Summary of some differences and similarities between
The discovery and study of the budding yeast
At the beginning Metchnikov's theory that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can prolong life was disputable and some researchers doubted it. For example, Cheplin and Rettger (1920) demonstrated that Metchnikov's strain, today called
Irrespectively of the assumed probiotic definition
While commercial application of
The publication of two successive patents in 1986 “Method for preventing or treating pseudo-membranous colitis”  and in 1987 “Method for the treatment of amoebiasis” , was probably the turning point. Thus, while in 1987 there were only 7 publication in 2011 there were already 822.
2. Systematic classification
Table 1. summarizes some results of the investigation on differences and similarities between
Taxonomy attempts to achieve two aims: first the classification that reflects the evolution and phylogenetic relationships and second the development of procedures enabling identification of individual species. Thus, independently of discussion on the systematic classification, very important issue concerns identification of species which affect human health.
|Higher optimal growth temperature (~37 °C)||Lower optimal growth temperature (~30 °C)|
|Higher resistance to low pH ||Lower resistance to low pH |
|The karyotypes of ||Typing RFLPs or PCR- (ex 5.8S rDNA) failed to distinguish |
|Do not use galactose ||Use galactose|
|Asporogenous in contrast to S. cerevisiae but may produce fertile hybrids with of ||Sporogenous|
|Lost all intact Ty1/2 elements .||Contains several Ty1/2 elements|
|Microsatellite typing shows genotypic differences |
|Trisomic for chromosome IX||There are stable strains with various ploidy|
3. Medical applications of
Several published medical studies have shown the efficacy and safety of
|Prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea||500-1000||During antibiotics with additional 3 days to 2 weeks after||Nothing|
|Prevention of Traveller’s diarrhea||250-1000||Duration of trip (3 weeks)||Nothing|
|Enteral nutrition-related diarrhea||2000||8-28 days||Nothing|
|1000||2 weeks||Standard triple therapy|
|Treatment of |
|1000||4 weeks||Vancomycin or metronidazole|
|Acute adult diarrhea||500 - 750||8-10 days||Nothing|
|Inflammatory bowel disease||750-1000||7 weeks to 6 months||Mesalamine|
|Irritable bowel syndrome||500||4 weeks||Nothing|
|HIV-related diarrhea||3000||7 days||Nothing|
inactivation of bacterial toxins,
cell restitution and maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity.
This enumeration is somehow artificial because one factor may play multiple roles and various processes may act synergistically.
Some of the released compounds are
The endoluminal secretion of various compounds by yeast
The secretion of polyamines triggering transduction trophic signals and resulting in enhanced synthesis of brush border membrane proteins (enzymes and carriers).
Clinical studies have shown that oral administration of
Another mechanism mutually related to inflammation and synergistically acting with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect  is
Bacterial infections leading to inflammatory bowel diseases results in intestinal epithelial cell damage. Thus, remission of these diseases requires both the cessation of inflammation and the
4. Effect of
Sb on the virulence factors of Candida albicans
While there is quickly increasing information on the influence of
It has been shown that both live
It is clear that
5. Conclusions and future perspectives
A century after publication of the Metchnikov's theory there is no more doubt concerning potential positive influence of selected strains of living microorganisms in the ingested food on human health. Nevertheless, the discussion has been even more turbulent and the topic is “hot”, as seen from increasing number of scientific publications. In contrast to most of the registered drugs which are single, pure compounds,
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