Root morphology of secondary roots of the Okinawa cultivar rootstock inoculated with three AMF species (
The morphology of plant roots have gained prominence in various branches of knowledge, especially in the Biological and Agricultural Sciences, according to the same being one of the main features of the plant body related to the supply and support of plant (Marschner, 1995). Agricultural practices of soil management require special attention in the relations of the roots of different plants with different managements employees, because the health of plants is dynamically linked to these delicate relatio (Silva et al., 2005). This is because the management practices linked monocultures allow the reproduction of micro-organisms that cause crop damage, and the common use of pesticides to alleviate this problem (Bressan & Vasconcelos, 2002).
In this sense, studies are being conducted with the objective of evaluating the possibility to reduce the use of these chemicals in the control of harmful micro-organisms, ranging from research on structural strength of the plant, past the front of the dynamic plant managements, to the use of microorganisms considered beneficial plants (Bressan & Vasconcelos, 2002). On this last point, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize the root system of most plants, and one of the most reported benefits has been a greater phosphorus absorption by the mycorrhized plants (Nunes et al, 2006), forming a mutualistic symbiosis type biotrophic (Dodd, 2000). This symbiosis is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, occurring in 83% of dicotyledonous plants, in 79% of monocots and in all Gymnosperms, without altering the external appearance of the root (Wilcox, 2002). Moreover, the occurrence of symbiosis is widespread in most habitats, both natural ecosystems and in ecosystems altered by human activities (Sylvia et al., 2001).
In this respect, mutualism is manifested in the bidirectional exchange of nutrients, where the plant comes from carbohydrates to the fungus, while it provides you with water and nutrients, especially for the case of phosphorus (Smith et al., 2003). Although the result of symbiosis be beneficial for the phytobionts, the effectiveness varies in function of the combination the vegetal species and fungus involved in the association (Smith et al., 2003).
By mechanisms promoted by the AMF, the external hypha and mycelia increase the root capacity to exploit the soil results in greater nutrient absorption (Siqueira et al., 2002). However, this absorption has also been related to alterations in the morphological properties of the root of the host plant (Moreira & Siqueira, 2002).
The root system morphology is determined genetically, and can vary among species and individuals in function of environmental factors, such as water availability, nutrients and temperature (Tokeshi, 2000) and the plasticity of the root system can also be influenced by AMF (Berta et al., 1995). The root morphology influences the fast development of the root system and is critical for the successful establishment of most horticultural and fruit plants (Bressan & Vasconcellos, 2002).
This fact is fundamental to the understanding of the effects of the AMF on root development, especially in the case of rootstock plants (Berta et al., 1995). However, the relationships involved in the formation of this symbiosis, since the signaling between the phytobionts, the early stages of the colonization process, as well as possible alterations in the morphological structure of the roots (Berta et al., 1995), in order to be considered a complete understanding relations between the symbionts
There is little information about such relationships, as well as morphological changes produced by mycorrhizal infection in plant tissues (Souza et al., 2000). Some authors report that the AMF does not cause major morphological changes in roots (Cooper, 1984), but studies showed that the AMF induces changes in the architecture (Berta et al., 1995; Norman et al., 1996), especially in the increase of the root ramification, in the morphology (Berta et al., 1995; Bressan & Vasconcelos, 2002; Kothari et al., 1990; Norman et al., 1996,) and the anatomy (Berta et al., 1995) the roots of different plant species.
Most infections of the root system of plants by soil microorganisms imply relations between the actors involved, these relations are based on compatibility between symbionts or the ability of the microorganism to overcome the defense mechanisms of plants (Paszkowski, 2006). The study of morphological relationships between the symbionts highlight the determinants of compatibility that allow the symbiosis occurs involving taxonomically distinct groups of plants and AMF infective (Panstruga, 2003).
The objective of this study was to relate the morphology and root system development of plants of the rootstock cultivars of the peach trees Aldrighi and Okinawa with root colonization by AMF species and the influence of this relationship on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium absorption and the vegetative development of the plants.
2. Material and methods
2.1. Execution area
The study was carried out under shading (Okinawa cultivar) and a greenhouse (Aldrighi cultivar) at the UFRGS Agronomic Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, RS, located at latitude 30° 05’ South and longitude 51° 39’ West from 2004 to 2005.
2.2. Plant and fungal material
Seeds from the two rootstock cultivars were stratified in sterilized sand and placed in a refrigerator at 4°C for 45 days to break the seed dormancy.
Afterwards the seeds were sown on a bed of sterilized sand in a greenhouse. When they were about 5 cm long, the seedlings were replicated to 5 liters black plastic bags containing substrate consisting of clay soil, sand with medium particle size and decomposed black acacia bark residue (1:1:1, V:V.V). The substrate was previously disinfected with formaldehyde solution at 10%.
The AMF species tested were
A randomized block design was used, with 20 plants per plot and four replications, in a total of 320 plants for the Okinawa cultivar and 400 plants for the Aldrighi cultivar.
2.3. Determination of roots colonization and plant responses
When the plants had diameter for grafting (360 days for the Okinawa cultivar and 180 days for the Aldrighi cultivar) the height was assessed of the 20 plants in each plot, from the root-stem junction to the tip of the main stem, using a measuring tape, and the main stem diameter, at the root-stem junction and plant height using a pachymeter.
In addition, 5 plants were used from each replication of the treatments, for determination of leaf area, through the use of leaf area meter mark Li-Cor (LI - 3000). After, the shoot was dried and ground and where the fractions were removed for evaluation of plant tissue nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content by digestion, distillation and spectrophotometry flames, following the methodology by Tedesco et al. (1995).
Five second order roots with similar length and diameter were collected from the root system to assess the root colonization rate (by the ratio number of infected segments/total analyzed). To determine the colonization rate the radicels were stained following methodology reported by Phillips and Hayman (1970).
2.4. Determination of reserve substances
Samples of the aerial part (leaves, stems and stem) and dried roots were ground in the mill, coupled with a sieve of 20 meshes per inch. Each sample was collected approximately one gram for determination of reserve substances.
A similar procedure was carried out with samples of roots. After each sample individually packaged in bags made of special screen for the filtration of food products and brought back to 65C oven to constant weight, recording the weight of each bag, after, were digested in order to extract all components of plant tissue (carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids, etc.) that were not fibers (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), as conventionally known as reserve substances the method described by Priestley (1965).
The samples were placed in one liter Erlenmeyer flask containing an aqueous solution with 5% trichloroacetic acid (99%) and 35% methanol (99.8%) remained on heating gas burner, under a hood with hood, by eight hours. From the third hour to eight hours, distilled water was added to the solution, as it would evaporate in order to always maintain the same volume of liquid sufficient to maintain the samples immersed in the solution.
After the samples were rinsed with distilled water again and put in stove to dry at 65C until constant weight. The difference in mass of the samples before and after digestion constisted substance content of the buffer that contained samples.
2.5. Histological studies
Secondary roots with similar diameter were used for the morphological studies, as shown in Tables 1 and 2. The histological studies followed the methods described by Johansen (1940), where 1 cm long samples were dehydrated and blocked in paraffin, and 10-15µm thick slices were made using a manual microtome.
The slices were placed on slides, removed the paraffin with xylol, rehydrated for later staining with aqueous Safranin (1%) and Toluidine Blue O (0.05%), and than dehydrated again and the preparations mounted in Canada balsam with a coverslip.
These sections were observed under a Leica DM microscope with 400X magnification. The images were captured with a Nikon CoolPix 990 digital camera (Photos of José Luis da Silva Nunes ) and analyzed using the “WCIF Image J” software.
The morphometric parameters measured in the roots were area, diameter, number and perimeter of the tracheal element cells, regardless of the stage of ontogenetic development (primary or secondary) and, from the primary xylem, only the metaxylem was measured, because the protoxylem collapsed at the end of its differentiation (Figures 1 and 2).
The data were submitted to an analysis of variance by the SAS program and the measurements were compared by the Duncan test (Duncan, 1955) at the level of 5% significance.
The results regarding the effect of the AMF on the conductor tissue of the roots of the Okinawa cultivar showed that the treatments with the
|Treatment||Diameter of root (µm)||Cortex thickness (µm)||Metaxylem e secondary xylem|
|Number of Cell||Cell diameter|
|Cell area (µm²)|
|V. C. (%)||5,17||7,41||5,01||10,09||6,02||13,22|
For the Aldrighi cultivar, the treatment with the
|Treatment||Diameter of root (µm)||Cortex thickness (µm)||Metaxylem e secondary xylem|
|Number of Cell||Cell diameter|
|Cell area (µm²)|
|V. C. (%)||4,76||6,11||5,54||7,84||6,84||11,32|
The inoculation with AMF species accelerated the growth of the plants of the Okinawa cultivar rootstock, inducing greater height, diameter, leaf area and greater nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, compared with the control. All presented root colonization rates were over 90%.
|V. C. (%)||3,88||2,17||2,54||2,56||2,61||4,75||2,42|
For the plants of the Aldrighi cultivar, only the
|V. C. (%)||1,55||2,77||2,44||6,64||10,60||3,97||2,91|
These species were the only ones to present root colonization rates of over 90%. All of the AMF species were efficacious for the root-stem junction diameter and leaf area parameters and only varied in the response intensity. In all the assessments of plant growth and nutritional states, invariably
Inoculation with AMF increased content of reserve substances to plants of cv. Okinawa, especially when inoculated with
|Treatment||Reserve substances (% in the plant)|
|V. C. (%)||5,24||2,58|
In reviewing the data on the percentage of reserve substances from plants of cv. Aldrighi, present in the tissue of the shoot, it appears that the plants were inoculated with the AMF species had percentages higher than uninoculated plants (Table 6).
|Treatment||Reserve substances (% in the plant)|
|V. C. (%)||2,76||3,26|
For the shoot, plants inoculated with
4.1. Anatomy and morphology changes in roots
It was observed that inoculation with AMF reduced the cortex thickness of inoculated plants in both cultivars, associated to increase in most of the morphological parameters of the root xylem assessed for the Okinawa cultivar and for all of those of the Aldrighi cultivar (Tables 1 and 2).
The main effect of the AMF occurred on the metaxylem, that is, one of the categories of the primary xylem, whose conductor cells differentiate later and are larger in diameter (Costa et al., 2003) and also on the secondary xylem cells. On the other hand, the AMF not did not seem to exercise effect on the protoxylem, that are conductor cells of the primary xylem that differentiate first, that is, they acquire secondary lignin walls early (Apezzato-da-Glória & Hayashi, 2003) that reduce the possibility of the AMF acting on the growth of this category of cells of the primary xylem.
The decrease in the cortex area seems to be directly linked to the increase in the number of cells in the metaxylem and the secondary xylem of the plants inoculated with AMF. The control plants presented a smaller number of metaxylem and secondary xylem cells that were smaller in diameter compared to the cells of the inoculated plants, especially in the case of the treatments with the species
The mycelia of endomycorrhizal fungi were extracted from roots of
Roots colonized by AMF presented an increase in auxin and cytokinin production that are involved in the increase or continuity of the growth of the conductor tissue cells, especially in the size and number of the cells of the metaxylem and the secondary xylem (Hirsch et al., 1997). According to the same authors, the establishment of symbiosis would lead to the production of biochemical signals that would activate genes involved in the production of these plant hormones, and thus the same signals would be responsible for the formation of the root nodes on legumes colonized by
Thus it can be inferred that the presence of AMF would favor the constant differentiation of the xylem tracheal elements, that coincides with the results obtained in this study for both the root stock cultivars.
There appear to be possible variable effects on root morphology, according to the AMF species and the plant species involved in the symbiosis that also influences the size and growth of the xylem cells, that was also observed in this study, because some species presented variable performance in increasing the size and number of cells, in function of the cultivar used, and in function of the AMF species used for the same cultivar (Atkinson et al., 1994). The species
Moreover, roots of plants were colonized by AMF may or may not show increases in longevity, depending on plant species and the fungi involved in symbiosis (Atkinson et al, 2003; Eissenstat et al., 2000; Hodge et al., 2000). However, the morphological attributes of the roots that may be affected by the AMF, such as roots and branches of the diameter of the conducting tissue, has a direct influence on increasing the longevity of roots (Wells et al., 2002). In addition to increasing longevity, root colonization by AMF provides a quick renewal of the root system, increasing the rate of substitution of roots that have collapsed.
4.2. Acquisition of nutrients and benefits
The increase in the absorption and transport volume of nutrients such as nitrogen, that is a constituent of proteins (Tedesco et al., 1995), phosphorus that is essential for a cell division and photosynthesis metabolism and potassium that acts on the electric equilibrium of the cells and on the stomata opening and closing (Tedesco et al., 1995), is vital for plant growth. This contributed to greater responses of the inoculated plants in terms of plant development that was observed in this study for both the cultivars, especially in the plants where there were the highest percentages of root colonization (Tables 3 and 4).
The AMF obtain carbohydrates from their host plants and provide nutrients, especially phosphate. In the case of phosphate, depending on the combination plant-fungus, the acquisition can be performed wholly or partly by the fungus (Smith et al., 2003). The metabolic pathway of nutrient acquisition starts with the uptake by hyphae-soil interface (Benedetto et al., 2005). In hyphae, the nutrient is transported to structures of the fungus in the roots (Ohtomo et al., 2005), where it is transferred to the plant via arbúsculo (Nagy et al., 2005). The route of transfer of carbohydrates from the plant to the AMF follows the opposite direction (Nagy et al., 2005; Ohtomo et al., 2005).
The benefits given by the AMF on xylem development is associated to many action mechanisms of these fungi, that act directly or indirectly on the plants (Souza et al., 2000). One of the positive effects of the AMF is in function of the presence of the external mycelia, which play an important role in slow diffusion nutrient absorption, such as phosphorus and potassium (Minhoni & Auler, 2003; Souza et al., 2000; Tobar et al., 1994), increasing the nutritional content of the plants (An et al., 1993; Barea, 1991). Associated to this, the modifications caused by the AMF in the xylem structure, such as increase in the number and diameter of the metaxylem and secondary xylem cells, permitted a greater flow of nutrient absorption, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, translocated to the upper part of the plant, culminating in accelerated growth (Souza, 2000; Souza et al., 2000).
The fact that the AMF species induce major development parameters such as height, diameter and leaf area per plant provides greater photosynthesis and, consequently, a higher level of production of assimilates (Nunes et al., 2006). This report confirms the data obtained in this study with respect to the reserve substances of shoots of both cultivars, for all species used provided an increase in leaf area compared to control (Tables 3 and 4). There is also agreement with other authors, who found higher levels of reserve substances in the tissues of plants inoculated with AMF (Theodore et al., 2003; Sena et al., 2004, Souza et al., 2005).
Another fact to be noted is that only the AMF species that provided the greatest results for height, diameter and leaf area for both cultivars (
Plants inoculated with AMF have changes in the morphological structure of the roots, such as reduction of the cortex and increased the number and size of cells of the metaxylem, which provides greater volume of water and nutrients translocated to the top of the plant. This benefits plants, accelerating its vegetative growth, improving the content of macronutrients and allowing the production and accumulation of assimilates.
To Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for research support and grants of the authors.
An Z. Q. Shein T. Wang H. G. Mycorrhizal fungi in relation to growth and mineral nutrition of apple seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae, 1993 54Nº 4 (July 1993), 275 285 0304-4238
Appezzato-da-Glória B. Hayashi A. H. 2003Raiz. In: Anatomia Vegetal, Appezzato-da-Glória B., Carmello-Guerreiro S.M. (eds), 267 287UFV, 8-57269-240-1Brasil
Atkinson D. Berta G. Hooker J. E. 1994Impact of mycorrhizal colonization on root archicture, roots longevity and the formation of growth regulators. In: Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas on Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems, Gianinazzi S., Schüepp H. (eds), 89 99Birkhäuser Verlag, 3-76435-000-8Switzerland
Atkinson D. Blanck K. E. Forbes P. J. Hooker J. E. Baddeley J. A. Watson C. A. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and environment on root development in soil., 2003 54Nº 4 (December 2003), 751 757 1365-2389
Barea J.M. 1991Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae as modifiers of soil fertility. In: Advances in Soil Science, STEWART, B.S. (ed), 01 40Springer-Verlag, 0-38797-354-0York, USA
Barroso J. Neves H. C. Pais M. S. Production of indole-3-ethanol and indole-3-acetic acid by the mycorrhizal fungus of Ophrys lutea (Orchidaceae). New Phytologist, 1986 103Nº 4 (December 1986), 745 749 1469-8137
Benedetto A. Magurno F. Bonfante P. Lanfranco L. Expression profiles of a phosphate transporter gene (GmosPT) from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. Mycorrhiza, 2005 15Nº 8 (December 2005), 620 627 0940-6360
Berta G. Trotta A. Fusconi A. Hooker J. E. Munro M. Atkinson P. Giovannetti M. Morini S. Fortuna P. Tisseranti B. Gianinazzi-Pearson V. Gianinazzi S. Arbuscular mycorrhizal induced changes to plant growth and root system morphology in Prunus cerasifera. Tree Physiology, 1995 15Nº 5 (May 1995), 281 293 0082-9318X
Bressan W. Vasconcellos C. A. Alterações morfológicas no sistema radicular do milho induzidas por fungos micorrízicos e fósforo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 2002 37Nº 4 (Abril 2002), 509 517 0010-0204X
Cooper K.M. 1984Physiology of VA Mycorrhizae associations. In: VA Mycorrhiza. Powel CL, Bagyaraj J (eds), 155 186CRC, 0-84935-694-6Raton, USA
Costa C. G. Callado C. H. Coradin V. T. R. Carmello-Guerreiro S. M. 2003Xilema. In: Anatomia Vegetal, Appezzato-da-Glória B., Carmello-Guerreiro S.M. (eds), 129 154UFV, 8-57269-240-1Brasil
Dodd J. C. The role of arbuscular mycorrizal fungi in agro- and natural ecosystems. Outlook on Agriculture, 2000 29Nº 1 (March 2000), 55 62 0030-7270
Duncan D. B. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 1955 11Nº 1 (March 1955), 1 42 1947-2006
Eissenstat D. M. Wells C. E. Yanai R. D. Whitbeck V. L. Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytologist, Cambridge, 2000 147Nº 1 (July 2000), 33 42 1469-8137
Hirsch A. M. Fang Y. Asad S. Kapulnik Y. The role of phytohormones in plant-microbe symbioses. Plant and soil, 1997 194Nº 2 (January 1997), 171 184 0003-2079X
Hodge A. Robinson D. Fitter A. H. An arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum enhances root proliferation in, but not nitrogen capture from, nutrient-rich patches in soil. New Phytologist, Cambridge, 2000 147Nº 3 (September 2000), 575 584 1469-8137
Johansen D.A. 1940Plant microtechnique. McGraw-Hill, 007592York, USA
Kothari B. K. Maschner H. George E. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms on root and shoot morphology, growth and water-relations in maize. New Phytologist, 1990 116Nº 2 (October 1990), 303 311 1469-8137
Marschner H. 1995Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, 978-0-12473-541-5San Diego, USA
Mazzoni-Viveiros S. C. Trufem S. F. B. Efeitos da poluição aérea e edáfica no sistema radicular de Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae) em área de mata Atlântica: associações micorrízicas e morfologia. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 2004 27Nº 2 (Abril/ Junho 2004), 337 348 0100-8404
Minhoni M. T. A. Auler P. A. M. Efeito do fósforo, fumigação do substrato e fungo micorrízico arbuscular sobre o crescimento de plantas de mamoeiro. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 2003 27Nº 5 (Outubro 2003), 841 847 0100-0683
Moreira F. M. S. Siqueira J. O. 2002Microbiologia e bioquímica do solo. Editora UFLA, 858769233Lavras, Brasil
Nagy R. Karandashov V. Chague V. Kalinkevich K. Tamasloukht M. Xu G. Jakobsen I. Levy A. A. Amrhein N. Bucher M. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species. Plant Journal, 2005 42Nº 2 (April 2005), 236 250 0136-5313X
Norman J. R. Atkinson D. Hooker J. E. Arbuscular mycorrhizal-fungal-induced alteration to root architecture in strawberry and induced resistance to the pathogen Phytophthora fragariae. Plant and Soil, 1996 185Nº 2 (September 1996), 191 198 0003-2079X
Nunes M. S. Soares A. C. F. Soares Filho. W. S. Lêdo C. A. S. Colonização micorrízica natural de porta-enxertos de citros em campo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 2006 41Nº 3 (Março 2006), 525 528 0010-0204X
Ohtomo R. Saito M. Polyphosphate dynamics in mycorrhizal roots during colonization of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. New Phytologist, 2005 167Nº 2 (August 2005), 571 578 1469-8137
Panstruga R. Establishing compatibility between plants and obligate biotrophic pathogens. Current Opinions in Plant Biology, 2003 6Nº 4 (August 2003), 320 326 1369-5266
Paszkowski U. Mutualism and parasitism: the yin and yang of plant symbioses. Current Opinions in Plant Biology, 2006 9Nº 4 (August 2006), 364 370 1369-5266
Phillips J. M. Hayman D. S. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 1970 55Nº 1 (January 1970), 157 160 0000-0007
Priestley G. A. New method for the estimation of the resources of apple tress. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1965 16Nº 12 (December 1965), 717 721 1097-0010
Scatena V. L. Scremin-Dias E. 2003Parênquima, Colênquima e Esclerênquima. In: Anatomia Vegetal, Appezzato-da-Glória B., Carmello-Guerreiro S.M. (eds), 109 127UFV, 8-57269-240-1Brasil
Sena J. O. A. Labate C. A. Cardoso E. J. B. N. Caracterização fisiológica da redução de crescimento de mudas de citros micorrizadas em altas doses de fósforo. Revista Brasileira da Ciência do Solo, 2004 28Nº 5 (Setembro/ Outubro 2004), 827 832 0100-0683
Siqueira J. O. Lambais M. R. Stürmer S. L. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Biotecnologia, Ciência & Desenvolvimento, 2002 25Março/Abril 2002), 12 21 1414-4522
Silva L. M. S. Alquini Y. Cavallet V. J. Inter-relações entre a anatomia vegetal e a produção vegetal. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 2005 19Nº 1 (Janeiro/ Março 2005), 183 194 0102-3306
Souza F. A. Trufem S. F. B. Almeida D. L. Silva E. M. R. Guerra J. G. M. Efeito de pré-cultivos sobre o potencial de inoculo de Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares e produção de mandioca. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 1999 34Nº 10 (Outubro 1999), 1913 1923 0010-0204X
Souza P. V. D. Agustí M. Abad M. Almela V. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e morfologia radicular de Citrange Carrizo afetado por ácido indolbutírico e micorrizas arbusculares. Ciência Rural, 2000 30Nº 2 (Março/Abril 2000), 249 255 0103-8478
Souza P.V.D. Interação entre micorrizas arbusculares e ácido giberélico no desenvolvimento vegetativo de plantas de Citrange Carrizo. Ciência Rural, 2000 30Nº 5 (Setembro /Outubro 2000), 783 787 0103-8478
Souza P. V. D. Carniel E. Schimitz J. A. K. Silveira S. V. Influência de substratos e fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata, var. monstruosa Swing.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 2005 27Nº 2 (Agosto 2005), 285 287 0100-2945
Smith S. E. smith F. A. Jakobsen I. Mycorrhizal fungi can dominate phosphate supply to plants irrespective of growth responses. Plant Physiology, 2003 133Nº 2 (October 2003), 16 20 0032-0889
Sylvia D. M. Chellemi D. O. Interations among root-inhabiting fungi and their implications for biological control of root pathogens. Advances in Agronomy, 2001 73Nº 1 (April 2001), 1 33 978-0-12000-773-8
Tedesco M. J. Gianello C. Bissani C. A. Bohnen H. Volkweiss S. J. 1995Análises de solo, plantas e outros materiais (Boletim Técnico, 5), UFRGS/Departamento de solos, 000148837Alegre, Brasil
Theodoro V. C. A. Alvarenga M. I. N. Guimarães J. Mourão Junior. M. Carbono da biomassa microbiana e micorriza em solo sob mata nativa e agroecossistemas cafeeiros. Acta Scientiarum: Agronomy, 2003 25Nº 1 (Maio 2003), 147 153 1679-9275
Tobar R. Azcón R. Barea J. M. Inproved nitrogen uptake and transport from 15N-labelled nitrate by external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhiza under water stressed condictions. New Phytologist, 1994 126Nº 1 (January 1994), 119 122 1469-8137
Tokeshi H. Doenças e pragas agrícolas geradas e multiplicadas pelos agrotóxicos. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 2000 25Janeiro 2000), 264 270 0100-4158
Changes in the risk of fine-root mortality with age: a case study in peach, Prunus persica (Rosaceae). American Journal of Botany, Wells C. E. Glenn D. M. Eissenstat D. M. 89Nº 1 (January 2002 79 87 0002-9122
Wilcox H. E. 2002Mycorrhizae. In: Plants roots, Waisel, Y., Eshel, A., Kafkafi, U. (eds), Marcel Dekker, 0-82470-631-5York, USA