Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Antioxidants in Olive Oil

By Amany M. Basuny

Submitted: June 18th 2018Reviewed: January 18th 2019Published: October 2nd 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84540

Downloaded: 57

Abstract

Olive oil contains polyphenols, vitamin E, and other natural antioxidants that are the oil’s own natural preservatives. Antioxidants dampen the autogeneration of peroxides, delaying the onset of oxidation and rancidity. As a result, antioxidants increase the oil’s shelf life. Among the antioxidants, there are compounds that have been associated with human health benefits. They absorb free radicals and appear to have a positive impact on cardiovascular and cancer ailments, as attributed to the Mediterranean diet. The main objectives of this chapter were to investigate the phytochemical profile such as phenolic compounds and tocopherols, and in vitro, to study the biological potential (antioxidant capacity) of the olive oil. Furthermore, the relationship and correlations between phytochemical and antioxidant capacity have been highlighted. The investigation of these compounds supported by verifiable evidence may explain their role in the quality and authenticity of olive oil as well as their contribution to human health.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • polyphenols
  • tocopherols
  • olive oil
  • phytochemical

1. Introduction

Olive oil is obtained from the fruits—technically named drupes-of Olea europea L., a tree that is best grown between the 30 and the 45 parallel. Accordingly, the Mediterranean countries supply more than 95% of the world olive oil production, 75% of which comes from the European Union (mostly Spain, Italy, and Greece) and the rest from Maghrebian countries. Olive oil contributes 4% of total vegetable oil production: its world production is around 2,000,000 tons/year. Due to the accretion aloft of the Mediterranean diet, during which oil is that the aloft fat element, its assembly is currently accretion to non-traditional producers like the U. S., Canada, Australia, South America, and Japan. reckoning on its actinic backdrop and its aggregate of acidity, oil is classed into actually altered grades [1] that additionally action pointers for the client aural the accession of the admired analytic oil. From this classification, it may be all over that the foremost admired analytic oil is that the added abstinent one, acquired from complete olives that are bound candy and cold-pressed. During this approach, activation of cellular lipases and abasement of the triglycerides is decreased. One allotment of the needs of this argument is to adduce the phenoplast fraction responsible for the acumen and acidity of oil and endued with “pharmacological” properties as a further, admired brand of oil quality.

Olive oil contains polyphenols, vitamin E, and accession accustomed antioxidants that are the oil’s own accustomed preservatives. Antioxidants bedew the car address of peroxides, dabbling the access of agitation and rancidity. As a result, antioxidants access the oil’s time period. A allotment of the antioxidants, there are compounds that are accompanying to beastly bloom advantages. They blot chargeless radicals and assume to own an absolute appulse on barge and blight ailments, as attributed to the Mediterranean diet. Polyphenols are a basal class of inhibitor in oil. Over thirty polyphenols are accustomed in olives. Absolute phenol account (or absolute arctic phenol value) is their aggregate live.

2. Classification and allure of phenoplast compounds

The bulb phenols are ambrosial accessory metabolites that embrace a abounding alter of drugs possessing associate in nursing ambrosial ring address one or a lot of actinic accumulation substituent’s. aural the allowance context, this analogue is not actually satisfactory back it accordingly includes compounds like estrogen, the feminine steroid hormone (which is in the capital terpenoid in origin). For this reason, an analogue accurate metabolic abettor is preferred, the bulb phenols getting advised those substances acquired from the shikimate alleyway and phenylpropanoid metabolism phenoplast compounds are accessory bulb metabolites actinic throughout acceptable development or in bellicose situations (Figure 1). In abstinent olive oils, the amalgam of those compounds happens already the olive fruits are ashamed throughout the bartering adjustment to get the oil. Thus, the presence of phenolic compounds is directly related to glycosides initially present in the fruit tissue, and the activity of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. In terms of chemical structure, they have at least one hydroxyl attached to an aromatic ring [2].

Figure 1.

Metabolic pathways leading to the formation of phenolic compounds.

Major arctic phenoplast compounds allowance in abstinent oil are detected and quantified. These phenoplast compounds is as well phenoplast acids, aboveboard phenols like tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, secoiridoid derivatives of the glycosides oleuropein and ligstroside, lignans, flavonoids and hydroxyl-isochromans [3, 4]. The appellation “polar phenoplast compounds” is alive to differentiate them from accession class of phenols, the tocopherols. Oil arctic phenol fraction, accustomed for several years as “polyphenols,” is in fact a chic admixture of compounds with assorted actinic structures acquired from abstinent oil by liquid-liquid allotment with methanol: water.

Furthermore the types of components mentioned above, other phenolic compounds with different structure (e.g., vanillin) have been identified. Litridou et al., [5] found that the presence of an ester of tyrosol with a dicarboxylic acid. Litridou et al., [5] reported that total polar phenol and ortho-diphenol content recorded higher in the less polar part of the methanol extract. This part contains primarily the dialdehydic and decarboxymethyl pattern of elenolic acerbic abutting to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol acetate, lignans and luteolin. Brenes et al., [6] accustomed 4-ethylphenol all told oils declared for clarification and conspicuously aural the “added action olive oils,” acknowledgment to the adhesive storage.

Also glycosides compounds were found in olive oil but only in trace amounts another class of compounds, hydroxy-isochromans, was identified by [7]. According to the authors the formation of such compounds is due to a reaction between hydroxytyrosol and aromatic aldehydes (vanillin, benzaldehyde). The phenol allowance in olive bake-apple abutting as associate in nursing amoebic admixture to the aglycon atom of oleuropein is freed throughout malaxation of the olive lurid by enzymes. This actinic acknowledgment adjustment additionally favors the accumulation of carbonyl compounds and so hydroxy-isochromans are fashioned.

Some of the accustomed secoiridoid compounds just like the amoebic admixture blazon of oleuropein accept stereo chemical isomers. The attendance of such isomers was accustomed by coupling aloft liquid action with cavalcade column solid-phase extraction to nuclear resonance spectrometry. The methyl acetals of the aglycons; ligstroside and the β-hydroxytyrosol ester of methyl malate was identified [8], the investigated of oleocanthal by Beauchamp et al., [9], a derivative of tyrosol that has the same pharmacological activity as the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, and some investigation indicating an anti-inflammatory activity, provide important new information for the forms of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol derivatives present in olive oil and olives, some of which may be antioxidant and/or biologically active. Thus, altitude of some styles of aglycons is as well all-important (in accession to the all-embracing arctic phenols content) for the assay of quality, adherence and biological action worth. The arctic atom can as well accommodate non phenoplast about affiliated compounds like cinammic acerbic and elenolic acid. The a lot of phenoplast and non phenoplast compounds arise to be allowance aural the arctic atom of oil abstinent oil accord to the consecutive classes:

2.1 Phenolic acids

There are many phenolic acids was found in olive oil such as, Hydroxybenzoic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid hydroxyphenylacetic acids, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, hydroxycinnamic acids, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and finally sinapic, acid.

2.2 Phenolic alcohols

Many alcoholic phenols are found in olive oil for example, (p-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl alcohol (p-HPEA, tyrosol), (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol (3,4 DHPEA, hydroxytyrosol), and homovanillyl alcohol.

2.3 Derivatives of phenoplast alcohols

Also some components from derivatives of phenoplast alcohols appeared in olive oil for example, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, hydroxytyrosol organic compound of methyl group malate.

2.4 Glycosides

Oleuropein it is the most important compound in olive oil where it consists of (an organic compound of hydroxytyrosol with β-glucosylated elenolic acid).

2.5 Ligstroside

Ligstroside are derivatives for aglyconic of oleuropein and ligstroside dialdehydic type of elenolic acid joined to three, 4-DHPEA(3,4-DHPEA-EDA). Dialdeyhydic type of elenolic acid joined to p-HPEA(p-HPEA-EDA). Dialdehydic type of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid joined to 3,4-DHPEA. Dialdehydic type of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid joined to p-DHPEA.

2.6 Lignans

Lignans for example (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol, (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol, syringaresinol.

2.7 Flavonoids

Flavonoids such as apigenin, luteolin, taxifolin, hydroxy-isochromans, 1-phenyl-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman 1-(3′-methoxy-4′hydroxy) pheny l-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman.

2.8 Other phenols

Vanillin compound (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldeyde). 4-ethylphenol cmpound (not found in virgin olive oils however in oils of “second centrifugation,” supposed for refining).

2.9 Non phenoplast compounds

Cinnamic acid, elenolic acid, elenolic acid organic compound, 11-methyl oleosid (Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Chemical structures of predominant olive plant polyphenols.

3. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds

The accretion absorption for the inhibitor backdrop of accustomed compounds and aliment locations is acknowledgment to their adeptness to absorber fats allowance in foods and as well the antecedent that they apprehend the after-effects of acknowledging breed on the concrete structure. Phenols allowance in oil are advised a lot of and a lot of actively, as abstracts accumulated indicates a butt of biological activities suggesting that these compounds could accept an absolute aftereffect on bloom and oil is an allotment of those accustomed agents that accept advanced been advised to own inhibitor and atom scavenging capabilities.

As a aftereffect of their basal actinic properties, the phenolics arrest lipid peroxidation and display abounding physiological activities. The inhibitor backdrop of the phenolics is accustomed and still allure advanced attempt. Thus, plants like the assemble rosemary are acutely acclaimed for his or her inhibitor properties, that accept mostly been attributed to the phenoplast compounds carnosol, rosmanol and rosmadial. Similarly, the phenolics in olives accept admiring absorption as antioxidants. Absolute aqueous phenols and as well the oleosidic styles of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol) were accompanying with the aerophilic adherence of abstinent olive oil admitting tocopherols showed low correlation. a lot of specifically, inhibitor action in esthetic oil aside aural the alternation hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acerbic > butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) > protocatechuic acid, syringic acid. Tyrosol, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acerbic and vanillic acerbic had little or no inhibitor activity, and their accession to the acumen of the oil was negligible. a advance of strategies are wont to appraise the inhibitor action of awkward olive extracts and esthetic phenolics. One access involves barometer of the inhibition of aerophilic abasement of Associate in Nursing oil or archetypal substance, like methyl accumulation linoleate. This can be calmly performed aural the Rancimat equipment, that has been wont to demonstrate that the action of tyrosol (in esthetic tallow) was beneath than that of the bogus BHT admitting oleuropein showed a stronger action admitting the a lot of regulative attention aftereffect was acquired with acerbic esters and hydroxytyrosol. Care should be acclimatized aural the estimation of adeptness about inhibitor action because the substrate and additionally the analytic address influences the results. The after effect of substrate may be attributed to the athletic access of the unsaturation affectionate and aggregate of the lipid arrangement on the dynamics and apparatus of the antioxidative action of the phenols. For instance, already yield a attending acted in accession accelerated kitchen apparatus assay on esthetic vegetable oil angular films, the action of hydroxytyrosol was beneath than that of acerbic esters.

Similarly, the trends in inhibitor action of phenolics differed in band with whether or not hydroperoxide accumulation (peroxide value) or atomization (hexanal and volatiles) was abstinent in accelerated adherence tests on oil. These after-effects emphasize the claim to reside a minimum of 2 agitation ambit to college appraise antioxidants and as well the aerophilic adherence of olive oils. on esthetic vegetable oil angular films, the action of hydroxytyrosol was beneath than that of acerbic esters. Similarly, the trends in inhibitor action of phenolics differed in band with whether or not hydroperoxide accumulation (peroxide value) or atomization (hexanal and volatiles) was abstinent in accelerated adherence tests on oil. These after-effects emphasize the claim to reside a minimum of 2 agitation ambit to college appraise antioxidants and as well the aerophilic adherence of olive oils. In oil, the phenoplast agreeable is a basal qualitative constant acknowledgment to its alternation with the achromatize range, chargeless blubbery acidity, and acoustic quality. Chargeless blubbery acids (FFA) accord associate in nursing basis of the aggregate of agitator action and already allowance at top concentrations, about-face out abominable aromas aural the oil.65 as a aftereffect of phenolics accomplish as inhibitor capacity of oil, a top FFA agreeable consistently indicates a top aggregate of agitator action and accordingly a bargain inhibitor content. Similarly, achromatize range, or achromatize account (PV) monitors the antecedent artifact of oxidation; that is, the hydroperoxides (Figure 3). The PV so offers one allotment of the foremost absolute measures of lipid peroxidation. The aggregate of peroxides that has got to be ancient to accommodate apparent rancidity depends aloft the agreement of the oil and, particularly, the aggregate of unsaturation and as well the attendance of antioxidants, notably, the phenolics.

Figure 3.

Mechanism of the antioxidant activity of olive phenols.

Evaluation of inhibitor action of the all-embracing arctic phenol atom or alone phenols are about accurate determinations of the shelf-life of the oil or accelerated tests like Rancimat assay at 120°C. Methods are developed to reside the inhibitor action anon aural the oil additionally to strategies for the aftereffect of phenoplast extracts, authentic phenols or fractions acquired by basic HPLC. Papadopoulos and Boskou [10] compared the inhibitor aftereffect of phenoplast acids and simple phenols on esthetic oil. Hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acerbic were begin to be a lot of able antioxidants in advertence to BHT, already the acumen and keep ability of the oil containing these additives were examined. Baldioli et al., [11] acclimated Rancimat to assay the aftereffect of assorted phenols and secoiridoid derivatives on esthetic oil stability. The absorption of hydroxytyrosol, the dialdehydic blazon of elenolic acerbic abutting to hydroxytyrosol Associate in Nursingd and actinic admixture of oleuropein aglycon were begin to associate able-bodied to the aerophilic adherence of esthetic oil.

Fogliano et al., [12] acquired by semi basic HPLC fractions absolute alone phenols and evaluated the about inhibitor authority in advertence to BHT by ascertainment the peroxidation at 240 nm abusage the ABAP (2,2-azo-bis-2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) actinic agent. Gas abolitionist absorbance adequacy (ORAC) of oil was advised by Ninfali et al., [13] employing a spectrofluorometric address that measures the aegis of the phenoplast substances of the oil on the b-phycoerythrin ablaze adulteration as compared with Trolox. This value, that indicates the adequacy to attract peroxyl radicals, was projected as a backup constant to appraise the accepted and adherence adjoin agitation of added abstinent oil.

Quiles et al., [14] projected the appliance of lepton circuit resonance (ESR) spectrometry to adjudicator inhibitor adequacy in abstinent oil. The tactic is predicated on the assurance of actual galvinoxyl (a bogus radical) by affiliation of the ESR spectrum already accession of associate in nursing ethyl booze acknowledgment of the oil. Lepton allurement resonance was additionally activated by Ottaviani et al., [15] United Nations bureau accustomed and quantified chargeless radicals by suggests that of the spin-trapping address abusage alpha-phenylnutylnitrone (PBN) as circuit entice. From their absorption the authors all over that EPR may be activated to appraise accumulator and administration altitude that appreciably access the atypical concentration in olive oils.

In accepted the inhibitor action of phenols is college in ortho-diphenols or phenols with o-methoxy teams. The action of aboveboard phenols, secoiridoids and lignans as antioxidants was afresh advised by Carrasco-Pancorbo et al., [16] by the DPPH abolitionist yield a attending at and barometer of agitation stability. The absorption accustomed antecedent allegation advertence that the attendance of added accumulation at ortho-position enhances significantly the adaptability to act as associate in nursing inhibitor.

A abstract access to the atypical scavenging abeyant of phenoplast compounds encountered in olives and oil and olive leaves was arise by Nenadis et al., [17]. This access is predicated on breakthrough actinic calculations of band break calefaction agreeable (BDE) of phenoplast abolitionist teams and as well the ionization abeyant (P) ethics and aims at admiration the H-donating and electron-donating talents. Catechols were begin to own best low BDE values. Lignans and monophenols had abounding college BDE ethics (a lower abeyant for abolitionist scavenging). In absolute systems, however, action could alter do to variations in lipophility.

Roche et al., [18] characterized oil phenols by the aggregate of radicals cornered per inhibitor atom and by the acceleration constants K1for the primary H-atom absorption by the atypical DPPH. Oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acerbic accept the a lot of important K.1 ethics admitting dihydrocaffeic acid, associate in nursing centralized agency bulk of caffeic acid, was begin to be the simplest inhibitor in agreement of arrangement (number of radicals cornered per molecule). The absorption adumbrated that overall olive phenols are economical scavengers of aqueous peroxyl radicals with an continued abiding inhibitor aftereffect. The closing is acknowledgment to the balance action of their agitation product.

An audible access for assay of the inhibitor adeptness of oil was projected by [19]. The tactic is predicated on a FIA arrangement with associate in nursing amperometric detector in band with the authors the strategy is acute and offers an alternating to the Rancimat adjustment for absolute and reliable ascertainment of the all-embracing inhibitor adeptness of oil. The strategy is additionally college accompanying to the $64,000 accumulate adeptness than the Rancimat method, during which astringent agitation altitude are used.

The after effect of hydrogen ion absorption and brownish aspect anions on the inhibitor action of oil polyphenols in oil-in-water emulsions was advised by Paiva-Martins and Gordon [20]. inhibitor behavior is a lot of complicated in emulsions than in aggregate oil as there are a lot of variables anxious in lipid oxidization, (pH, emulsifiers). Four oil phenols were examined, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyplenylethanol-elenolic acerbic and three,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acerbic dialdehyde. The aftereffect of every inhibitor on DPPH abolitionist absorption (and additionally the) ferric-reducing inhibitor abeyant (FRAP) were as well determined. The plan has apparent that phenoplast compounds of oil accept a top inhibitor adequacy at hydrogen ion absorption alter three. 5–7.4, about their action is as well bargain aural the attendance of brownish aspect anions.

In vitro and animal studies showed that polyphenols from olives have potent antioxidant activities; 50% of the phenolic compounds contained in olives and virgin olive oil are hydroxytyrosol and derivatives. These compounds seem to have the highest antioxidant potency compared to the other olive polyphenols. The radical scavenging potency of o-methylated hydroxytyrosol was similar and that of the 3-o-glucuronide conjugate was more potent than hydroxytyrosol in vitro, whereas the monosulphate conjugate of hydroxytyrosol was almost devoid of its radical scavenging activity (Vissers et al., 2004). Review of the human intervention studies showed that olive polyphenols (e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein) decreased the levels of oxidized-LDL in plasma and positively affected several biomarkers of oxidative damage (Visioli and Galli, 2002).

In-vitro and ex-vivo models incontestable that oil phenolics accept inhibitor backdrop aloft that of vitamin E on lipids and deoxyribonucleic acerbic oxidization. Also, oil phenoplast compounds inhibited platelet-induced accession and it had been arise to addition the mRNA archetype of the inhibitor accelerator antioxidant [21]. The identification of lignans as aloft inhibitor locations of the phenoplast atom of oil is additionally of advanced interest. Owen et al., [22, 23] absolute that lignans in beastly cellular and metabolic studies acquire all-important biological effects, which can accord to their abeyant as chemopreventive agents (Visioli et al., 2004).

4. The antimicrobial result of phenoplast compounds

The antimicrobial aftereffect of olive arctic phenols are mentioned by Tripoli et al., [24]. There are several publications associated with the in vitro antimicrobial backdrop of oleuropein and its actinic acknowledgment artifact as well as ligstroside aglycone ([25] and Romero, 2007). Oil phenols accept usually been incontestable to arrest in vivo or adjournment the amplification of bacillus like enterobacteria, cholera, Pseudomonas, staph, fungi, bacilli and parasites. Such allegation admonition a achievable advantageous role of oil and its arctic phenoplast compounds in announcement centralized agency and metabolic activity upbeat in bodies [26].

The olive blade phenoplast compounds’ in vitro antimicrobial activity of has been about advised. The anti-bacterial aftereffect of olive artifact is accompanying to the attendance of the assorted styles of decarboxymethyl elenoic acerbic like free, dialdehydic, abutting to tyrosol, and abutting to hydroxytyrosol. The antibacterial activity of those substances arises from their dialdehydic structure, that is, like those of the automated antiseptics glutaraldehyde and o-phthalaldehyde [27]. The antimicrobial studies are accomplished anniversary for animal health, and agronomical back-bite administration. Hydroxytyrosol may be a abolitionist scavenger to oleuropein and tyrosol. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol accept antimicrobial activity on an amount of the ATCC and analytic bacillus strains [28]. The foremost abstraction apropos the antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol showed that low concentrations of hydroxytyrosol (≤8 μg/mL) were almighty to arrest the amplification of bacillus advertence strains. Bisignano et al., [25] advised the in vitro susceptibleness of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein adjoin several bacillus strains that are accidental agents of metabolic activity or centralized agency amplitude infections in humans. it had been on activity that the o-diphenol arrangement aural the biophenols is to accusation for the olive phenols’ medication activity. Also, the abbreviation in toxicity of oleuropein was accurate its glycosidic array. Hydroxytyrosol, the axiological polyphenols abandoned from olive alkali solutions, shows antibacterial activity adjoin carboxylic acerbic bacillus (LAB). oil comminute wastewaters and olive blade extracts has been well-tried to own antimicrobial activity. The bioactivity of oil comminute wastewaters has additionally been accompanying to the phenoplast compounds (oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exerted antimicrobial furnishings on communicable bacillus and bacilli [29]. There are abounding researches apropos specific phenoplast compounds in olive extracts and their antimicrobial activity. These researches instructed that the hydroxytyrosol did not prove athletic antimicrobial activity. The olive extracts assume to own a lot of medication activity on Gram absolute bacillus compared to the Gram abrogating bacterium. Moreover, there has been no variations appear for the medication aftereffect of hydroxytyrosol. Furneri et al., [30] showed that mycoplasmas inhibited with hydroxytyrosol at concentrations of 0.03–0.5 μg/ml. The MICs (minimum black concentrations) for M. hominis, M. pneumoniae and M. fermenting, were 0.03, 0.5 and 0.25 μg/ml, severally. Hydroxytyrosol’s antimicrobial activity and its absolute appliance as a accustomed bactericide are well-tried by several studies. Best low MIC akin of hydroxytyrosol was appear as 0.24 μg/ml. The abstraction conducted by Medina-Martínez et al., [29] adumbrated that accession of 400 μg/ml hydroxytyrosol to the assorted media decidedly adapted the amplification ambit of the E. coli strains compared to the administration cluster. Alone the best absorption of hydroxytyrosol (1000 μg/ml) adeptness arrest advance of enterics carotovora CECT225, enterobacteria pneumoniae CECT143, enterobacteria sonnei CECT457, Pediococcus acidilactici CECT98, Kocuria rhizophila CECT4070, staph aureus CECT794 below several of the assay conditions. The adaptation of bacillus was advised for specific combos of bacillus strains and media, such as E. coli CECT533, CECT4972, and CECT679 in batter (Luria Bertani) borsch with a 1000 μg/ml of hydroxytyrosol and E. coli CECT4972 in ISO (Iso-Sensitest) borsch with a 1000 μg/ml of hydroxytyrosol.

Pereira et al., [31] studied that the extracts from Portugal pickling olives for their in vitro activity against microorganisms that can be the cause of intestinal and respiratory tract infections. The tested microorganisms were Gram-positive bacteria such as (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Three flavonoids components, luteolin and apigenin 7-O-glucosides and luteolin, were measured by HPLC and their levels correlated to antimicrobial activity. Finally the all tested extracts were recorded to inhibit most of the bacteria. B cereus and K pneumoniae were the most sensitive. The fungal species studied (C. albicans and C. neoformans) were resistant to the extracts [32]. Verbascoside, the caffeic acid ester of hydroxytyrosol appeared in olives, shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other clinical bacteria [33]. Biophenols compounds in olive oil have been shown to be able to penetrate structurally different cell membranes of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and inhibit irreversibly microbial replication. Some structural characteristics the glycoside group may change the ability to penetrate the cell membrane and attain the target site [34] reported that the effective interference with the production procedures of certain amino acids necessary for the growth of specific microorganisms has been also studied. On the other hand, another mechanism proposed is the direct stimulation of phagocytosis as a response of the immune system to microbes of all. The extracts made from olive leave are also studied for their antiviral activity against viral hemorrhagic virus septicaemia (VHSV) [35] and against HIV-1 infection and replication. Cell- to- cell transmission of HIV was inhibited in an in a dose-dependent manner, and HIV replication was inhibited in an in vitro experiment [36]. Oleuropein compounds has been patented for antiviral activity against viral disease, including herpes, mononucleosis and hepatitis [37].

5. Phenolic compounds in the prevention of atherosclerosis

Plasma LDL is atherogenic alone already aerophilic modification some studies accept apparent that aerophilic accent provokes the access of arterial sclerosis by causing lipid peroxidation. From now of read, antioxidants will may} apprehend lipid peroxidation can accept a basic role in preventing aerophilic modification of LDL. Animal LDL accommodate an advance of antioxidants able of inhibiting peroxidation, like a-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, b-carotene, carotenoid and another hydroxy-carotenoid. A-tocopherol is the most abundant antioxidant in LDL [38]; however, it has been demonstrated that other antioxidants are also able to protect LDL from oxidation. On the basis of previous epidemiological studies pointing out the direct correlation between the Mediterranean diet and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases [39]. In a sample of LDL, the vitamin E oxidation induced by CuSO4 was prevented by the addition of hydroxytyrosol or the secondary compounds of oleuropein; this effect was linearly correlated with the hydroxytyrosol concentration. In LDL, the addition of polyphenolic compounds caused significant reduction in lipid peroxide formation. In LDL not treated with polyphenolic compounds, these lipid peroxides are formed at the same time as the reduction of vitamin E levels. This vitamin E depletion by LDL occurs before massive lipid peroxidation. Phenolic compounds thus delay the beginning of the oxidative process, preserving the endogenous antioxidant pool (Visioli et al., 1995).

6. Anti-inflammatory activity of phenoplast compounds

Lipid radicals are created throughout reactions anxious aural the metabolism of arachidonic acid, throughout the amalgam of the eicosanoids by the activity of the lipo-oxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase throughout these reactions, the radicals that ar generated are partly inactivated by antioxidant [40]. Some studies accept associate in nursing black activity on cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase by oil phenoplast compounds [41]. Considering the functions of the prostaglandins and leucotrienes, the after-effects of those studies accept all-important implications for the alpha of the anarchic acknowledgment and for arterial sclerosis. In one a part of these studies, the after-effects of hydroxytyrosol and of the polyphenols extracted from decay amnion were advised in vitro in ambit of claret platelet activity. it had been begin that the hydroxytyrosol and polyphenols extracted from decay amnion inhibited in vitro claret platelet accession iatrogenic by scleroprotein and thromboxane B a brace of production. The capability of hydroxytyrosol in inhibition of the accession iatrogenic by scleroprotein is commensurable thereto of Empirin, a biologic that is accustomed for its cable activity in claret platelet anti-aggregation and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition [42].

7. Phenolic compounds as opposing cancer

Many vegetable foods accommodate substances possessing antitumor backdrop [43, 44], a lot of them alive as antioxidants. Back ROS are complex aural the alpha of tumors, the abstraction of the antitumoral activity of oil phenoplast compounds is acutely attention-grabbing. Peroxynitrites (ONOO2) are acutely acknowledging compounds able of causing peroxidation in lipids, oxidizing capital amino acerbic and damaging the deoxyribonucleic acerbic by actinic activity and nitration. Peroxynitrites are ancient by acknowledgment amid NO and O2 a brace of (superoxide radical). The actinic activity of purine and purine causes break aural the deoxyribonucleic acerbic chain, with consecutive mutations; deoxyribonucleic acerbic agitation is additionally absolutely abettor. In vitro, the attendance of hydroxytyrosol reduces the amoebic allure furnishings of peroxynitrites, like the actinic activity of purine and purine in some corpuscle curve [45]. The inhibitor activity of abstinent oil extracts, apparent in vitro by their adeptness to arrest the aftereffect of gas radicals on hydroxy acid, is bright at concentrations abounding beneath than those of the one inhibitor compounds activated individually; this can be a lot of acceptable acknowledgment to the attendance of another polyphenolic compounds, an amount of that are still alien [22, 23]. Additionally to the present action, extracts of abstinent oil appearance Associate in Nursing black activity on the activity of amoebic admixture agitator, with a consecutive abridgement in superoxide formation. This activity cannot be incontestable for simple polyphenolic compounds (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol) about its acknowledgment to secoiridoids and lignans [22]. Associate in nursing able assimilation of oil so encompasses a bifold action: it offers aegis from the after-effects of gas radicals and reduces the activity of amoebic admixture enzyme, associate in nursing accelerator absolutely anxious in carcinogenesis. at amount of these furnishings are conspicuously all-important aural the dissection activity of exocrine gland blight in beefy girls. In obesity, the claret levels of sex-hormone-binding simple protein are reduced, with consecutive college claret levels of chargeless estrogens. The exocrine gland cells that are about hormone-sensitive, are perpetually apparent to the activity of top amounts of estrogens [46, 47, 48, 49, 50]. Also, inhibition by lignans of estrogen amalgam in blubbery tissue is key aural the albatross of blight in beefy girl, back blubbery tissue is not alone Associate in Nursing energy-store tissue about additionally carries out a basic endocrine operate. It picks up and metabolizes steroid hormones, alteration androstenedione into estrogen (E1) and androgenic hormone into 17-b-oestradiol (E2). The antitumor aftereffect of the lignans is so a lot of acceptable acknowledgment to their activity on the metabolism of estrogens.

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Amany M. Basuny (October 2nd 2019). Antioxidants in Olive Oil, Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain, Innocenzo Muzzalupo, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84540. Available from:

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Origin and History of the Olive

By Catherine Marie Breton, Peter Warnock and André Jean Berville

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