## 1. Introduction

Augmented Reality (AR) renders virtual information onto objects in the real world. This new user interface paradigm presents a seamless blend of the virtual and real, where the convergence of the two is difficult to discern. However, errors in the registration of the real and virtual worlds are common and often destroy the AR illusion. To achieve accurate and efficient registration, the pose of real objects must be resolved in a quick and precise manner.

An augmented world is presented to a user through an interface such as a head mounted display or tablet computer. To achieve the AR illusion, the relationship between the viewing interface and the anchor on which to render information in freespace (the real 3D environment) must be found. This calculation of pose (position and orientation relative to the user) enables the world coordinates of the virtual content to be translated to match the real world coordinates of the render anchor so that the virtual content can be aligned or * registered*into reality. The term ‘registration’ refers to the precise alignment of one or several virtual coordinate system(s) to real world entities.

Vision sensors offer a passive, detailed, non-invasive and low cost method for establishing a pose estimate for AR applications (Lepetit & Fua, 2005). Two common vision based approach’s are:

Egomotion, and

Recognition

Egomotion establishes the 3D motion of a camera in freespace by monitoring visual flow or tracking salient but uncorrelated features in a scene frame by frame. Conversely, recognition estimates the pose of specific entities based on locally related and known features. Egomotion is a scene-based technique used to localise the pose of a camera from an arbitrary initial point, where as recognition detects and tracks local coordinate systems of independent, known entities relative to a current perspective. Egomotion-based systems only allow information to appear in user specified regions, with no synchronicity with objects in the real world. Through recognition, a system can perceive specific entities in an environment, and seamlessly augment information that directly corresponds to those entities. When a system knows what it is looking at, it can deliver contextual information to a user.

Pre-learnt information is termed * a priori*knowledge and can assist a vision system to recognise object in freespace. A priori knowledge is assumed to be an accurate representation of the object, requiring no validation or justification by further experience. Imparting a computer system with a priori knowledge requires some anterior experience with the object. Typically, an offline learning stage is used to sample information from an object, which is stored in a database as a true representation of the object. When a recognition system runs online, the current data it is sampling from the world is referenced back to this database to see whether the object exists in the current environment. If recognised, the pose of that object can be determined through further processing. The accuracy of the pose estimate directly corresponds to the quality of registration attainable.

Generating a priori data for this purpose requires some careful considerations as to the type of information present in the dataset. Characterising an object with naturally occurring local features produces a distinct object representation. This form is generally considered (Lepetit & Fua, 2005) to be a robust method of classifying and recognising multiple objects with a vision sensor. (Rothganger et al., 2003) note that building this type data from multiple views offers a more complete and robust data set than a representation built from any single view.

View clustering was introduced by (Lowe, 2001) to create a complete object representation by blending a set of training images captured from different locations around a view sphere. Lowe grouped similar images by the quality of the feature matches between the images. Similar to Lowe’s view clustering methodology, (Schaffalitzky & Zisserman, 2002) spatially organised multiple unordered views of a scene into clusters based on the similarity between the views. Using the ‘now standard’ wide baseline stereo approach, invariant descriptors were matched between images using a binary space partition tree. After filtering for outliers and incorrect matches, a greedy algorithm was used to join the subset of images together into a complete model.

(Gordon & Lowe, 2006) built upon Schaffalitzky and Zisserman’s framework, to generate a ‘metrically accurate 3D model of an object and all its feature`e locations’. The model was built by matching highly descriptive SIFT features (Lowe, 2004) between multiple views in an unordered image set. The greedy algorithm of (Schaffalitzky & Zisserman, 2002) was used to construct a spanning tree to cluster similar views together. Multiple 2D feature correspondences were found by traversing this tree. From those matches, they recovered the projective parameters between views and estimated the 3D locations of the 2D features.

Monocular wide baseline stereo techniques such as (Gordon & Lowe, 2006) and (Schaffalitzky & Zisserman, 2002) can offer more spatial information than any single view systems, however these algorithms have to compensate for a high risk of viewpoint related occlusions and less accurate interest point localisation (Bay, 2006). A short baseline stereo system simplifies the correspondence problem considerably and has few viewpoint related occlusions meaning that they have the potential to deliver a denser feature match set. Segmenting features based on their relative depth also allow a short baseline system to be robust against incorrect foreground/background matches.

This chapter investigates the generation of a priori data. In the proposed methodology, detailed features of an object are first matched between multiple short-baseline stereo pairs to produce dense depth maps. Several stereo pairs are then fused together to form a single model representation of an object, producing a dense model with higher resolution than it’s wide baseline counterparts termed the * Sparse Feature Model*(SFM).

## 2. A priori data and the sparse feature model

We classify

This chapter introduces a methodology to generate * a priori*data in the form of a Sparse Feature Model (SFM). A SFM is a concise representation of an object, where each point in model represents the 3D location of a highly descriptive 2D image features. To construct this model, an object

*and*L

*represent left and right images, and*R

*is the i-th view of the*i

*-th object. Correspondence between features in*k

If the multi-view merging process is shown by

Where

Note that the merging operator

### 2.1. Assumptions

There are

## 3. Short baseline stereo imaging

From Figure 2, the first step of our methodology is to use a short baseline stereo camera system to synchronously capture two images, left and right, from slightly different perspectives. Figure 3 shows the stereo capturing system that is used in this study.

### 3.1. Camera calibration

The calibration of two pinhole type cameras in a fixed baseline stereo arrangement as in Figure 3 is a common procedure. There are many freely available toolkits, including the camera calibration toolbox for Matlab (Bouguet, 2010) and calibration routines in OpenCV (Vezhnevets et al., 2011). We assume that the stereo cameras used in the imaging device are pre-calibrated and that the intrinsic and extrinsic matrices are known. For more information on stereo calibration, see (Hartley and Zisserman, 2003). The camera calibration parameters for the stereo rig in Figure 3 are listed in Table 1. The stereo rig was calibrated using Jean-Yves Bouguet Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab (Bouguet, 2010).

#### 3.1.1. Extrinsic parameters (Bouguet, 2010)

Om relates to a rotation R of the left camera relative to the right by the Rodrigues’ formula R = Rodrigues(om).

T is the translation of the right camera with respect to the left, signifying that the camera centre of the right camera is situated 68mm away from the left.

#### 3.1.2. Intrinsic parameters (Bouguet, 2010)

Focal Length (L and R) are the focal lengths of each camera

Principle Point (L and R) are the 2D image coordinates of the camera centres.

α (L and R) is the angle of skew of a pixel. In this case the pixels of the cameras were estimated to be perfectly square.

The 5x1 distortions vector holds the coefficients for the radial and tangential distortions of the camera lenses.

Om | [0.0045 ; 0.0066 ; 0.0006] |

T | [68.0796 ; 0.0041 ; -0.0003] |

Focal Length L | [1901.4 ; 1901.8] |

Focal Length R | [1893.0 ; 1894.2] |

Principle Point L | [811.3492 ; 611.1065] |

Principle Point R | [805.1364 ; 649.4665] |

α L (pixel skew) | 0 |

α R (pixel skew) | 0 |

Image Distortions L | [-0.1168 ; 0.3025 ; 0 ; 0 ; 0] |

Image Distortions R | [-0.1106 ; 0.1934 ; 0 ; 0 ; 0] |

### 3.2. Two-view geometry

The mathematical nature of multiple-view computer vision is a mature topic of research (Faugeras, 1993; Faugeras & Luong, 2001; Hartley and Zisserman, 2003). The axioms of two-view geometry describe the intrinsic relationship between two images taken from slightly different perspective views of a 3D scene highlighted in Figure 4. In this figure, the left and right image planes are shown in a 3D coordinate system X,Y,Z. A 3D interest point of

where

## 4. Feature extraction

Once a stereo pair has been captured, the next stage of the block diagram in Figure 2 is to perform feature extraction. There are various considerations when selecting a suitable feature extraction method, including accuracy, distinctiveness and repeatability. The features should be robust to rotation, scaling, illumination and perspective distortion. To achieve a more discernable and repeatable feature, researchers have looked at ways of adding extra information after feature detection. A description stage constructs a high dimensional feature vector by sampling the pixel neighbourhood around a detected feature. If the vector is unique enough compared to the rest of the feature neighbourhoods, a descriptor is appended to the sampled feature. Substantially increasing the uniqueness of a detected feature with a descriptor returns a higher likelihood of a positive match during correspondence, however at a cost of time through the extra processing.

One such detector and descriptor scheme is Speeded Up Robust Features (Bay et al., 2008) or SURF for short. SURF has demonstrated remarkable repeatability, distinctiveness, robustness and efficiency when compared (Bay et al., 2008; Cattin et al., 2006) to other such features types like SIFT (Lowe, 2004). Though SIFT was the forbearer for descriptive feature matching, SURF leverages off short comings of SIFT to produce a more robust and efficient description algorithm. For these reasons, SURF has been chosen as the feature extraction method in this work.

SURF uses a Hessian matrix based detector to find blob like textures in an image, and a distribution based descriptor to construct high dimensional vectors around detected interest points. The SURF descriptor is explained in (Bay et al., 2008), and is summarised in the following sections.

### 4.1. SURF’s Hessian matrix based detector

#### 4.1.1. Integral images

The fast computation time of SURF interest points is largely contributed to the use of integral images. The intensity calculations for the box type convolution filters used in SURF are easily calculated once an integral image has been computed. An integral image

The value of any pixel in the integral image

#### 4.1.2. Hessian matrix

SURF detects blob-like structures at locations and scales where the determinate of the Hessian matrix is maximum (Bay et al., 2008). Given a point

where

These functions are convolved with integral images to produce

The SURF uses an approximate for the second order Gaussian functions, denoted by

The approximation of second order Gaussian functions over the integral image using box filters allows computing the hessian matrix at very low computation cost. The approximation for the Hessian matrix

where

The relative weight of the filter responses is used to balance the expression for the Hessian's determinant. This is needed for the energy conservation between the Gaussian kernels and the approximated Gaussian kernels. It has been shown in that the appropriate value for the relative weight is 0.912 (Bay et al., 2008), therefore

The above determinant of the approximated Hessian represents the blob response in the image at location

### 4.2. SURF’s distribution based descriptor

#### 4.2.1. Orientation assignment

The description stage in SURF samples the pixel neighbourhood surrounding a detected feature to create a high dimensional vector. This vector greatly increases the uniqueness associated with detected features, and allows like features to be filtered out of the final data set. To assign a descriptor to a blob feature, the Haar wavelet responses in the x and y directions within a circular neighbourhood of radius 6s around the interest point

The wavelet responses are weighted by a second order Gaussian with

#### 4.2.2. Generation of the SURF descriptor

To build a 64 dimensional SURF descriptor, a quadratic grid with 4x4 square sub-regions is laid over the interest point. The quadratic grid is aligned to the orientation estimate calculated in the previous section. Each square of the quadratic grid is further divided into 2x2 sub-divisions, as shown in Figure 9, where the sub region squares and sub division squares are indicated.

For each sub-division, the x,y response of the Haar wavelet filters are calculated to obtain a vector located at the centre of each square. The horizontal and vertical components of these vectors in the coordinate system of the quadratic grid are depicted as

These four values represent the actual fields in the SURF descriptor for one sub-region. With 16 sub-regions of the quadratic grid there will be 64 individual values for the SURF descriptor for any sampled interest point.

## 5. Generation of 2.5D views

Data from any single view of a three-dimensional object is not representative of the object as a whole (Rothganger et al., 2003). This is a consequence of self-occlusion, where the object’s geometry inherently obstructs information from a single perspective. Due to occlusion, we term the 3D data obtained from a single stereo pair as a 2.5D representation (or view). To construct a 2.5D view, features are extracted from the stereo pair, matched between each image and then triangulated to localise their position in 3D space.

### 5.1. Generation of a feature set for single images

For each i-th stereo pair, the SURF algorithm is used generate feature sets * L*) and right (

*) images. As mentioned in the SURF overview section, each salient feature in any of the left and right images is assigned a 64 dimensional descriptor. We use the SURF algorithm in Matlab 2012b. An example of SURF feature extraction for one stereo pair is shown in Figure 10 for a textured cube structure. The left and right images have been concatenated into a single figure and coloured accordingly. The position of the extracted features in the left and right images are indicated with a circle and plus marks respectively.*R

### 5.2. Feature correspondence

After extracting features for each of the left and right images, the feature correspondence block of Figure 2 finds feature matches between each image of the stereo pair. There are different methods to calculate correspondence, however as mentioned previously matching high dimensional data like the SURF descriptor is time consuming. The previously established methods for correspondence of simple feature do not perform efficiently for high dimensional data.

Linear methods try to establish the best match for each feature, for example, in the left image with all features in the right. For a small number of simple features, linear methods will return the best answer, however they become extremely time consuming when dealing with large amounts of features (Gordon & Lowe, 2006), especially if the matching stage has to deal with large vectors. More advanced binary search structures like * k*-d trees and variants (Beis & Lowe, 1997; Gordon & Lowe, 2006) allow searches in large data sets to be implemented with great efficiency for simple features. These structures often have trouble dealing with high dimensional data, potentially deteriorating to a time cost equivalent to a liner method.

Approximate nearest neighbour searches can run significantly faster for high dimensional vectors than linear and nearest neighbour methods. Muja and Lowe’s (Muja & Lowe, 2009) Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbour matching (FLANN) has been designed to automatically select either a hierarchal k-means structure or a randomise kd-tree with optimal parameter based on the input data. Although FLANN can return matches for large data sets many orders of magnitude faster than a linear search, the matches are less than optimal. This library is ideal for real time feature matching of many high dimensional features, however this benefit is not critical in the execution of this methodology. Finding the highest number of optimal matches is important; hence we implement a linear search with some modifications.

A useful product of the SURF feature detection stage is the trace of the Hessian matrix (sign of the Laplacian). This is calculated automatically during the detection phase. It distinguishes light blogs on dark backgrounds and vice-versa. During correspondence, we first check if the signs of the traces of the Hessian matrices match for the pair of features being compared, which can significantly reduce the time it takes for correspondence. This is a unique feature of the SURF detector; an advantage that the SIFT feature descriptor (Lowe, 2004) does not have. In addition to this check, we enforce a best to second best threshold to ensure that a current match is somewhat better than the previous estimated match.

For the i-th matched pair of features

where

We performed feature matching on the stereo pairs and the result of the matched descriptors for a sample pair is indicated in Figure 10. The correspondence for each matched pair is shown with a horizontal blue line.

### 5.3. Triangulation

Triangulation localises a point in 3D space by analysing its 2D projections in a stereo pair (see Figure 4). The projection points for an interest point

The triangulation of sparse salient 2D image features is a little bit different from general dense disparity estimation in stereo image processing. Following the same rules, the sparse triangulation procedure should estimate the depth of matched points that have been localised with sub pixel accuracy. This can be achieved by merging equations (3) and (4) in a homogenous equation of

The expansion of cross products in equations 11 and 12 will result to

where the first two rows of

The non-zero solution of the equation

Finally the unscaled 3D position of the corresponding points of

### 5.4. Constructing all 2.5D perspective views

Applying the triangulation procedure from equations 13-15 for any corresponding pair in a feature set

Clearly, the structure of the cube has been reconstructed in Figure 11. However, the variation of the apparent distribution points can be attributed to the SURF point detection scheme. SURF detects blob like structures that have a certain width and height. Therefore, the resultant perspective distortion from the angle at which the faces were imaged distorts the blobs, shifting the centroid for each point. Errors in camera calibration and the triangulation routines can also contribute to these variations. We chose this image set as an example of an extreme 2.5D generation scenario, due to the angle of the object being sampled. On faces with shallower angles compared to the image plane, this method produces 2.5D views with lower variations in depth estimates.

## 6. 2.5D-view registration

Once a series of * i*2.5D perspective views

### 6.1. 3D Point correspondence

Identical to the correspondence problem in section 5.2, the goal is to find which points in two overlapping 2.5D perspective views match each other. We define one 2.5D cloud the model

The same linear correspondence technique in section 5.2 is used to find SURF features in the model feature set

### 6.2. Registration

Registration is an iterative procedure that merges the points of the data (

where R is a 3x3 rotation matrix, t is a translation vector.

We can estimate the optimal rigid transformation parameters

We explicitly minimise equation 6 using the singular value decomposition (SVD) approach in (Eggert et al., 1997).

### 6.3. Registration result

Figure 12 below shows the final output of the registration methodology explained in section 5. This cloud has been generated from eighteen 2.5D perspective views from the sampled object shown in the top right corner. One such perspective was shown in Figure 11, generated from the stereo pair shown in Figure 10.

## 7. Conclusion

This chapter examined the generation of a priori data for freeform objects using multiple stereo views and 3D point registration. By unifying features from multiple short base line stereo pairs, a compact yet highly descriptive cloud termed the * sparse feature model*was developed. A sparse feature model can help estimate the position and orientation of an object in freespace quickly and accurately, and is useful for augmented reality.

The triangulation of descriptive 2D features in multiple stereo pairs was performed to produce multiple 2.5D perspective views of an object. Each 2.5D view was then merged into a single 3D cloud using 3D-to-3D point matching and registration. Every point in the final cloud represents the precise 3D position of highly descriptive 2D image features in a unified coordinate system. The generated sparse feature model contains robust and repeatable features, invariant to rotation, scaling, and illumination. As it was built from multiple perspectives, the SFM represents a sparse yet complete 3D representation of the object.

In future work, we will apply this methodology to generate a database for different objects of interest. This database will then be used for a pose estimation system via recognition in an augmented reality application.