The calculated logarithm of calculated Octanol-Water partitioning coefficients (
The bladder wall is coated with various mannosylated proteins which interfere with the binding of bacteria to the uroepithelium. As binding is an important factor in establishing pathogenicity for these organisms, its disruption results in reduced capacity for invasion of the tissues. Moreover, the unbound bacteria are more easily removed when voiding. The use of urinary catheters (or other physical trauma) may physically disturb this protective lining, thereby allowing bacteria to invade the exposed epithelium.Over ninety percent of all UTIs are ascending and starting with colonization of periuretheral area. The most common organism implicated in Urinary tract infections UTIs (80–85%) is
Bacteruria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. There are no signs in asymptomatic Bacteruria but bacteria are isolated; in these cases treatment is necessary for pregnant women and patients who have instrument in genitourinary tract. Therefore, infection is defined by clinical parameters and special situations, no by identification of microbe solely. In complicated or questionable cases, confirmation via urinalysis, looking for the presence of nitrites, leukocytes, or leukocyte esterase, or via urine microscopy, looking for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, and bacteria, may be useful. Urine culture shows a quantitative count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units (CFU) per mL of a typical urinary tract organism along with antibiotic sensitivity is useful to select appropriate antibiotic. On the whole, diagnosis is based on symptoms and urine culture.
Accurately, estimate of its incidence is difficult because many cases have not been reported. According to the 1997 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, urinary tract infection accounted for nearly 7 million office visits and 1 million emergency department visits, resulting in 100,000 hospitalizations.[1,3] The other investigate reported over 1.7 million emergency department visits and more than 8.8 million office visits between 1999 and 2000.
UTIs are frequently seen among women than men. Assessments show 50 percent of all women have an episode of UTI during their lifetime. Others are at risk for UTIs due to elderly, pregnancy, catheters, genitourinary tract abnormalities, underlying diseases (i.e. diabetes), renal stones and so on. Uncomplicated UTIs occur in young women in sexually active age, but complicated UTIs occur in individuals who have one or more structural abnormalities in genitourinary tract or have catheters indwelling..[1,4] Some of agents (abnormalities in urinary tract, renal stones, diabetes, genetic factors like receptors for bacterial pili, spinal cord injuries and etc.) which promote women for UTIs, also are common in men, and could add prostatitis and spermicides agents as other promoting factors in men. Albeit, the incidence of UTIs in men <65 year old is very low; but incidence of UTIs in men older than 65 increases dramatically, as UTIs ratio in female-to- male declines.[ 1]
Pediatrics UTIs create great morbidity and long standing problems, including impaired renal function and hypertension. Bacteria have been seen in approximately 1% of all babies’ and more in boys’ bladder, and bacteremia often is present. Risk of UTIs in non-circumcised males younger than 6 months is 12 times more than circumcised control group. According to statistics from 1990, the prevalence of urinary tract infections in pre-school and school girls was 1% to 3%, nearly 30-fold higher than that in boys.[1,4] Also, the statistics from the same year show that approximately 5% of girls will develop at least one urinary tract infection in their school years. Children with recurrent UTIs may be treated with preventative antibiotics that decrease the rate of microbiological recurrence but not symptomatic recurrence.[1,5] These infections are often asymptomatic and it can be cause of most renal damages.
In North America, Native Americans were the first to use cranberries as food. Native Americans used cranberries in a variety of foods, especially for pemmican, wound medicine and dye. Calling the red berries Sassamanash, natives may have introduced cranberries to starving English settlers in Massachusetts who incorporated the berries into traditional Thanksgiving feasts. In the 1820s cranberries were shipped to Europe.[6,7] Cranberries became popular for wild harvesting in the Nordic countries and Russia. In Scotland, the berries were originally wild-harvested but with the loss of suitable habitat, the plants have become so scarce that this is no longer done. Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the genus
Historically, cranberry beds were constructed in wetlands. Currently cranberry beds are constructed in upland areas that have a shallow water table. The topsoil is scraped off to form dykes around the bed perimeter. Clean sand is hauled in to a depth of four to eight inches. The surface is laser leveled flat to provide even drainage. Beds are frequently drained with socked tile in addition to the perimeter ditch. In addition to making it possible to hold water, the dykes allow equipment to service the beds without driving on the vines. Irrigation equipment is installed in the bed to provide irrigation for vine growth and for spring and autumn frost protection.
Cranberries are related to bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all in
2. Urinary tract infections (UTI)
UTIs are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Any part of the urinary tract can become infected, but bladder and urethra infections are the most common. Women are especially prone to UTIs for reasons that are not yet well understood. One woman in five develops a UTI during her lifetime. A UTI is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. The main causal agent is
3. Chemistry of cranberry
The chemical compositions of the different genius of
Cranberry juice contains a chemical component, a high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), as noted above, that is able to inhibit and even reverse the formation of plaque by
The main chemical compositions that extracted from
In 2004, two species,
In 2006, the chemical composition of the
Some of the physicochemical properties, like the logarithm of calculated Octanol-Water partitioning coefficients (
The octanol-water partition coefficient (
Biodegradation is usually quantified by incubating a chemical compound in presence of a degrader, and measuring some factors like oxygen or production of CO2. The biodegradation studies demonstrate that microbial biosensors are a viable alternative means of reporting on potential biotransformation. However, a few chemicals are tested and large data sets for different chemicals need for quantitative structural relationship studies.[9,39]
An LC50 value is the concentration of a material in air that will kill 50% of the test subjects (animals, typically mice or rats) when administered as a single exposure (typically 1 or 4 hours). Also called the median lethal concentration and lethal concentration 50, this value gives an idea of the relative acute toxicity of an inhalant material. Typical units for LC50 values are parts per million (ppm) of material in air, micrograms (10-6 = 0.000001 g) per liter of air and milligrams (10-3 = 0.001 gr) per cubic meter of air.[9,40]
In accordance with the calculated data of the components 1-21 in cranberries, by EPI-suit v4.00 package (see Table 1), hexadecanoic acid (6.962), sandaracopimaradiene, isopimaradiene (6.445), 2-pentadecanone (5.658),
5. Urinary tract infections (UTI) and cranberry
As discussed Cranberries have enormous medicinal value. These berries are not just good to eat; they also contain different kinds of chemicals that are nutritious. While the people in the 17th century and there about knew generally the basic medicinal values of cranberries (the East Europeans even believed it to have the ability to cure cancer), research today has discovered other medicinal benefits that we can derive from cranberries. Cranberries have been found to be effective in battling urinary tract inflammation, oral disease, as well as even heart ailments. Here we will see how cranberries help prevent Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). While different food products or plants work in different ways, cranberries have their own way of reducing the risk of illness in the human body.
|No.||Compounds in Cranberries||Calculated concerns|
(in mg/L or ppm)
(in mol/h ×10–5)
|2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 4-acetyl -2,3,5,5-pentamethyl||1.531||344.87||5.2|
|Acetic acid 1-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-6-enyl ester||3.023||22.52||5.8|
One of the biggest and most widely health benefits of eating cranberries, in whatever form, either as whole fruit or juice or cocktail, is that it helps prevent urinary tract infection (UTI). While this was what our elders passed on to us as traditional oral medicinal knowledge, it is now recognized as official medical fact.
Kidney stones are most often caused by high levels of ionized calcium (as in calcium salts) in the urine. Cranberries can help prevent this condition because they are rich in quinic acid, which increases the acidity of the urine. As a result, the levels of ionized calcium in the urine are lowered. The infection is basically caused by bacteria.[41, 42] The bacteria latch on to the surface or lining of the cells of different body parts. Once they are attached to the lining of the specific body part in question, they feed off the cells or the surface or the lining they are attached to, and increase their numbers by reproducing, and in the process cause infections. In the case of UTI, this process happens in the lining of the urinary tract.[41, 42] Initially, researchers went off-track when they figured that the cranberries’ ability to prevent UTI was because of its acidity. It has reported that cranberries prevent UTI by preventing the bacteria causing UTI from attaching itself to the surface of the urinary tract lining. Amy Howell published this discovery in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1998.[41-50] The research shows that cranberries are basically rich in proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are tannins, a type of organic chemical compound, that have been condensed. This is how it works. The proanthocyanidins have their own specific way of functioning – they are blockers that block the bacteria from attaching themselves to the surface of the lining of the specific body part in question. In the case of UTI, the proanthocyanidins prevent the bacteria from getting glued to the lining of the urinary tract.[42-50] The most common side effects associated with excessive cranberry consumption are diarrhea and an increased risk of developing kidney stones. Regular cranberry consumption by women trying to prevent UTIs may result in
In 1984 was surveyed the anti adhering of Cranberry on 77 strains of
6. Experimental section
In this study, were examined 61 isolated
The other plate contained Mueller-Hilton agar accompanied Cranberry 1% extraction. A certain number of bacterias (1.5x108 CFU/ml) based on 0.5 Macfarland scale was cultured on the media. After this stage, the antibiotic disks (Ciprofloxacin-1, Amikacin-2, Ampicillin-3, Tetracyclin, Co-trimoxazole, Nalidixic acid, Ceftazidime and Nitrofurantoin-4) were cultured. After 24 hours incubation in 37C was measured the zone around of the each disks and compared with standard schedule.[9,54]
6.1. Results and discussions
The results of the investigation were demonstrated in Table-1. The results were analyzed based on Ki test. The most susceptibility belonged to Amikacin-2 in frequency of the control group with 93.45%. The lowest frequency was 9.8% for Ampicillin-3. The other type of antibiotics the susceptibilities in control group were: Co-trimoxazol 39.34%, Ceftazidime 51%, Nalidixic acid 54.1%, Nitrofurantoin 62.3%, Tetracyclin 72.13% and Ciprofloxacin-1 73.8%. In test group, Nitrofurantoin-4 shows the most susceptibility (72.13%) and the lowest belongs to Ampicilline(18%). In addition, percentage of susceptibility for other antibiotics as Amikacin, Co-trimoxazole, Nalidix acid, Ceftazidime and Tetracyclin were: 28.87%, 34.42%, 52.48%, 55% and 70.5%, respectively. In accordance with the results, not only aqueous extract of Cranberry did not show any synergistic effect with any antibiotics, but also it showed sever antagonistic effect against Ciprofloxacine-1 and Amikacine-2 (P=0.00). See Table-2. However, in acidic pH Ampicillin-3 and Nitrofurantoin-4 had 10% increased in function, but in the whole statistical computation did not show any significant difference (see Table-2). Nitrofurantoin-4 shows better function in acidic pH. Ampicillin and Amoxicillin are resistant and absorbed much better in acidic pH. On the contrary, Co-trimoxazole is more effective in alkaline pH. In neutral or acidic media it is changed to crystal form and precipitate.[9,54] In spite of the fact that there are no significant statistical difference between two plates (test plate and control plate), It was found that antagonistic effect between Cranberry and two antibiotic disks i.e. Ciprofloxacin-1 and Amikacin-2 (P=0.00). The results show that use Cranberry with some antibiotics that explained here can diminish the medicinal effects of the antibiotics in UTIs treatments. The awareness about interfere and the suppression of the appropriate medicinal effect of antibiotics by
Some of the physicochemical properties like: the logarithm of calculated Octanol-Water partitioning coefficients (
|Antibiotics 1-4||Calculated concerns|
|Water Solubility at 25ºC|
(in mg/L or ppm)
(in mol/h ×10–5)
[35-40] See Table 3). In accordance with the calculated data of the antibiotics (ciprofloxacin-1, Amikacin-2, Ampicillin-3 and Nitrofurantoin-4), by EPI-suit v4.00 package (see Table 3), ampicillin-3 (1.4538) has the highest logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (
The chemical compositions of the different types of Craberry were investigated. It was determined that this type of medicinal herb was utilized for UTI treatments.
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