The closely related soybean species,
The plant is used as pasture for grazing, hay, and silage (Cook et al., 2005). However, Viswanathan et al., 2001 indicated that
Anthocyanins are chemicals responsible for natural plant colors found in leaves, stems, and flowers. An anthocyanin meter with a 520 nm LED has been used to measure the absorbance near the wavelength at which free anthocyanin aglycones, cyanidin and pelargonidin monogluscosides absorb (Macz-Pop et al., 2004). Several studies have shown potential health benefits of anthocyanins in humans. Chokeberry (
Isofalvones have been associated with reducing sheep fertility (Waghorn and McNabb, 2003). The isoflavone, genistein is a secondary metabolite found in many legumes including
2. Materials and methods
2.2. Anthocyanin indexes
An Opti-Sciences CCM-200 chlorophyll content meter was converted to a hand-held anthocyanin meter. The manufacturer replaced the 655 nm light emitting diode (LED) of the CCM with a 520 nm LED to measure the absorbance near the wavelength at which free anthocyanin aglycones, cyanidin and pelargonidin monogluscosides absorb (Macz-Pop et al., 2004). Anthocyanin indexes were determined by inserting each leaflet between the meter and the LED diode, followed by gently pressing the LED directly on to the leaflet and recording from each of three leaflets of 15
|224980 (cultivar-Tropic Verde)||Zimbabwe|
As plants matured in the greenhouse, most leaflets were pre-disposed to senescence and only 7
Phenotype, anthocyanin index, and isoflavonoid data were subjected to an analysis of variance using SAS (SAS Institute, 2008). Mean separations were conducted using Duncan’s multiple range test (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and correlations were accomplished using Pearson’s correlation in SAS (SAS Institute, 2008). Principal component analysis using PROC PRINCOMP (SAS Institute, 2008) were then used for multivariate analysis of the data. Eigenvalues, the percentage of variances explained by each principal component, and eigenvectors were also determined. Clustering was then performed on the data by entering the similarity matrix into PROC CLUSTER for cluster analysis with the unweighted paired group method using mathematical averages (UPGMA) by specifying the AVERAGE option (SAS Institue, 2008).
3. Results and discussion
Significant variability for morphological, plant maturity, and seed number characteristics observed among 14
3.2. Anthocyanin index, leaf weight, and genistein
Significant variation for leaf anthocyanin indexes among 15 diverse
3.3. Principal component analysis
Phenotypic, maturity, and seed number principal component analysis accounted for 44% of the total variation at the first principal component (Table 5). The amount of variation accounted for, cumulatively, by adding principal components 2 through 4 was 75, 88, and 96%, respectively. The first principal component was most correlated with plant width and maturity (Table 6). The second principal component accounted for 31% of the variation and was mostly due to branching and foliage while the third principal component explained 13% of the variation and was composed of primarily plant height. The fourth principal component accounted for 8% of the variation and was most correlated with seed number. Therefore, potential exists to develop cultivars with improved architecture, early or late maturity, and high or low seed yield. Anthocyanin index, leaflet weight, and genistein accounted for 63% of the total variation at the first principal component (Table 7). The cumulative amount of variation for components 2 through 3 was 98 and 100%, respectively. The first and second principal components were mostly correlated with anthocyanin index and genistein, respectively, while the third principal component correlated with both anthocyanin index and leaflet weight (Table 8). Potential exists to develop
|Plant ht. (cm)||0.33||-0.16||0.88||0.27||-0.03||0.11|
|Plant width (cm)||0.54||0.06||-0.26||0.46||0.40||-0.49|
|Leaf wt. (g)²||0.62||0.47||-0.61|
4. Cluster analysis
Average distance cluster analysis grouped the original 14
Average distance cluster analysis grouped 7
These results show substantial variability for various phenotypic traits, maturity, seed reproduction, and genistein in these
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