t, U787; 13:t, U788; 16:t, U789; 17:s, U790; 18:t, U791; 19:t, U792; 21:t, U799; 37:r, U794; 40:t, U795; 53:t, U796; 57:t, U797; 58:r, U798.
Plagiotheciaceae (Broth.) M.Fleisch.
146. **Plagiothecium laetum Schimp. - 8:rc, U1271.
Pylaisiadelphaceae Goffinet & W.R.Buck
147. **Platygyrium repens (Brid.) Schimp. - 69:r, U815.
Leucodontaceae Schimp.
148. **Leucodon immersus Lindb. - 7:r, U1273.
149. Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis (Schwägr.) De Not. - 12:s, U590; 13:t, U591; 15:r, U592; 16:r, U593; 21:r, U594; 35:r, U595; 47:r, U596; 55:r, U597; 56:r, U598.
150. Leucodon sciuroides var. sciuroides (Hedw.) Schwägr. - 13:r, U579; 17:r, U580; 19:t, U581; 21:t, U582; 22:t, U583; 24:r, U584; 35:r, U585; 38:r, U586; 40:r, U587; 41:r, U588; 41:t, U589.
Neckeraceae Schimp.
151. *Homalia trichomanoides (Hedw.) Brid. - 17:r, U830; 54:r, U831.
152. Neckera besseri (Lobarz.) Jur. - 52:r, U832.
153. Neckera menziesii Drumm. - 8:t, U816; 8:rc, U817; 8:r, U818; 17:r, U819; 18:r, U820; 23:r, U821; 23:rc, U822; 24:r, U823; 24:t, U824; 39:r, U825; 43:r, U828; 45:r, U826; 45:s, U827; 54:r, U829.
Leptodontaceae Schimp.
154. Leptodon smithii (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr - 23:r, U833.
Lembophyllaceae Broth.
155. Isothecium alopecuroides (Lam. ex Dubois) Isov. - 58:r, U1057.
156. **Isothecium holtii Kindb. - 63:r, U1058.


4. Synonyms

Subspecies and varieties are included; hybrids are omitted. The taxonomic hierarchy is based on one published by Goffinet & Buck in [24]. While it has been strongly influenced by results of modern molecular methods, there are still many remaining uncertainties, even at family level. Because of these uncertainties, taxonomic innovation has generally been avoided which was also interiorized in the Bryological Monograph related with the Mosses of Europe and Macaronesia prepared by Hill at al. in [32].

In this list, prepared according to the most recent nomenclatural changes in the mentioned monograph above, some species have been mentioned in different genus and some of them have been referred in different families. In accordance with that, taxonomic synonyms are given below.

  1. Brachythecium velutinum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. → Brachytheciastrum velutinum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen

  2. Bryum subelegansKindb. → Bryum moravicum Podp.

  3. Eurhynchium hians (Hedw.) Sande Lac. → Oxyrrhynchium hians (Hedw.) Loeske.

  4. Eurhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn. → Eurhynchiastrum pulchellum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen

  5. Eurhynchium schleicheri (R.Hedw.) Jur. → Oxyrrhynchium schleicheri (R.Hedw.) Röll

  6. Funaria muehlenbergii Turner → Entosthodon muhlenbergii (Turner) Fife

  7. Funaria pulchella H.H.Philib. → Entosthodon pulchellus (H.Philib.) Brugue´s

  8. Homalia besseri Lobarz. → Neckera besseri (Lobarz.) Jur.

  9. Hypnum lacunosum (Brid.) Hoffm.ex Brid. → Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum Brid.

  10. Hypnum resupinatum Taylor → Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum (Taylor) Schimp.

  11. Metaneckera menziesii (Drumm.) Steere → Neckera menziesii Drumm.

  12. Syntrichia intermedia Brid. → Syntrichia montana Nees

  13. Tortula subulata var. angustata (Schimp.) Limpr. → Tortula schimperi M.J.Cano, O.Werner & J.Guerra


5. Conclusions

A total number of 156 taxa belonging to 66 genera and 29 families were determined by evaluating 1.148 bryophytes collected from Kızıldağ National Park between 2009-2011 at different seasons and habitats. The number of taxa recorded from Pınargözü cave location was the highest (58 taxa) within all study area (Figure 5). The cracks on the rock which placed at the entrance and the surrounding area of a cave are suitable environments for the development of the mosses. In additional, Pınargözü cave streams and more rainfall has increased moss species diversity of this area. Among the 156 species determined in the research area, identified 63 species are new to the area for the mentioned grid squares. This means that approximately 40% of the records were determined as new records for the grid squares.

Seligeria donniana was recorded for the first time for Turkish bryophyte flora (Figure 6). This genus contains nineteen species in the European countries [32] and hitherto, six species; Seligeria acutifolia Lindb., S. pusilla (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp., S. recurvata (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp., S. tristichoides Kindb., S. calycina (S. paucifolia auct. non (With.) Carruth.), Mitt. ex Lindb. and S. trifaria (Brid.) Lindb. [54, 61, 70] have been recorded in Turkey.

In this study, an endemic taxon Cinclidorus vardaranus Erdağ and Kürschner was recorded for the second time for Turkish moss flora (Figure 7). This species was identified and reported by Adnan Erdağ and Harald Kürschner in [22] from B9 grid square (Kemaliye, Erzincan) for the first time. In addition, Crossidium crassinerve (De Not.) Jur. is an orther species reported for the second time from Turkey in this study (Figure 8). The first report of this species from Turkey was from Denizli Babadağ by Kırmacı et al. in [34].

Despite of being given several times in the northern part of Turkey's registration, species given for the first time for the southern Turkey's (C12) registration are:

Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop (Figure 9): The species was firstly identified from Turkey by Henderson [26], from a specimen collected from Artvin at 1500 a.s.l. In the following years, the records of this moss species were given by Henderson and Prentice [29]; Çetin [13]; Yayıntaş and Tonguç [77]; Yayıntaş et al. [76]; Özdemir [58]; Abay and Çetin [1]; Uyar [73]; Abay et al. [2]; Uyar and Çetin [71]; Özdemir and Koz [57]; Ursavaş and Abay [68]; Abay et al. [4]; and Abay et al. [3].

Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.) Kindb (Figure 10): According to Uyar and Çetin [70] “A new check-list of the moss flora of Turkey” was present. Subsequently, Özdemir and Batan [56], Ursavaş and Abay [68], and Abay et al. [4] records were given.

Isothecium holtii Kindb is not abundant in Turkey (Figure 11): first record was from Turkey of Balıkesir Kapıdağ peninsula (545 a.s.l.) by Uyar and Ören [72]. Afterwards, an other report from Kaçkar Mountains from Amlakit plateau (2000 a.s.l.) was given by Abay et al. [3].

Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid (Figure 12): The species was recorded for the first time from Artvin Çoruh Valley from Tiryal Mountain (2150 a.s.l.) on rock by Henderson [71] in Turkey. The later records of the species were given by Henderson [26]; Henderson and Prentice [29]; Çetin and Yurdakulol [19]; Çetin and Yurdakulol [20]; Çetin [16]; Özdemir and Çetin [55]; Çetin et al. [18]; Abay and Çetin [1]; Papp [60]; Uyar and Çetin [71]; Abay et al. [2]; Uyar et al. [69]; Natcheva et al. [49]; and Abay et al. [4].

New moss record for B7 square is Schistidium atrofuscum (Schimp.) Limpr., Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch&Schimp., Tortella nitida (Lindb.) Broth., Syntrichia norvegica F.Weber, Orthotrichum anomalum Hedw., Orthotrichum striatum Hedw., Homalia trichomanoides (Hedw.) Brid.

Figure 5.

A view from the entrence of the Pınargözü cave (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ)

Figure 6.

Characteristic features of Seligeria donniana (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Leaf, c. Leaf base, d. Capsule, e. Spor, f. Transverse section

Figure 7.

Characteristic features of Cinclidotus vardaranus (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Leaf, c. Leaf apex, d. Leaf base, e. Transverse section, f. Middle cells

Figure 8.

Characteristic features of Crossidium crassinerve (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Leaf, c. Upper cells of leaf, d. Transverse section, f. Leaf base, e. Spore

Figure 9.

Characteristic features of Phascum cuspidatum (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Leaf, c. Middle cells, d. Kapsule, e. Leaf base, f. Spore, g. Transverse section

Figure 10.

Characteristic features of Pseudoleskea patens (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Stem leaf, c. Branch leaf, d. Middle cells, e. Leaf margine

Figure 11.

Characteristic features of Isothecium holtii (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Stem leaf, c. Branch leaf, d. Leaf base, e. Middle cells

Figure 12.

Characteristic features of Racomitrium canescens (Image by Serhat URSAVAŞ) a. Plant, b. Leaf, c. Middle cells, d. Leaf apex, e. Transverse section

New moss record for C12 square is Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw., Timmia austriaca Hedw., Entosthodon muhlenbergii (Turner) Fife, Entosthodon pulchellus (H.Philib.) Brugue´s, Grimmia caespiticia (Brid.) Jur., Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid., Schistidium trichodon (Brid.) Poelt, Fissidens taxifolius Hedw., Distichium inclinatum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp., Dicranum tauricum Sapjegin, Gymnostomum aeruginosum Sm., Gyroweisia reflexa (Brid.) Schimp., Weissia brachycarpa (Nees & Hornsch.) Jur., Cinclidotus vardaranus Erdağ & Kürschner, Crossidium crassinerve (De Not.) Jur., Phascum cuspidatum var. piliferum (Hedw.) Hook. & Taylor, Pterygoneurum ovatum (Hedw.) Dixon, Tortula atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb., Tortula brevissima Schiffn., Tortula schimperi M.J.Cano, O.Werner & J.Guerra, Ulota crispa (Hedw.) Brid., Bartramia ithyphylla Brid., Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid., Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid., Philonotis tomentella Molendo, Bryum creberrimum Taylor, Bryum pallens Sw. ex anon., Bryum torquescens Bruch & Schimp., Bryum schleicheri DC., Mnium marginatum (Dicks.) P.Beauv., Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop., Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) T.J.Kop., Aulacomnium androgynum (Hedw.) Schwägr., Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst, Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.) Kindb., Pseudoleskeella catenulata (Brid. ex Schrad.) Kindb., Pseudoleskeella tectorum (Funck ex Brid.) Kindb. ex Broth., Rhynchostegium confertum (Dicks.) Schimp., Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) Schimp., Brachythecium erythrorrhizon Schimp., Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske, Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum Hedw., Plagiothecium laetum Schimp., Platygyrium repens (Brid.) Schimp., Leucodon immersus Lindb. Neckera crispa Hedw., Isothecium holtii Kindb.

New moss records for both of them (B7 and C12) are Timmia norvegica J.E.Zetterst., Grimmia funalis (Schwägr.) Bruch & Schimp., Grimmia montana Bruch & Schimp., Ceratodon conicus (Hampe) Lindb., Tortella inclinata var. densa (Lorentz & Molendo) Limpr., Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R.H.Zander, Syntrichia virescens (De Not.) Ochyra, Tortula marginata (Bruch & Schimp.) Spruce, Oxyrrhynchium schleicheri (R.Hedw.) Röll.

The revelation of the importance of Pınargözü Cave for the biodiversity of mosses comes out as another important finding of the study. Namely, the taxa detected from this locality constitutes alone approximately the one third (37%) of the overall taxa determined from the whole research area. This result indicates the value of the Pınargözü Cave in terms of its contribution to the bryophyte diversity. Unfortunately, human activities in and around the Pınargözü Cave either by using the site as a picnic area or as a hiking site on the Mount Dedegöl are certainly putting an enormous pressure on the local flora, which in turn, conceive a negative effect on the rich biodiversity of Pınargözü Cave.

According to the our findings, 4 families out of 29 in the study area detected from the research area constitute 55 % of the total taxa. These families are: Pottiaceae, Grimmiaceae, Brachytheciaceae and Bryaceae, which are also known to be the families containing the highest number of taxon of the Turkish Bryophyte Flora (Table 2).

While evaluating the table 2, the total number of taxon of each family was handled. According to this, it was inferred that the family containing the utmost number of taxa within the study area was Pottiaceae family with 43 taxa, constituting the 28 % of the total taxa.

This situation can be explained by the summer droughts (25.4 ºC and 8.2 mm) within the study area which takes place in the C12 square grid. Because, species showes acrocarp growth as the ones within the Pottiaceae family are relatively more resistant to the long term high temperatures and drought since they usually have hair like appendages that are called "hair-point" on the tip of their leaves and show a dense, cushion like growth. Also, the existence of a great number of taxa belonging to the drought resistant families such as Grimmiaceae, Brachytheciaceae and Bryaceae in the study area can be seen as a result arising from the long lasting drought period at C12 square.

Families Number of Taxa Percentage of taxa according to total number of taxa (%)
Pottiaceae 43 28.0
Grimmiaceae 17 11.0
Brachytheciaceae 14 9.0
Bryaceae 11 7.0
Orthotrichaceae 10 6.5
Bartramiaceae 5 3.2
Ditrichaceae 5 3.2
Hypnaceae 5 3.2
Encalyptaceae 4 2.6
Plagiomniaceae 4 2.6
Amblystegiaceae 4 2.6
Leskeaceae 4 2.6
Neckeraceae 3 1.9
Funariaceae 3 1.9
Fissidentaceae 3 1.9
Mielichhoferiaceae 3 1.9
Leucodontaceae 3 1.9
Timmiaceae 2 1.2
Pterigynandraceae 2 1.2
Lembophyllaceae 2 1.2
Polytrichaceae 1 0.6
Rhabdoweisiaceae 1 0.6
Dicranaceae 1 0.6
Mniaceae 1 0.6
Aulacomniaceae 1 0.6
Plagiotheciaceae 1 0.6
Pylaisiadelphaceae 1 0.6
Leptodontaceae 1 0.6
Seligeriaceae 1 0.6
Total 156 100

Table 2.

The distributions of the taxa according to the families



Many thanks to Funda OSKAY and Üstüner BİRBEN for the linguistic corrections of the manuscript and also thanks a lot to Türk Eğitim Vakfı (TEV) which I was provided scholarships by. Special thanks to Richard H. Zander for confirming the determination of Seligeria donniana (Sm.) Müll. Hal. and Michael Lüthe for confirming the determination of Cinclidotus vardaranus Erdağ and Kürschner.


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Written By

Serhat Ursavaş and Barbaros Çetin

Submitted: March 28th, 2012 Published: April 24th, 2013