Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Fauna Diversity in Tropical Rainforest: Threats from Land-Use Change

By Mohamed Zakaria, Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar, Ibrahim Ozdemir and Zamri Rosli

Submitted: November 26th 2015Reviewed: July 19th 2016Published: November 9th 2016

DOI: 10.5772/64963

Downloaded: 1516

Abstract

Tropical rainforests are the cradle of life (perfect conditions for life) on Earth, i.e., rich in plant species composition (>250 plant species/hectare) and fauna diversity (>50% of animal species in the world). Rainforests occur near the Earth's equator and cover 6% of the Earth's surface across the tropical regions and are characterized by wet climate, i.e., heavy rainfall (125—660 cm), relative humidity (77—88%) and temperature (20—34°C). They are dominated by a wide range of broad-leaved trees that form dense canopy and the most complex ecosystem. Currently, the tropical rainforest ecosystem is changing faster than ever in human history due to anthropogenic activities, such as habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation for timber and conversion into agriculture fields (oil palm plantation), mining, fire, climate change, etc. The habitat loss and degradation had adversely influenced the distribution and richness of the fauna species. The current information on the fauna diversity of tropical rainforest is not sufficient and in the future, more research is required to document the various community parameters of the fauna species in order to conserve and protect them. For better future, conservation, and management, we must identify the major drivers of changes and how these factors alter the tropical rainforest.

Keywords

  • fauna
  • diversity
  • rainforest
  • landscape
  • vegetation

1. Introduction

Tropical rainforest usually occurs 10° north and south of the equator, where climate conditions are unique such as humid, warm, and wet. The monthly mean temperature is 18°C and the annual rainfall is not less than 168 cm. Tropical rainforest occurs in four main regions; Central and South America, Central and West Africa, Indo-Malaya and Australia [1]. They are storehouses of a range of food resources for a wide variety of fauna species as well as for human beings, raw material for buildings, and medicines [2, 3] and affect the climate [4, 5].

1.1. Ecological importance of tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are the most diverse in the vegetation structure and composition (Figure 1) that supported a diversity of fauna species such as birds, reptiles, mammals, amphibians, and invertebrates, which directly or indirectly depend on them for their survival and existence. They are rich in habitat diversity and provide a variety of resources for the avian species, such as food, habitat, and shelter [6]. Tropical rainforest is vital ecosystem, i.e., it provide crucial ecosystem services such as raw materials, reservoirs of biodiversity, soil protection, sources of timber, medicinal plants, carbon sequestration, and watershed protection [79].

Figure 1.

Aesthetic view of tropical rainforest.

1.2. Threats to tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforest covers less than 10% of the land area of the Earth, representing the largest biological diversity reservoir, i.e., >50% of known plant species grow in tropical rainforest. Despite being rich in fauna diversity, every year, huge areas of tropical rainforests are being lost and degraded due to human interference [1015]. It has been stated that 25–50% of the world's tropical rainforest has been lost and degraded due to the land-use change such as deforestation for palm oil plantations, agriculture expansion, cattle ranches, mining, and development of housing societies [1619], while the rest of the rainforest areas is under a major shift in the dynamic structure and productivity.

It has been reported that Southeast Asia had the highest rate of land-use change (such as deforestation of tropical rainforest for conversion into oil palm plantation, commercial logging for timber and development of human settlement) as compared to other regions [12, 2022]. Deforestation and fragmentation due to agriculture expansion, human settlement, logging, and fire had altered the plant species composition, richness, and diversity [2326]. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species, and climate change are the major factors due to which the biodiversity of tropical forest had declined at an alarming rate. For example, some of the fauna species became extinct, while others became threatened and vulnerable due to habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation.

Changes in the vegetation structure and composition due to deforestation and fragmentation may alter the habitat suitability and food productivity. Habitat suitability, i.e., vegetation structure, species composition, species richness, canopy layers, and food productivity are key drivers, which predominantly influence fauna community parameters such as species composition, relative abundance, species richness, species diversity, and the density of tropical rainforest. Furthermore, it has been stated that the deforestation in humid tropic may be in the range of 4.95.7 million ha/year. Likewise, each year, 2.3 million ha of humid forests had been degraded due to logging and fire activities. Similarly, around 2.2 million ha/year tropical moist deciduous and 0.7 million ha/year tropical dry forest has been deforested due to anthropogenic activities [27].

Deforestation may cause habitat loss and fragmentation that adversely affect the population and the community parameters such as species composition, relative abundance, species richness, species diversity, and density of different wildlife species [2830]. However, the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on the wildlife species may vary depending on remaining vegetation and the surrounded landscape [31, 32].

Land-use change such as deforestation, i.e., depletion of tree crown cover due to conversion of forested areas in agricultural fields, human settlements, excessive logging, and road constructions are major factors of habitat loss and degradation [10, 33, 34]. The habitat loss and degradation are responsible for biodiversity loss [35], low production of food, and habitat fragmentation [27, 36, 37] that ultimately affects different fauna species. Due to deforestation, large areas become isolated, i.e., temporal refuge, which serves as corridors for different wildlife species, especially bird species [3840].

1.3. Floral composition

Tropical rainforests are the most rich tree species forest on the Earth and encompasses of broad-leaved trees with large buttress, and covered with climbers, epiphytes, and hemi-epiphytes. They have multi-layered canopy, i.e., upper, middle, and dense understory vegetation composition and are rich in diversity of flora and fauna, especially birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates [4144]. Tropical rainforest is blessed with an enormous variety of flora species. The vegetation species composition of rainforests encompasses of four distinct layers of trees, namely; emergent, upper canopy, understory, and forest floor.

1.3.1. Emergent vegetation layer

Emergent or sunlit layer is dominated by broad-leaved, hardwood and evergreen. The trees may attain the height from 30.48 to 76.2 m and a trunk size up to 4.48 m around. The winds and sunlight are major environmental factors, which play a significant role (such as pollination and seed dispersal) in the tropical rainforest management ecosystem. The emergent layer is rich in the fauna species, such as birds (hummingbirds, macaw, harpy eagle, etc.), mammals (i.e., monkeys, bats, etc.), snakes, and insects such as butterflies, moths, etc. The birds and insects play a crucial role in the pollination of tropical rainforest plant species. The microclimate of this layer often fluctuates from time to time depending upon temperature and wind speed.

1.3.2. Canopy layer

The canopy is the main layer of tropical rainforest ecosystems, which is thick and dense like an umbrella. This layer is composed of a variety of vegetation structures and tree species composition such as philodendron, strychnos toxifera, rattan palms, etc. The trees may grow up to 18.2927.42 m above the forest floor. Epiphytes such as orchids, mosses, ferns, and lichens are a common feature of this layer, which grow on tree trunks and branches. The canopy layer is rich in food diversity and an ideal habitat for a wide range of fauna species such as birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and diversity of insect species. The members of fauna species are often observed flying, jumping, gliding, and hoping for canopy gaps.

1.3.3. Understory layer

The understory layer encompasses usually small trees, shrubs, ferns, and native bananas, which may attain 3.66 m height. Mosses, fungi, and algae often grow on the trees. This layer is rich in insects, such as bees, stick insects, ants, beetles, and butterflies, which serve as sources of food for a wide array of birds and reptiles. The fauna species encompass bats, monkeys, snakes, lizards, jaguars, frogs, and invertebrates.

1.3.4. Forest floor

This is the bottom layer of tropical rainforest. This layer is dark due to dense ground vegetation and only 2% of sunlight reaches the floor. Due to less availability of sunlight, only few plant species can grow. This layer is rich in organic matter such as fallen leaves, seeds, fruits, and branches. Furthermore, this layer is rich in fungi and mosses. The fauna species of the forest floor include elephants, tigers, pumas, leopards, jaguars, ocelots, mongoose, tapirs, cassowaries, okapis, armadillos, pigs, and gorillas.

1.4. Environmental services provided by fauna in tropical rainforest

Faunas are the important component of the tropical rainforest ecosystem and provide a wide array of environmental services such as; they keep tropical rainforest systems in balance through pollinating a variety of plant species, dispersing seeds, controlling pest population and reducing the damage caused by different pest species, scavenging carcasses, and recycling nutrients back into the soil.

2. Fauna composition

Fauna species are not only confined to specific habitats but also utilize various habitats in search of food, shelter, and reproduction. Tropical rainforest is rich in fauna species such as birds, reptiles, mammals, amphibians, and invertebrates.

2.1. Bird species composition of tropical rainforest

Birds are highly motile animals, i.e., they may fly to different areas in search of food, shelter, and for breeding purposes. They are ecologically diverse and had occupied a wide array of habitats. Bird species depend on the vegetation structure and composition (such as trees, shrubs, and herbs) and food resources for their survival and reproduction [45, 46]. They are the functional group of tropical rainforest ecosystems as seed dispersers, pollinators, top predators, pest control, and scavengers [4750].

Birds are conspicuous and an important component of tropical rainforest ecosystems, often exhibit distinction associated with vegetation structure and composition (Figures 24; Table 1). They are sensitive to habitat alteration and landscape modification [5154]. This might be because the vegetation structure and composition may influence habitat selection and foraging efficiency of all birds. For example, large trees and ground dense herbaceous vegetation layers often harbor a higher avian abundance and diversity. This might be because old growth stands provide suitable nesting and breeding sites, plenty of food resources, and also provide protection from predators and harsh weather [55, 56]. Likewise, ground vegetation also offers ideal habitat and safe breeding sites and shelter for different fauna species residing in dense ground cover vegetation, such as birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. It has been illustrated that height and density of the tree [57], dense understory vegetation [58, 59], and logs and snags [60] are key elements, which affect avian distribution, richness, and diversity in tropical rainforest.

Figure 2.

Asian paradise flycatcher—Terpsiphone paradisi.

Figure 3.

Wallace's hawk eagle—Nisaetus nanus.

Figure 4.

Oriental/Asian pied hornbill—Anthracoceros albirostris.

FamilyScientific nameCommon nameHabitatAuthors
AcanthizidaeGerygone chrysogasterYellow-bellied GerygoneLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Gerygone magnirostrisLarge-billed GerygoneTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Gerygone sulphureaGolden-bellied GerygoneTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
AccipitridaeHaliastur indusBrahminy KiteLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Harpyopsis novaeguineaePapuan Harpy EagleLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Henicopernis longicaudaLong-tailed BuzzardLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Accipiter virgatusBesraTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Spilornis cheelaCrested Serpent EagleTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
AegithinidaeAegithina viridissimaGreen IoraHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
AlcedinidaeAlcedo euryzonaBlue-banded KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Alcedo menintingBlue-eared KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Ceyx rufidorsaRufous-backed KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Alcedo atthisCommon KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Lowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[6, 61]
Alcedo azureaAzure KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Alcedo pussioLittle KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ceyx lepidusVariable Dwarf KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Melidora macrorrhinaHook-billed KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Tanysiptera galateaCommon Paradise KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ceyx erithacaOriental Dwarf KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
ApodidaeCollocalia spodiopygiusWhite-rumped SwiftletTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
ArdeidaeEgretta garzettaLittle EgretLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Gorsachius melanolophusMalayan Night HeronTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
ArtamidaeCracticus cassicusHooded ButcherbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Peltops blainvilliiLowland PeltopsLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
BucerotidaeRhyticeros plicatusPapuan HornbillLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
BucerotidaeOcyceros griseusMalabar Grey HornbillTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
CacatuidaeCacatua galeritaSulphur-crested CockatooLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea), Tropical Rainforest (Australia)[61, 62]
CampephagidaeHemipus hirundinaceusBlack-winged Flycatcher ShrikeHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Boyer's cuckoo-shrikeBoyer's Cuckoo-shrikeLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Campochaera sloetiiGolden Cuckoo-shrikeLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Coracina melasNew Guinea Cuckoo-shrikeLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Coracina novaehollandiaeBlack-faced Cuckoo-shrikeLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Coracina papuensisWhite-bellied Cuckoo-ShrikeLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Lalage leucomelaVaried TrillerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea), Tropical Rainforest (Australia)[61, 62]
Hemipus picatusBar-winged Flycatcher-shrikeTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pericrocotus flammeusScarlet MinivetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Caprimulgus macrurusLarge-tailed NightjarLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
CasuariidaeCasuarius unappendiculatusNorthern CassowaryLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
ChloropseidaeChloropsis cochinchinensisBlue-winged LeafbirdHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Chloropsis cyanopogonLesser Green LeafbirdHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Chloropsis aurifronsGold-fronted LeafbirdTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
CisticolidaePrinia rufescensRufescent PriniaHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Orthotomus atrogularisDark-necked TailorbirdHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Orthotomus sericeusRufous-tailed TailorbirdTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Orthotomus sutoriusCommon TailorbirdTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
ColluricinclidaeColluricincla megarhynchaLittle Shrike-thrushLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Colluricincla boweriBower’s Shrike-thrushTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
ColumbidaeDucula pinonPinon Imperial PigeonLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ducula rufigasterPurple Tailed Imperial PigeonLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ducula zoeaeZoe Imperial PigeonLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Macropygia amboinensisBrown Cuckoo-doveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus coronulatusCoroneted Fruit DoveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus iozonusOrange-bellied Fruit DoveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus perlatusPink-spotted Fruit DoveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus pulchellusBeautiful Fruit DoveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus superbusSuperb Fruit-doveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Reinwardtoena reinwardtiiGreat Cuckoo-doveLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilinopus magnificusWompoo Fruit DoveTropical Rainforest (Australia), Lowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61, 62]
Chalcophaps indicaEmerald DoveTropical Rainforest (Australia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 62]
Ducula badiaMountain Imperial PigeonTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Geopelia striataZebra DoveTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Streptopelia chinensisSpotted DoveTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
CoraciidaeEurystomus orientalisCommon DollarbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
CorvidaePlatylophus galericulatusCrested JayHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[64]
Corvus tristisBare-eyed CrowLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Dendrocitta leucogastraWhite-bellied TreepieTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
CuculidaeCacomantis merulinusPlaintive CuckooHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Cacomantis variolosusBrush CuckooLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Centropus bernsteiniLesser Black CoucalLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Centropus menbekiGreater Black CoucalLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Centropus phasianinusPheasant CoucalLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Chrysococcyx lucidusShining Bronze CuckooLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Eudynamys scolopaceusCommon KoelLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Probosciger aterrimusPalm CockatooLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Scythrops novaehollandiaeChannel-billed CuckooLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Chrysococcyx minutillusLittle Bronze-CuckooTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Cacomantis sonneratiiBanded Bay CuckooTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Cuculus micropterusIndian CuckooTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Surniculus lugubrisDrongo CuckooTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
DendrocolaptidaeCampylorhamphus pusillusBrown-billed ScythebillTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Xiphorhynchus guttatusBuff-throated WoodcreeperTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
DicaeidaePrionochilus percussusCrimson-breasted FlowerpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Dicaeum trignostigmaOrange-bellied FlowerpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Dicaeum geelvinkianumRed-capped FlowerpeckerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Dicaeum hirundinaceumMistletoebirdTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Dicaeum concolorNilgiri FlowerpeckerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Prionochilus maculatusYellow-breasted FlowerpeckerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
DicruridaeCheatorhynchus papuensisPygmy DrongoLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Dicrurus bracteatusSpangled DrongoLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Dicrurus aeneusBronzed DrongoTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[61, 64]
Dicrurus paradiseusGreater Racket-tailed DrongoTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63, 64]
Dicrurus annectansCrow-billed DrongoTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Dicrurus remiferLesser Racket-tailed DrongoTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
EstrildidaeLonchura leucogastraWhite-bellied MuniaHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Lonchura kelaartiBlack-throated MuniaTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
EurylaimidaeCalyptomena viridisGreen BroadbillHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchosBlack-and-red BroadbillHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Eurylaimus javanicusBanded BroadbillHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Corydon sumatranusDusky BroadbillTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
FalconidaeMicrohierax fringillariusBlack-thighed FalconetHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Herpetotheres cachinnansLaughing FalconTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
FormicariidaeThamnophilus bridgesiBlack-hooded AntshrikeTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
FurnariidaeAutomolus ochrolaemusBuff-throated Foliage-gleanerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
HalcyonidaeLacedo pulchellaBanded KingfisherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Todiramphus sanctusSacred KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Dacelo gaudichaudRufous-bellied KookuburraLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Syma torotoroYellow-billed KingfisherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
HirundinidaeHirundo tahiticaPacific SwallowLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Hirundo rusticaBarn SwallowHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
IcteridaeCacicus uropygialisScarlet-rumped CaciqueTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Psarocolius wagleriChestnut-headed OropendolaTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
IrenidaeIrena puellaAsian Fairy-bluebirdTropical Rainforest (India), Hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 64]
LaniidaeLanius cristatusBrown ShrikeHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Lanius tigrinusTiger ShrikeHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
LeiotherichidaeGarrulax jerdoniKerala LaughingthrushTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Garrulax delessertiWynaad LaughingthrushTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
MaluridaeMalurus amabilisLovely Fairy-wrenTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
MegalaimidaeMegalaima rubricapillaCrimson-fronted BarbetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Talegalla jobiensisBrown-collared Brush TurkeyLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Megapodius reinwardtOrange-footed ScrubfowlTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
MelanocharitidaeMelanocharis nigraBlack BerrypeckerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Oedistoma iliolophusPlumed LongbillLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Toxorhamphus novaeguineaeYellow-bellied LongbillLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
MeliphagidaeMeliphaga analogaMimic HoneyeaterLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Meliphaga montanaWhite-marked Forest HoneyeaterLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Philemon meyeriMeyer's FriarbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Xanthotis flaviventerTawny-breasted HoneyeaterLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Philemon buceroidesHelmeted FriarbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea), Tropical Rainforest (Australia)[61, 62]
Meliphaga notataYellow-spotted HoneyeaterTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Myzomela obscuraDusky HoneyeaterTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Xanthotis macleayanaMacleay’s HoneyeaterTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Meliphaga gracilisGraceful HoneyeaterTropical Rainforest (Australia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[62, 63]
MeropidaeMerops viridisBlue-throated Bee-eaterHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Merops ornatusRainbow Bee-eaterTropical Rainforest (Australia), Lowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61, 62]
MonarchidaeHypothymis azureaBlack-naped MonarchHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia),[6, 63]
Terpsiphone paradisiAsian Paradise FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 62]
Arses telescopthalmusFrilled MonarchLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Machaerirhynchus flaviventerYellow-breasted BoatbillLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Monarcha chrysomelaGolden MonarchLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Monarcha guttulaSpot-winged MonarchLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Monarcha manadensisHooded MonarchLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Monarcha rubiensisRufous MonarchLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Myiagra alectoShining FlycatcherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Arses kaupiPied MonarchTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Monarcha leucotisWhite-eared MonarchTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Monarcha trivirgatusSpectacled MonarchTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
MuscicapidaeFicedula nigrorufaBlack-and-Orange FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Muscicapa sibiricaDark-sided FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Philentoma pyrhopterumChestnut-winged FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Enicurus ruficapillusChestnut-naped ForktailHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Eumyias thalassinusVerditer FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Ficedula mugimakiMugimaki FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Ficedula zanthopygiaYellow-rumped FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Muscicapa dauuricaAsian Brown FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Muscicapella hodgsoniPygmy Blue FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Philentoma pyrhopteraRufous-winged PhilentomaHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Rhinomyias umbratilisGrey-chested Jungle FlycatcherHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Copsychus malabaricusWhite-rumped ShamaHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Microeca flavovirescensOlive-yellow FlycatcherLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Brachypteryx majorWhite-bellied RobbinTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Cyornis pallipesWhite-bellied Blue FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Eumyias albicaudatusNilgiri FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Myophonus horsfieldiiMalabar Whistling ThrushTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Culicicapa ceylonensisGrey-headed Canary FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63, 64]
Ficedula elisaeGreen-backed FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Muscicapa dauuricaAsian Brown FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
NectarinidaeNectarinia minimaCrimson-backed SunbirdTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Arachnothera magnaStreaked SpiderhunterHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Arachnothera modestaGrey-breasted SpiderhunterHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Hypogramma hypogrammicumPurple-naped SunbirdHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Anthreptes simplexPlain SunbirdHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Arachnothera flavigasterSpectacled SpiderhunterHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Arachnothera longirostraLittle SpiderhunterHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Cinnyris jugularisOlive-backed SunbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Nectarinia jugularisYellow-bellied SunbirdTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Nectarinia loteniaLoten's SunbirdTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Hypogramma hypogrammicumPurple-naped SunbirdTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
OriolidaeOriolus xanthonotusDark-throated OrioleHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Oriolus szalayiBrown OrioleLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Pitohui kirhocephalusVariable PitohuiLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Oriolus flavocinctusYellow OrioleTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Oriolus chinensisBlack-naped OrioleTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PachycephalidaePachycephala hyperythraRusty-breasted WhistlerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Pachycephala simplexGrey WhistlerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Pitohui ferrugineusRusty PitohuiLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
ParadisaeidaeCicinnurus regiusKing Bird of ParadiseLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Paradisaea minorLesser BOPLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
PardalotidaeCrateroscelis murinaRusty Mouse WarblerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
ParidaeParus xanthogenysHimalayan Black-lored TitTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
ParulidaeDendroica virensBlack-throated Green WarblerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Oporornis formosusKentucky WarblerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Setophaga ruticillaAmerican RedstartTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Vermivora chrysopteraGolden-winged WarblerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Wilsonia pusillaWilson's WarblerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
PellorneidaeAlcippe poioicephalaBrown-cheeked FulvettaTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Alcippe brunneaBrown FulvettaTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PetroicidaePoecilodryas hypoleucaBlack-sided RobinLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Microeca flavigasterLemon-bellied FlycatcherTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Tregellasia capitoPale-yellow RobinTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
PhasianidaeGalloperdix spadiceaRed SpurfowlTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Gallus sonneratiiGrey JunglefowlTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Gallus gallusRed JunglefowlTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PhylloscopidaePhylloscopus borealisArctic WarblerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PicidaeSasia abnormisRufous PiculetHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Blythipicus rubiginosusMaroon WoodpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Meiglyptes tukkiBuff-necked WoodpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Picus mentalisChecker-throated WoodpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Picus miniaceusBanded WoodpeckerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Piculus rubiginosusGolden-olive WoodpeckerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Celeus brachyurusRufous WoodpeckerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Dryocopus javensisWhite-bellied WoodpeckerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Picumnus innominatusSpeckled PiculetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Chrysocolaptes lucidusGreater FlamebackTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63, 64]
Dinopium javanenseCommon FlamebackTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63, 64]
Dinopium rafflesiiOlive-backed WoodpeckerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Meiglyptes jugularisBlack and buff WoodpeckerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Picus flavinuchaGreater YellownapeTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Picus puniceusCrimson-winged WoodpeckerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PipridaeCorapipo leucorrhoaWhite-bibbed ManakinTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Manacus aurantiacusOrange-collard ManakinTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
PittidaePitta guajanaBanded PittaHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pitta erythrogasterRed-bellied PittaLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Pitta sordidaHooded PittaTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
PodargidaeBatrachostomus stellatusGould’s FrogmouthHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
PsittaculidaeLorius loryBlack Capped LoriLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Loriculus vernalisVernal Hanging ParrotTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Eclectus roratusEclectus ParrotLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Geoffroyus geoffroyiRed-cheeked ParrotLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Geoffroyus simplexBlue-collared ParrotLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Micropsitta pusioBuff-faced Pygmy ParrotLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Pseudeos fuscataDusky LoryLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Psittaculirostris edwardsiiEdward's Fig ParrotLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Cyclopsitta diophthalmaDouble-eyed Fig-parrotTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Trichoglossus haematodusRainbow LorikeetTropical Rainforest (Australia), Lowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61, 62]
Psittacula columboidesBlue-winged ParakeetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Psittacula cyanocephalaPlum-headed ParakeetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
PsophodidaePsophodes olivaceusEastern WhipbirdTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
PtilonorhynchidaeAiluroedus buccoidesWhite-eared CatbirdLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ailuroedus melanotisSpotted CatbirdTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
PycnonotidaeAlophoixus ochraceusOchraceous BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Alophoixus phaeocephalusYellow-bellied BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Ixos malaccensisStreaked BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pycnonotus cyaniventrisGrey-bellied BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pycnonotus finalysoniStripe-throated BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pycnonotus melanoleucosBlack-and-white BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Iole olivaceaBuff-vented BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia),[6, 63]
Pycnonotus simplexCream-vented BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Pycnonotus bruuneusRed-eyed BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Pycnonotus erythropthalmosSpectacled BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Pycnonotus eutilotusPuff-backed BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Pycnonotus plumosusOlive-winged BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Tricholestes crinigerHairy-backed BulbulHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Hypsipetes leucocephalusBlack BulbulTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Iole indicaYellow-browed BulbulTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pycnonotus jocosusRed-whiskered BulbulTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pycnonotus melanicterusBlack-capped BulbulTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pycnonotus priocephalusGrey-headed BulbulTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Alophoixus finschiiFinsch’s BulbulTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Pycnonotus atricepsBlack-headed BulbulTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Pycnonotus goiavierYellow-vented BulbulTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
RamphastidaeCalormphus fuliginosusBrown BarbetHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pteroglossus frantziiFiery-billed AracariTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
RhipiduridaeRhipidura rufiventrisNorthern FantailLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Rhipidura threnothoraxSooty Thicket FantailLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Rhipidura fuliginosaGrey FantailTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Rhipidura rufifronsRufous FantailTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Rhipidura javanicaPied FantailTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Rhipidura perlataSpotted FantailHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Rhipidura leucothoraxWhite-bellied Thicket-FantailLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
SittidaeSitta frontalisVelvet-fronted NuthatchTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
StrigidaeOtus rufescensReddish Scope OwlHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
SturnidaeAplonis cantoroidesSinging StarlingLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Mino dumontiiYellow Faced MynaLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Aplonis metallicaMetallic StarlingTropical Rainforest (Australia), Lowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61, 62]
Gracula religiosaHill MynaTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
TephrodornithidaeTephrodornis gularisLarge WoodshrikeTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
ThamnophilidaeCercomacra tyranninaDusky AntbirdTropical forest, Costa Rica[65]
ThraupidaePiranga flavaHepatic TanagerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Tangara guttataSpeckled TanagerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Tangara gyrolaBay-headed TanagerTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
TimaliidaeMalacocincla sepiariaHorsfield’s BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Malacopteron affineSooty-capped BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Pellorneum capistratumBlack-capped BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Stachyris erythropteraChestnut-winged BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Stachyris maculataChestnut-rumped BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Stachyris poliocephalaGrey-headed BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Trichastoma bicolorFerruginous BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Trichastoma rostratumWhite-chested BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[65]
Macronous gularisStriped Tit-babblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Macronus ptilosusFluffy-backed Tit-BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Malacocincla malaccensisShort-tailed BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Malacopteron cinereumScaly-crowned BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Malacopteron magnirostreMoustached BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Malacopteron magnumRufous-crowned BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Stachyris nigricollisBlack-throated BabblerHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Garritornis isidoreiIsidore's Rufous BabblerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Ptilorrhoa caerulescensBlue Jewel-babblerLowland tropical rainforest (Papua New Guinea)[61]
Megalaima viridisWhite-cheeked BarbetTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pellorneum ruficepsPuff-throated BabblerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pomatorhinus horsfieldiiIndian Scimitar BabblerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Rhopocichla atricepsDark-fronted BabblerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Turdoides subrufusRufous BabblerTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Pellorneum capistratumBlack-caped BabblerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Napothera epilepidotaEyebrowed Wren-babblerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Stachyris erythropteraChestnut-winged BabblerTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
Yuhina zantholeucaWhite-bellied YuhinaTropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63]
TityridaePachyramphus aglaiaeRose-throated BecardTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
TrochilidaeCampylopterus hemileucurusViolet SabrewingTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Phaethornis guyGreen HermitTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Phaethornis longuemareusLittle HermitTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
TroglodytidaeThryothorus rufalbusRufous-and-white WrenTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
TrogonidaeHarpactes diardiiDiard’s TrogonHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Harpactes orrhophaeusCinnamon-rumped TrogonHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia)[6]
Trogon bairdiiBaird's TrogonTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Harpactes fasciatusMalabar TrogonTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
TurdidaeCopsychus saularisOriental Magpie RobinHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Luscinia cyaneSiberian Blue RobinHill dipterocarp tropical rainforest (Malaysia), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[6, 63]
Turdus merulaCommon BlackbirdTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
Zoothera citrinaOrange-headed ThrushTropical Rainforest (India)[64]
VireonidaeHylophilus decurtatusLesser GreenletTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Vireo flavifronsYellow-throated VireoTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
Vireolanius pulchellusGreen Shrike-vireoTropical forest (Costa Rica)[65]
ZosteropidaeZosterops lateralisSilvereyeTropical Rainforest (Australia)[62]
Zosterops palpebrosusOriental White-eyeTropical Rainforest (India), Isolated Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[63, 64]

Table 1.

List of bird species that occur in tropical rainforest.

Habitat alteration due to land change use may alter the avian community parameters such as relative abundance, species richness, species diversity, and density [65]. This might be that bird community structure strongly associated with canopy openness and understory vegetation cover. Forest logging [6668], habitat degradation and fragmentation [69], slash-and-burn agriculture [61], and fires are major factors, which had adversely affected the population of the avian species in different forest ecosystems [51]. These factors altered the vegetation structure and composition, which affects the avian richness and diversity by affecting the food resources, increased nest predation and brood parasitism. The diversity and richness of food resources are closely associated with the vegetation structure and composition, such as foliage, flowers, fruits, and barks. Furthermore, large-scale logging for valuable timber harvesting, damage to forest, and replacement of native vegetation by exotic species [70] are the main problems, which affect the fauna species. Loss of forested areas is responsible for the loss of biodiversity.

2.2. Mammal species composition of tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforest had harbored rich mammal diversity and density due to richness of plant communities and higher productivity (Figures 5 and 6; Table 2). Mammals are a versatile group of animals and a major component of the tropical rainforest ecosystem, i.e., they serve a wide range of ecosystem functions; such as pollination, seed dispersal, pest control, herb control, food source for other animals and nutrient cycling. In addition to ecological functions, the mammals also provide a wide array of benefits to human beings, such as food, recreation, and source of income, i.e., various byproducts such as bush meat, skin, oil, musk, fur, etc. [71, 72].

Figure 5.

Bornean pygmy elephant—Elephas maximus borneensis.

Figure 6.

Sambar deer—Rusa unicolor.

FamilyScientific nameCommon nameHabitatAuthors
EmballonuridaeSaccopteryx bilineataGreater Sac-winged BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Diclidurus virgoWhite BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
MormoopidaePteronotus davyiDavy's Naked-backed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Mormoops megalophyllaGhost-faced BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Pteronotus parnelliiParnell's Mustached BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
MuridaeRattus annandaleiAnnandale's RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Niviventer fulvescensChestnut White-bellied RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Niviventer cremoriventerDark-tailed Tree RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Leopoldamys edwardsiEdwards's Long-tailed Giant RatTropical Rainforest (Indonesia)[75]
Lenothrix canusGray Tree RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Leopoldamys sabanusLong-tailed Giant RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia),
Tropical Rainforest (Indonesia)
[74, 75]
Niviventer rapitLong-tailed Mountain RatTropical Rainforest (Indonesia)[75]
Rattus tiomanicusMalayan Field RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Sundamys muelleriMuller's Giant Sunda RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia),
Tropical Rainforest (Indonesia)
[74, 75]
Maxomys rajahRajah Spiny RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia),
Tropical Rainforest (Indonesia)
[74, 75]
Maxomys suriferRed Spiny RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Maxomys whiteheadiWhitehead's Spiny RatPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia),
Tropical Rainforest (Indonesia)
[74, 75]
NatalidaeNatalus stramineusMexican Funnel-eared BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
PhyllostomidaeDesmodus rotundusCommon Vampire BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Choeroniscus godmaniGodman's Long-tailed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Mimon bennettiiGolden BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Artibeus lituratusGreat Fruit-eating BatsTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Chiroderma villosumHairy Big-eyed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Platyrrhinus helleriHeller's Broad-nosed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Sturnira ludoviciHighland Yellow-shouldered BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Artibeus jamaicensisJamaican Fruit-eating BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Vampyressa pusillaLittle Yellow-eared BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Leptonycteris sanborniLong-nosed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Lampronycteris brachyotisOrange-throated Big-eared BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Phyllostomus discolorPale Spear-nosed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Glossophaga soricinaPallas's Long-tongued BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Artibeus phaeotisPygmy Fruit-eating BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Carollia brevicaudaSilky Short-tailed BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Vampyrodes majorStripe-faced BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Uroderma bilobatumTent-making BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Artibeus watsoniThomas's Fruit-eating BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Artibeus toltecusToltec Fruit-eating BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Hylonycteris underwoodiUnderwood's Long-tongued BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Enchisthenes hartiiVelvety Fruit-eating BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Centurio senexWrinkle-faced BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
Sturnira liliumYellow-shouldered BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
SciuridaeSundasciurus lowiiLow's SquirrelPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Callosciurus notatusPlantain SquirrelPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Callosciurus prevostiiPrevost's SquirrelPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia)[74]
Sundasciurus tenuisSlender SquirrelTropical Rainforest (Indonesia)[75]
Lariscus insignisThree-striped Ground SquirrelTropical Rainforest (Indonesia)[75]
ThyropteridaeThyroptera tricolorSpix’s Disk-winged BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]
TupaiidaeTupaia glisCommon TreeshrewPrimary Rainforest (Malaysia),
Tropical Rainforest (Indonesia)
[74, 75]
Tupaia tanaLarge TreeshrewTropical Rainforest (Indonesia)[75]
VespertilionidaeAntrozous sp.Pallid BatTropical Rainforest (Mexico)[73]

Table 2.

List of mammal species that occur in tropical rainforest.

Unfortunately, these rich mammal communities are facing severe threats from human activities such as over exploitation (intensive hunting), land-use change (habitat loss and degradation), and climate change [7678]. These populations of different mammal species had declined abruptly due to change in land use, i.e., habitat fragmentation and degradation due to logging, and deforestation and habitat loss due to agriculture expansion and excessive hunting [7983]. It has been reported that around one-fifth of mammal species in the wild are at risk of extinction due to human activities such as deforestation for agriculture expansion, logging for timber, and excessive hunting [84]. It has been stated that changes in vegetation cover may affect the richness of food resources and habitat preferences of the mammalian species [85, 86]. This could be due to fact that home range preferences of the mammal species and their population are strongly associated with the vegetation structure and composition [87].

The primates residing in a rainforest are habitat specific, some occupy large continuous forested areas such as Diademed Sifakas—Propithecus diadema—while others prefer fragmented forested areas such as Black Howler Monkey—Alouatta pigra—for their survival and reproduction [25, 8890]. Monkeys are diet specific, they consume a variety of food resources such as fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves, arthropods, etc. [91, 92], and their diet is strongly influenced by the plant species composition and richness of the particular dwelling habitat [93].

2.3. Reptile species composition of tropical rainforest

Reptiles are carnivorous in nature and play a significant role in controlling various pests present in the forest, such as beetles, arthropods, caterpillars, termites, bugs, rats, mice, etc., which may cause severe loss, such as defoliation, seed, and wood damage. Even though they are crucially important for tropical forest ecosystems (Table 3), they are facing critical threats from human induced factors such as land-use change (i.e., deforestation, fragmentation and degradation) that have altered the natural habitat of the reptile species that directly or indirectly depend upon tropical rainforests for their survival and reproduction.

FamilyScientific nameCommon nameHabitatAuthors
AgamidaeGonyocephalus semperiWhite-Spotted Angle headTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
ColubridaeBoiga dendrophiliaMangrove Blunt-Headed SnakeTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Psammodynastes pulverulentusDark- Spotted Mock ViperTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Oxyrhabdium leporinumBanded Philippine Burrowing SnakeTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Oligodon maculatusBarred ShortHeaded SnakeTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Calamaria gervaisiiGervais’ Worm SnakeTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Lycodon dumeriliDumeril’s Wolf SnakeTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Tropidolaemus sp.Wagler’s Pit ViperTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Phyton reticulatusReticulated PhytonTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
GekkonidaeGekko mindorensisMindoro Narrow-Disked GeckoTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
ScincidaeSphenomorphus variegatusBlack-Spotted SphenomorphusTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Sphenomorphus beyeriBeyer’s SphenomorphusTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Lipinia pulchellaYellow-Striped Slender Tree SkinkTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Eutropis multicarinata borealisNorthern Two-Striped MabuyaTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Eutropis engleiSix-Striped MabouyaTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]

Table 3.

List of reptile species that occur in tropical rainforest.

Reptiles are highly sensitive species compared to other fauna species, i.e., they become more vulnerable due to land use change, i.e., habitat alteration [95]. This might be because they have a small home range, which is adversely affected by habitat loss and degradation [96, 97]. For example, deforestation may cause severe habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation which adversely affect the population, community parameters of reptiles inhabiting in a tropical rainforest ecosystem [98100].

Anthropogenic activities had altered the reptilian intact habitat through land-use change, their habitats becomes degraded and lost thus ultimately becoming unsuitable for them. This is because forested reptile prefers dense and moist habitat, which provides them shelter and rich food resources for their survival, protection, and reproduction. Deforestation may disturb their breeding sites, reduce home range, and increase visibility for predators. Likewise, fragmentation reduced their home range, while degradation reduced their food resources and breeding behavior. Furthermore, land-use changes such as deforestation, fragmentation, and degradation may alter microclimatic conditions of particular dwelling habitats such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and sunlight that ultimately modify the vegetation structure and composition.

2.4. Amphibian species composition of tropical rainforest

Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates and are carnivorous in nature. They play a key role to control the various pests, thus balancing the nature [101]. Amphibians are a significant component of the tropical rainforest ecosystem (Figure 7; Table 4) and play an important role in pest control. Habitat loss due highest deforestation is responsible for one-third population decline of the amphibians [10, 102104]. One-fifth amphibians of Southeast Asia are reported as threatened species [105]. This is because they have small home ranges, i.e., specific aquatic habitat, higher vulnerability to habitat change, and visibility to predators. In addition, over-harvesting from natural habitat for food supply (human consumption), medicine (traditional use), and pet trade also had exerted great pressure on the population of amphibians [104].

Figure 7.

Red-eye tree frog—Agalychnis callidryas (Male).

FamilyScientific NameCommon NameHabitatAuthors
BufonidaeIngerophrynus divergensMalayan Dwarf ToadLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Ansonia muelleriMueller’s ToadTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
DicroglossidaeLimnonectes finchiFinch's Wart FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Limnonectes ingeriInger's Wart frogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Limnonectes leporinusGiant River FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Limnonectes malesianusMalaysian FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Occidozyga baluensisBalu Oriental FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Occidozyga laevisPuddle FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
MicrohylidaeChaperina fuscaBrown Thorny FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Kalophrynus pleurostigmaBlack-spotted Sticky FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Kaloula baleataSmooth-fingered Narrow-mouthed FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Metaphrynella sundanaBorneo Tree-hole FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Microhyla borneensisMatang Narrow-mouthed FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Kalophrynus pleurostigmaBlack-spotted Narrow-mouthed FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
RanidaeHylarana erythraeaCommon Green FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Hylarana glandulosaRough-sided FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Hylarana nicobariensisCricket FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Hylarana ranicepsWhite-lipped FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Staurois natatorRock FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Rana grandoculaBig-eyed FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Limnonectes magnusMindanao Fanged FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Platymantis corrugataRough-backed Forest FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Megophrys stejnegeriMindanao Horned FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
RhacophoridaeNyctixalus pictusCinnamon FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Polypedates collettiBlack-spotted Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Polypedates leucomystaxCommon Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Polypedates macrotisDark-eared Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Polypedates otilophusBorneo Eared FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Rhacophorus appendiculatusFrilled Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Rhacophorus dulitensisJade Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Rhacophorus harrissoniBrown Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Rhacophorus pardalisHarlequin Tree FrogLowland Tropical Rainforest (Malaysia)[106]
Polypedates leucomystaxFour-lined Tree FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]
Philautus acutirostrisPointed-Snouted Tree FrogTropical Rainforest (Philippine)[94]

Table 4.

List of amphibian species that occur in tropical rainforest.

2.5. Invertebrate species composition of tropical rainforest

In tropical rainforests, logging creates gaps and alters the habitat structure and microclimatic conditions, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and light [107, 108], which influence on the invertebrate diversity and distribution. After logging, new habitat with a different microclimate may develop which tend to be unsuitable for a wide array of invertebrates [109, 110]. This indicates that land-use changes influence invertebrate diversity, richness, and distribution. It has been stated that disturbing the habitat affects invertebrate colonization and distribution [111, 112]. Basset [113] reported that the canopy of tropical rain forest is rich in Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Araneae taxa. However, their home range and foraging habitats may vary from species to species depending upon the types of vegetation, forest types, and bio-geographical regions.

3. Conclusion and future perspective

Even though, faunas are a crucial component of tropical rainforest ecosystems, detailed information on different aspects of fauna community parameters such as species composition, distribution, diversity, richness and population trend, impact of anthropogenic activities, associated with microclimate and habitat variables is still lacking. The current review highlighted that tropical rainforest is an ideal productive habitat for a wide array of fauna species, i.e., birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates. These fauna are a major component of the food web of the rainforest ecosystem and functions. Furthermore, it was revealed that the diversity of rainforest fauna is facing many threats that directly or indirectly affected the population; community parameters of various fauna species inhabited the tropical rainforest. There is an urgent need to study various fauna species of tropical rainforest in order to reduce the impact of human activities and for future conservation and management. We hope that the findings of this chapter will provide the ways and means to conserve the fauna in and around the tropical rainforest.

© 2016 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mohamed Zakaria, Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar, Ibrahim Ozdemir and Zamri Rosli (November 9th 2016). Fauna Diversity in Tropical Rainforest: Threats from Land-Use Change, Tropical Forests - The Challenges of Maintaining Ecosystem Services while Managing the Landscape, Juan A. Blanco, Shih-Chieh Chang and Yueh-Hsin Lo, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/64963. Available from:

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