Open access peer-reviewed chapter

# State of the Art Treatment of Produced Water

By Rangarajan T. Duraisamy, Ali Heydari Beni and Amr Henni

Submitted: December 9th 2011Reviewed: September 17th 2012Published: January 16th 2013

DOI: 10.5772/53478

## 1. Introduction

#### 7.1.2. Veolia:OPUSTM – Optimized pre-treatment and separation technology

It is designed to treat sparingly soluble solutes (e.g., SiO2, CaSO4, and Mg(OH)2), organics, and boron. The raw produced water is acidified and degasified. It is followed by MultifloTM chemical softening, which is a series of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Decant from sedimentation is fed into packed-bed media filtration column. The microorganisms present would be removed by IX resin. Water is then pressurized and treated by BWRO (Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis) membrane at high pH. The entire process system could fit on a cargo trailer. Produced water recovery is estimated to be greater than 90%. [62, 29]

#### 7.1.3. Eco-sphere: OzonixTM

OzonixTM is primarily used for the treatment of frac flow-back water, but it could also be used for produced water treatment. The feed water is mixed with supersaturated ozonized water in a reaction vessel. The hydroxyl radicals, formed from ozone, readily oxidize metals, and decompose soluble and insoluble organic compounds and microorganisms. The reaction vessel had two electrodes to induce precipitation of hard salts. Water is then treated with activated carbon cartridge filter and a RO membrane. Water recovery approaches 75%.[29]

#### 7.1.4. GeoPure water technologies

The GeoPure desalination process is a combination of pre-treatment, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. This technology was developed for the treatment of oil and natural gas produced waters. Water recovery was reported to be 50%.[29]

### 7.2. Ion-Exchange (IX) based processes

#### 7.2.1. EMIT: Higgins Loop

EMIT Higgins Loop technology is widely used for CBM produced water treatment. The Higgins Loop is a continuous counter current ion exchange contactor for liquid phase separations of ionic components. The IX resin adsorbs sodium ions in exchange of hydrogen ions. Hence the pH of water is reduced which eventually reduces bicarbonate levels. The resin saturated with sodium ions are regenerated by 4.11 M HCl. Product water recovery typically exceeds 99%.[29]

#### 7.2.2. Drake: Continuous selective IX process

The Drake system is a three-phase, continuous fluidized bed system to remove monovalent cations. A strong acid cation exchange resin is used. Energy requirements are slightly less than that required for the EMIT Higgins Loop system. The maximum product water recovery is reported to be 97%.[29]

#### 7.2.3. Eco-Tech: Recoflo® compressed-bed IX process

The Eco-Tech compressed bed systems are an extension of conventional packed bed IX processes. One system has two separate compressed-bed columns for anion and cation removal. Another system has three separate compressed-bed columns that contain a primary cation bed and anion bed followed by a polishing cation bed. Recoflo® systems are primarily used for recovering metals from effluent electrolytes. These are more mobile than conventional and Higgins Loop processes. A system has been installed in Powder River Basin to treat 1.5 Mgd of CBM produced water. [62, 29]

#### 7.2.4. Catalyx Fluid Solutions/RGBL IX process

It was designed to minimize resin wastage during regeneration. The sodium and bicarbonate ions are removed by ion exchange chemical reaction.

Na++HCO3+ RH+RNa++ H2+ CO2E2

Waste minimization is done by the use of three tanks that are responsible for shuffling regenerating agent and rinse waters of various qualities during IX resin regeneration cycles.[29]

## 8. Conclusion

Produced water may be treated using different methods of operation.The criteria used to compare the technologies are in general, robustness, reliability, mobility, flexibility, modularity, cost, chemical and energy demand, and brine or residual disposal requirements.Many process and water quality specific factors should be taken into account when selecting a produced water treatment process. Temperature of the feed water may help determine which type of desalination treatment process should be employed since many technologies work more efficiently at high temperatures, while others use feed stream at low temperature. On the other hand if ion removal is necessary, it is important to consider the type of ions that need to be removed. Membrane processes most often remove divalent ions to a greater extent than monovalent ions, which may make the sodium adsorption ratio higher and render the water less suitable for beneficial use as irrigation water or surface discharge.[62] Membrane processes can treat produced water to meet many water quality requirements. Fouling is one of the major drawbacks of membranes which depends on permeate flux and its stability on time, but can be minimized by using hydrophobic membranes.

Modeling of permeate flux decline in crossflow filtration of oily wastewater is important from both the economical and technological points of view. Empirical models are the most accurate, but need experimentation and are not capable of making accurate predictions. Theoretical models are useful for the prediction of permeate flux under different operating conditions without the need for time-consuming experiments but there is no theoretical model that can accurately describe the crossflow filtration process. Therefore, it is required to work on the improvement of the theoretical models to make more accurate predictions and to better understand the fouling mechanisms.

Some pre-treatment methods should be utilized before membrane processes to increase the membrane life cycle. Different membrane units can be used as a polishing step. Each method has some advantages as well as some disadvantages and a combination of methods may be more useful for treatment of produced water to meet the different water quality requirements. Utilization of a certain type of process or combination of processes is highly dependent on the characteristics of the produced water.

Characteristics of produced water differ from well to well and the determination of the produced water characteristics is required. The design of a treatment process wholly based on the literature is not possible.Finally, the unpredictable and rapid onset of upsets in the produced water treatment process often results in unplanned maintenance and production losses.

Ceramic membranes may be a viable treatment technology for many produced water applications. Ceramic membranes will most likely be needed as a pre-treatment technology if desalination is required. While the capital cost of ceramic membrane is presently higher than polymeric, a ceramic membrane offers advantages over a polymeric membrane such as increased chemical, mechanical and thermal stability, and therefore higher lifespan and higher productivity.

International standards demand more efficient separation systems than those now in common use.More research and development is required in membrane development as, although many new products show promises, membrane filtration is still considered at the development stages. Effluent streams that once were treated as “waste” will then be considered a valuable “resource” but, unknown toxic effects and public acceptance are also important barriers for potable reuse of all wastewaters.

### Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial help in a form of two grants (equipments and operations) from Western Economic Diversification Canada, Entreprise Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Government) and the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC-Regina).

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Rangarajan T. Duraisamy, Ali Heydari Beni and Amr Henni (January 16th 2013). State of the Art Treatment of Produced Water, Water Treatment, Walid Elshorbagy and Rezaul Kabir Chowdhury, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/53478. Available from:

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