Open access peer-reviewed chapter

# Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A Potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries

By Anthony Ananga, Vasil Georgiev, Joel Ochieng, Bobby Phills and Violeta Tsolova

Submitted: July 20th 2012Published: April 10th 2013

DOI: 10.5772/54592

## 1. Introduction

### 6.1. Pharmaceutical applications

Anthocyanins have great potential for application in pharmaceutical products both as nutraceuticals and as therapeutic compounds. Frequent ingestion of anthocyanins could provide various health benefits including reduced risk of coronary heart diseases, anti-carcinogenic activity, antioxidant activity, reduced risk of stroke, anti-inflammatory effects etc. [13, 34, 184-186]. Biological activities of anthocyanin pigments have been already discussed in several excellent reviews [184, 187, 188]. Their pharmaceutical value has been additionally increased due to their high bioavailability. However, the administration and metabolism of anthocyanins in vivohave been investigated in details mostly in rats, whereas the detailed studies on humans still are scantly presented in scientific literature [60, 189]. For better understanding and investigation of anthocyanins absorption and in vivometabolism in human and animal bodies, grape cell suspension culture of V. viniferaL. cv.Gamay Fréaux, was adapted to produce 13C-labeled anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 7, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) [190]. Development of reliable sources of isotopically labelled anthocyanins could have remarkable impact on advancement in diagnostic of metabolomic assimilation studies of these compounds in vivo.

### 6.2. Food industry

The world market of natural food colorants expands with the annual growth rate of 4-6% [142]. In USA 4 of the 26 colorants approved by the food administration, that are exempt from certification, are based on anthocyanin pigments [34]. In European Union, all anthocyanin-containing colorants are classified as natural colorants under the classification E163 [191]. Currently most of the worldwide anthocyanins supply comes from processing of grape pomace, which is a waste product from winemaking. But in European Union other plant sources such as red cabbage, elderberry, black currant, purple carrot, sweet potato, and red radish are also allowed [192]. Anthocyanins, produced by grape cell suspensions can be a promising alternative supply of natural colorants. It has already been demonstrated that the produced pigments by the grape cell suspensions undergo significant structural modifications. Grape cell suspensions accumulates higher levels of metabolically more evolved structures (methylated and acylated anthocyanins). Acylated anthocyanins are suitable for application in food products, mainly because of the improved color stability compared to non-acylated structures [72]. Moreover, the grape cell suspensions can also produce elevated levels of beneficial phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, stilbenes, phenolics, etc., which are capable of increasing the added value of the final additive. The overall metabolite profile of grape cells in combination with the lack of microbial and toxic contaminations will give the potential for development of new types of food additives if the entire cell suspension biomass are utilized.

### 6.3. Cosmetic industry

The commercial interest of cosmetic companies to apply plant additives, derived by biotechnological cultivation of plant cells to their products has increased remarkably in the last few years [193]. The addition of plant cell derived extracts in cosmetic products has been considered as a powerful approach used to increase their health benefits. Several plant extracts have been added to various cosmetic products as moisturizers, antioxidants, whitening agents, colorants, sunscreens, preservatives etc. [193]. With the advancement of plant cell biotechnology, more and more cosmetic companies have been attracted for application of additives, based on plant cell suspensions. Recently the application of so-called plant “steam” cells attracts industry’s attention [193]. In the last few years, the French company “Sederma” launched the product “Resistem™” based on application of in vitrocultivated plant cells (www.sederma.fr). The other company, “Mibelle Biochemistry”, situated in Switzerland, developed a “PhytoCellTec” product, based on grape cell suspension of V. viniferaL. cv.Gamay Fréaux, which was processed by high-pressure homogenizer to produce liposomes for application in cream products (www.mibellebiochemistry.com). According to the company, the grape cell derived liposomes contained higher amounts of anthocyanins and when applied on skins serve as strong UV protectors and fight photoaging. The presented examples clearly demonstrate the commercial interest to application of grape cell suspension derived products. However, it is a matter of time for the scientists to develop the biotechnological approach of producing anthocyanins by grape cell suspensions from the frame of experimental scale to commercially applicable products.

## 7. Conclusion and future prospects

The approaches described in this chapter can be effective in improving novel anthocyanin-derived metabolites in grape cell suspensions. Continuous study and exploitation of the knowledge of grape cell lines and their control mechanisms will open up new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. In parallel, the recent achievements in bioengineering with plant cell suspensions and the improvements of the existed bioreactor designs discovers new prospectives for commercial realization of anthocyanin producing technology based on cultivation of grape cells. This is a research area that is growing and gaining interest in the analysis of plant-based health-related compounds. Therefore, the full impact of metabolomics on muscadine research is yet to be experienced. But this chapter serves as a starting point for scientists who are interested in cell cultures from muscadine grapes.

## Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Florida A&M University College of Agriculture and Food Science. The research work has been done with the financial support of USDA/NIFA/AFRI Plant Biochemistry Program Grant # 2009-03127.

chapter PDF
Citations in RIS format
Citations in bibtex format

## More

© 2013 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## How to cite and reference

### Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard

Anthony Ananga, Vasil Georgiev, Joel Ochieng, Bobby Phills and Violeta Tsolova (April 10th 2013). Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A Potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries, The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive, Danijela Poljuha and Barbara Sladonja, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/54592. Available from:

### chapter statistics

21Crossref citations

### Related Content

Next chapter

#### From the Olive Flower to the Drupe: Flower Types, Pollination, Self and Inter-Compatibility and Fruit Set

By Catherine Breton and André Berville

First chapter

#### Aquaculture and Environmental Protection in the Prioritary Mangrove Ecosystem of Baja California Peninsula

By Magdalena Lagunas-Vazques, Giovanni Malagrino and Alfredo Ortega-Rubio

We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities.