Characteristics of available system components on the market
One of the most important problems in many industrial applications is the redundancy optimization problem. This latter is well known combinatorial optimization problem where the design goal is achieved by discrete choices made from elements available on the market. The natural objective function is to find the minimal cost configuration of a series-parallel system under availability constraints. The system is considered to have a range of performance levels from perfect working to total failure. In this case the system is called a
A limitation can be undesirable or even unacceptable, where only identical elements are used in parallel (i.e. homogeneous system) for two reasons. First, by allowing different versions of the devices to be allocated in the same system, one can obtain a solution that provides the desired availability or reliability level with a lower cost than in the solution with identical parallel devices. Second, in practice the designer often has to include additional devices in the existing system. It may be necessary, for example, to modernize a production line system according to a new demand levels from customers or according to new reliability requirements.
1.1. Literature review
The vast majority of classical reliability or availability analysis and optimization assume that components and system are in either of
The structure function approach.
The stochastic process (mainly Markov) approach.
The Monte-Carlo simulation technique.
The universal moment generating function (UMGF) approach.
In (Ushakov, Levitin and Lisnianski, 2002), a comparison between these four approaches highlights that the UGF approach is fast enough to be used in the optimization problems where the search space is sizeable.
The problem of total investment-cost minimization, subject to reliability or availability constraints, is well known as the redundancy optimization problem (ROP). The ROP is studied in many different forms as summarized in (Tillman, Hwang and Kuo, 1977), and more recently in (Kuo and Prasad, 2000). The ROP for the multi-state reliability was introduced in (Ushakov, 1987). In (Lisnianski, Levitin, Ben-Haim and Elmakis, 1996) and (Levitin, Lisnianski, Ben-Haim and Elmakis, 1997), genetic algorithms were used to find the optimal or nearly optimal power system structure.
This work uses an
In this paper, we extend the work of other researchers by proposing ant colony system algorithm to solve the ROP characterised in the problem of optimization of the structure of power system where redundant elements are included in order to provide a desired level of reliability through optimal allocation of elements with different parameters (optimal structure with series-parallel elements) in continuous production system.
The use of this algorithm is within a general framework for the comparative and structural study of metaheuristics. In a first step the application of ant colonies in its primal form is necessary and thereafter in perspective the study will be completed.
1.2. Approach and outlines
The problem formulated in this chapter lead to a complicated combinatorial optimization problem. The total number of different solution to be examined is very large, even for rather small problems. An exhaustive examination of all possible solutions is not feasible given reasonable time limitations. Because of this, the ant colony optimization (or simply ACO) approach is adapted to find optimal or nearly optimal solutions to be obtained in a short time. The newer developed meta-heuristic method has the advantage to solve the ROP for MSS
During the optimization process, artificial ants will have to evaluate the availability of a given selected structure of the series-parallel system (electrical network). To do this, a fast procedure of availability estimation is developed. This procedure is based on a modern mathematical technique: the
2. Formulation of redundancy optimization problem
2.1. Series-parallel system with different redundant elements
Let consider a series-parallel system containing
2.2. Availability of reparable multi-state systems
The series-parallel system is composed of a number of failure prone elements, such that the failure of some elements leads only to a degradation of the system performance. This system is considered to have a range of performance levels from perfect working to complete failure. In fact, the system failure can lead to decreased capability to accomplish a given task, but not to complete failure. An important MSS measure is related to the ability of the system to satisfy a given demand.
In electric power systems, reliability is considered as a measure of the ability of the system to meet the load demand (
For reparable MSS, a multi-state steady-state availability
If the operation period
We denote by
2.3. Optimal design problem formulation
The multi-state system redundancy optimization problem of electrical power system can be formulated as follows: find the minimal cost system configuration
The input of this problem is the specified availability and the outputs are the minimal investment-cost and the corresponding configuration determined. To solve this combinatorial optimization problem, it is important to have an effective and fast procedure to evaluate the availability index for a series-parallel system of elements. Thus, a method is developed in the next section to estimate the value of
3. Multi-state system availability estimation
The procedure used in this chapter is based on the universal
3.1. Definition and properties
The UMGF of a discrete random variable
where the variable
The probabilistic characteristics of the random variable
It can be easily shown that equations (7) – (10) meet condition
Consider single elements with total failures and each element
To evaluate the MSS availability of a series-parallel system, two basic composition operators are introduced. These operators determine the polynomial
3.2. Composition operators
3.2.1. Properties of the operators
The essential property of the UMGF is that it allows the total UMGF for a system of elements connected in parallel or in series to be obtained using simple algebraic operations on the individual UMGF of elements. These operations may be defined according to the physical nature of the elements and their interactions. The only limitation on such an arbitrary operation is that its operator
3.2.2. Parallel elements
Let consider a system component
Therefore for a pair of elements connected in parallel:
One can see that the operator is simply a product of the individual
Given the individual UMGF of elements defined in equation (11), we have:
3.2.3. Series elements
When the elements are connected in series, the element with the least performance becomes the bottleneck of the system. This element therefore defines the total system productivity. To calculate the
Applying composition operators and consecutively, one can obtain the UMGF of the entire series-parallel system.
4. The ant colony optimization approach
The problem formulated in this chapter is a complicated combinatorial optimization problem. The total number of different solutions to be examined is very large, even for rather small problems. An exhaustive examination of the enormous number of possible solutions is not feasible given reasonable time limitations. Thus, because of the search space size of the ROP for MSS, a new meta-heuristic is developed in this section. This meta-heuristic consists in an adaptation of the ant colony optimization method.
4.1. The ACO principle
Recently, (Dorigo, Maniezzo and Colorni, 1996) introduced a new approach to optimization problems derived from the study of any colonies, called “Ant System”. Their system inspired by the work of real ant colonies that exhibit the highly structured behavior. Ants lay down in some quantity an aromatic substance, known as pheromone, in their way to food. An ant chooses a specific path in correlation with the intensity of the pheromone. The pheromone trail evaporates over time if no more pheromone in laid down by others ants, therefore the best paths have more intensive pheromone and higher probability to be chosen. This simple behavior explains why ants are able to adjust to changes in the environment, such as new obstacles interrupting the currently shortest path.
Artificial ants used in ant system are agents with very simple basic capabilities mimic the behavior of real ants to some extent. This approach provides algorithms called ant algorithms. The Ant System approach associates pheromone trails to features of the solutions of a combinatorial problem, which can be seen as a kind of adaptive memory of the previous solutions. Solutions are iteratively constructed in a randomized heuristic fashion biased by the pheromone trails, left by the previous ants. The pheromone trails,
Various extensions to the basic TSP algorithm were proposed, notably by (Dorigo and Gambardella, 1997a). The improvements include three main aspects: the state transition rule provides a direct way to balance between exploration of new edges and exploitation of a priori and accumulated knowledge about the problem, the global updating rule is applied only to edges which belong to the best ant tour and while ants construct solution, a local pheromone updating rule is applied. These extensions have been included in the algorithm proposed in this paper.
4.2. ACO-based solution approach
In our reliability optimization problem, we have to select the best combination of parts to minimize the total cost given a reliability constraint. The parts can be chosen in any combination from the available components. Components are characterized by their reliability, capacity and cost. This problem can be represented by a graph (figure 2) in which the set of nodes comprises the set of subsystems and the set of available components (i.e. max (
In figure 2, a series-parallel system is illustrated where the first and the second subsystem are connected respectively to their 3 and 2 available components. The nodes
The heuristic information used is :
The pheromone update consists of two phases: local and global updating. While building a solution of the problem, ants choose components and change the pheromone level on subsystem-component edges. This local trail update is introduced to avoid premature convergence and effects a temporary reduction in the quantity of pheromone for a given subsystem-component edge so as to discourage the next ant from choosing the same component during the same cycle. The local updating is given by:
After all ants have constructed a complete system, the pheromone trail is then updated at the end of a cycle (i.e. global updating), but only for the best solution found. This choice, together with the use of the pseudo-random-proportional rule, is intended to make the search more directed: ants search in a neighbourhood of the best solution found up to the current iteration of the algorithm. The pheromone level is updated by applying the following global updating rule:
4.3. The algorithm
An ant-cycle algorithm is stated as follows. At time zero an initialization phase takes place during wish
The followings are formal description of the algorithm.
|1.||Set NC:=0 (NC: cycle counter)|
|For every edge (i,j) set an initial value τij(0)= τo|
|2.||For k=1 to NbAnt do|
|For i=1 to NbSubSystem do|
|For j=1 to MaxComponents do|
|Choose a component, including blanks, according to (1) and (2).|
|Local update of pheromone trail for chosen subsystem- component edge (i,j) :|
|3.||Calculate Rk (system reliability for each ant)|
|Calculate the total cost for each ant TCk|
|Update the best found feasible solution|
|4.||Global update of pheromone trail:|
|For each edge (i,j)∈ best feasible solution, update the pheromone trail according to:|
|6.||if (NC < NCmax) and ( not stagnation behavior)|
5. Illustrative example
The power station coal transportation system which supplies the boilers is designed with five basic components as depicted in figure.3.
The process of coal transportation is: The coal is loaded from the bin to the primary conveyor (Conveyor 1) by the primary feeder (Feeder 1). Then the coal is transported through the conveyor 1 to the Stacker-reclaimer, when it is left up to the burner level. The secondary feeder (Feeder 2) loads the secondary conveyor (Conveyor 2) which supplies the burner feeding system of the boiler. Each element of the system is considered as unit with total failures.
Optimal availabilities obtained by Ant Algorithm were compared to availabilities given by genetic algorithm (presented by symbol A0 in table 3) in the reference (Levitin et al., 1997), and to those obtained by harmony search (presented by symbol A01 in table 3) given in (Rami et al., 2009).
For this type of problem, we define the minimal cost system configuration which provides the desired reliability level A ≥ A0 (where A0 is given in (Levitin et al, 1997) taken as reference).
We will clearly remark the improvement of the reliability of the system at price equal compared to the two other methods.
We gave more importance to the reliability of the system compared to its cost what justifies the increase in the cost compared to the reference.
The compromise of the cost/reliability was treated successfully in this work.
The objective is to select the optimal combination of elements used in series-parallel structure of power system. This has to correspond to the minimal total cost with regard to the selected level of the system availability. The ACO allows each subsystem to contain elements with different technologies. The ACO algorithm proved very efficient in solving the ROP and better quality results in terms of structure costs and reliability levels have been achieved compared to GA (Levitin et al., 1997).
From figure 4 and the table, one can observe:
ACO achieved better quality results in terms of structure cost and reliability in different reliability levels (figure 4). We remark in all case, GA performed better by achieving a less expensive configuration, however ACO algorithm achieved a near optimal configuration with a slightly higher reliability level (table 4).
We take, for example, for reference reliability level (A0 = 0.975, table 4), GA prove an augmentation of 0.1 percent compared to 0.23 percent given by ACO this for a difference in rate Cost-reliability of 58.3%. It is noticed, according to figure 4, that ACO tends, at equal price, to increase the reliability of the system.
A new algorithm for choosing an optimal series-parallel power structure configuration is proposed which minimizes total investment cost subject to availability constraints. This algorithm seeks and selects devices among a list of available products according to their availability, nominal capacity (performance) and cost. Also defines the number and the kind of parallel machines in each sub-system. The proposed method allows a practical way to solve wide instances of structure optimization problem of multi-state power systems without limitation on the diversity of versions of machines put in parallel. A combination is used in this algorithm is based on the universal moment generating function and an ant colony optimization algorithm.