Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Motives of Training and Sport Routine Highly Qualified Athletes of 5-a-Side Blind Football National Sport Team of Russia

By Konstantin Popenko

Submitted: November 20th 2019Reviewed: December 18th 2019Published: September 9th 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90900

Downloaded: 15

Abstract

This article presents the results of studies on the motivation of highly qualified athletes involved in Paralympics sport football five-a-side, which was held at the international friendly tournament in Silvi Marina (Italy) in June 2018. The main factors determining the importance of results in achieving the results are physical and mental stresses corresponding to critical values. The study of sports motivation of qualified Paralympics football players of the national team of the Russian Federation began with the definition of a list of motives for playing football five-a-side (sports of the blind). Analysis and generalization of literary sources made it possible to form an extended circle of motivation, and interviewing and questioning current athletes and coaches, allowed to determine the list of motives of highly qualified athletes, included in the questionnaire for study. The study involved active athletes of the youth and main staff of the Russian national team. Football players represented three regions: Moscow, Moscow Region, and the Republic of Mari El. In total, 13 respondents took part in the survey. The data obtained were statistically processed using the method of average values (calculations were performed using the standard Microsoft Excel for Windows software package).

Keywords

  • Paralympics sport
  • five-a-side blind football
  • motivation
  • national sport team of Russia
  • highly qualified athletes
  • sports training management

1. Introduction

The development of adaptive sports in Russia at the territorial level is not evenly. Often several cities, regions or republics cultivate only a single species; therefore, athletes from two or three regions form the country’s national sport team.

The problems of developing Paralympic futsal (blind sports) remain without due attention, and only a few regions are actively involved in resolving them. One of these problems is the methodological content of the sports training programs for the sports reserve for five-a-side blind football. The program should include best practices in training the national team of the country, be applied in nature. The normative and methodological documentation for this Paralympics discipline is not informative or completely absent today, which means that there are no guidelines for the development of sports training programs both in the country as a whole and in the regions separately. The current methodological and used material is formal and borrowed from other sports, often intended for healthy athletes.

The study draws the attention of trainers and specialists about the need to apply a scientific and methodological approach to managing the training process not only in the preparation of high-class players of the national team, but also in the sports reserve at earlier stages of preparation.

2. Motives of training and sport routine highly qualified athletes of five-a-side blind football national sport team of Russia

In recent decades, the sport of the blind in the world is developing at a rapid pace. In the Russian Federation, according to the All-Russian Register of Sports, the sport of the blind includes 203 sports disciplines in 9 sports included in the program of the Paralympic Games (cycling tandem, goal ball, judo, athletics, swimming, futsal, skiing, ski racing, biathlon) [1].

The number of sporting events, both international and national, is increasing annually, and the number of participants is growing. With close cooperation between the federations, state, and public organizations of the disabled, significant work is underway to develop various sports for the visually impaired. Experienced coaches train disabled athletes (hereinafter referred to as athletes) for the national teams of Russia and the Russian Paralympic team. Together with the Russian Ministry of Sports, national and international competitions of various levels are organized and held. Particular attention is paid to working with children from sponsored boarding schools who undergo rehabilitation in clubs and sections [2].

Moreover, according to the President of the Blind Sports Federation Abramova Lidia Pavlovna, there is a tendency in Russia to uneven development sports disciplines of the sport of the blind at the regional level. Five-a-side blind football did not pass this trend, despite the fact that, along with athletics, swimming and ski racing, it is the most popular sport among blind and visually impaired people [3, 4].

So, in Moscow, Moscow Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, the Republic of Dagestan, the Republic of Mari El and the Republic of Tatarstan, the Khabarovsk Territory, much attention is paid to the development of 5 × 5 (B1) indoor football (blind sports) (hereinafter referred to as five-a-side blind football), then in other regions this is not observed. Today, problems associated with the training of qualified coaching personnel, the lack of a special methodology for training athletes and insufficient provision of scientific and methodological literature for the preparation of a sports reserve continue to remain unresolved [5, 6].

In this regard, for a more effective development of five-a-side blind football, it is necessary to resolve problems associated with the insufficient development of a scientifically based system for training coaches and athletes in this sport. It also requires refinement and improvement of the methodological content of the content of sports training programs, which should be based on many years of experience in training highly qualified Paralympic futsal players, players of the national team of the Russian Federation, demonstrating high results at international competitions in recent years. The sport of the highest achievements is associated with high social significance, a public assessment of successes and failures, publicity, interaction with the media. In stressful situations of competitive activity, under equal training conditions, when physical and mental stress reaches a critical value, the level of motivation and personal characteristics are crucial in achieving the result [7].

A highly qualified athlete enters into complex interactions and relationships with the chosen sport, which in turn presents special specific requirements for physical qualities, behavioral habits, personal characteristics, and his sports motivation. Therefore, it is so important for a high-class athlete, along with full compliance with the requirements of the sport, exceptional sports motivation, which will allow him to realize his potential, achieve high sports results, and become one of the best athletes in his country.

In parallel with this study, we carried out work on the study of the main motives for playing five-a-side blind football of qualified Italian football players [8].

Prerequisites for the work were the thesis based on scientific and methodological literature and coaching experience, according to which not all athletes who are gifted by nature achieve significant success. Therefore, the determination of the motivation features of highly qualified athletes can help the trainer not only in planning sports training with the optimal amount of training and competition load, but also in creating pedagogical conditions for implementing this training program.

Among the active domestic Russian researchers of motives, motives of sports activities in individual sports, issues of motivation in adaptive sports, A. A. Antonov, E. G. Babushkin, G. D. Babushkin, G. D. Gorbunov, G. B. Gorskaya, E. P. Ilyin, N. D. Ivanova, T. E. Kazakova, A. V. Korneva, M. A. Korneva, E. B. Kuzmin, A. S. Makhov, L. R. Makina, A. N. Nikolaev, E. A. Osokina, E. Yu. Pelikh, R. A. Piloyan, P. A. Rudik, O. M. Rumyantseva, O. G. Rysakova, A. V. Shaboltas, O. N. Stepanova, Zhabakov T. V., A. V. Zhalilov and E. G. Znamenskaya [2, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15].

Despite the great attention to sports motivation by scientists and experts in the field of physical culture and sports, an analysis of domestic Russian scientific literature showed that the motivation of high-class athletes has not been studied enough. Moreover, the study of the motives of sports activity of athletes in team types of adaptive sports was not carried out at all before.

2.1 Research methods and organization

The study of sports motivation of qualified Paralympic football players of the national team of the Russian Federation began with the definition of a list of motives for playing five-a-side blind football. Analysis and generalization of literary sources allowed us to form an expanded circle of motivation [2, 10, 14, 15], and interviewing and questioning existing athletes and coaches that are part of the country’s youth and main Paralympic futsal team, allowed us to determine the list of motives of highly qualified athletes, included in the questionnaire for this study (Table 1).

Dear colleagues!
The research group of state-financed institution of the Republic of Mari El “Sports-adaptive school of Paralympic reserve” (Yoshkar-Ola) and the Russian state social University (Moscow) addresses to you. Could you please answer the questionnaire?
The questionnaire
Please give us some information about yourself: your age is _________.
Place of residence (country, city) __________________________.
Below you can find a list of motives of qualified athletes to practice five-a-side blind football, evaluate the importance of each of them on a 10-point scale.
9–107–85–63–41–2
Extremely importantVery importantQuite importantNot very importantIt does not matter
Write down the chosen rate
NoМотивы квалифицированных спортсменовMotives of qualified athletesRate
1Постоянно находишься в состоянии физического или эмоционального напряженияYou are always in a state of physical or emotional stress10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2Мотивом является достижение успеха, которое постоянно подкрепляется промежуточными достижениями: гол, победа, медальYour motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
3Развивает характер, психические и физические качестваDevelops character, mental and physical qualities10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
4Совершенствование личностных качеств таких, как выдержка, воля, взаимопомощь, терпениеImprovement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5Нравится сам процесс спортивной подготовки и её составляющие компоненты: тренировки, сборы, товарищеские игры, контрольные соревнования и т.дYou like the process of sports training and its components: training, training camps, friendly games, control competitions, etc.10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
6Одобрение и поддержка со стороны значимых для меня людей: родственников, друзей, других близких людейApproval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7Способ удовлетворения потребности в новых ощущениях, и стремление доказать, что способен на большееA way to meet the need for new sensations, and the desire to prove that you are capable to do more10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
8Возможность проявить себя, свои способности, умения, личностные качестваThe opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
9Возможность выплеснуть эмоции, снять нервное и психическое напряжениеThe ability to throw out emotions, relieve nervous and mental tension10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
10Требования данного вида спорта понятны и близки моим внутренним убеждениям и ценностямThe requirements of this sport are clear and close to my inner beliefs and values10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
11Занимаюсь уже давно, привык, ничего другого не умеюI’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and cannot do anything else10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
12Способствует организованности, в том числе и в повседневной жизниContributes to the organization, including everyday life10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
13Высокий престиж побед в крупных соревнованияхHigh prestige of victories in major competitions10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
14Спорт высших достижений способ материального и финансового обеспечения себя и своей семьиSport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
15Возможность попасть в состав национальной сборной и представлять свою страну на международных соревнованияхThe opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
16Стремление совершенствовать свои способности, нет предела совершенстваThe desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
17Чтобы после окончания карьеры игрока попробовать себя в качестве тренераTo try myself as a coach after retiring as a player10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
18Чтобы получить специальность и стать спортивным чиновником для продвижения своего вида спорта, сделать его популярнымTo get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
19Потому что это красивый вид спортаBecause this kind of sport is very beautiful10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
20Чтобы иметь больше друзей и товарищейTo have more friends10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
21Расширить свой кругозор и мировоззрениеTo broaden my horizons and outlook10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
22Мне приятно, когда хвалит и одобряет тренерI am pleased when the coach praises and approves me10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
23Потому, что спортивный зал (спортивная база) близко (−а) от домаSports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
24Это такой вид спорта, где можно тренироваться индивидуально, независимо от другихThis is a sport where you can train individually, regardless of others10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
25Желание быть среди лучших и выдающихся спортсменовDesire to be one of the best and outstanding athletes10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
26Желание стать мастером спорта (мастером спорта международного класса)Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
27Семейная традиция, родители (брат или сестра) занимались спортомFamily tradition, parents (brother or sister) are engaged in sports10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
28Приятно испытывать чувство выполненного долга перед товарищами по командеIt’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
29Приятно, когда спортсменов показывают по телевидению, когда о них говорят по радио, пишут в газетах и журналахIt’s nice when athletes are shown on television, when people talk about them on the radio, in newspapers and magazines10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
30Нравится присутствие на соревнованиях родственников, друзей, товарищей, которые болеют за меня и восхищаются достигнутыми успехамиI like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
31Чтобы бросить дурные привычки, порвать с дурной компанией, отдалиться от улицыTo quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
32Чтобы быстрее восстановиться после перенесенной болезни (травмы)To recover quickly from illness (injury)10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
33Приятно испытывать радость победIt’s nice to experience the joy of the victory10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
34Считаю, что только в этом виде спорта смогу достичь значительных успеховI believe that only in this sport I will be able to achieve significant success10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
35Пригласил заниматься тренерMy coach invited me to join the team10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
36Чтобы оправдать надежды, возлагаемые на меня тренером, родителямиTo live up to the hopes of my coach, parents10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
37Чтобы быть более привлекательным для противоположного полаTo be more attractive to the opposite sex10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
38Потому что занятия спортом повышают чувство собственного достоинстваBecause doing sports increases self-esteem10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
39Желание стать чемпионом страны, Европы, мира и Паралимпийских игрDesire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
40Желание стать лидером, капитаном командыDesire to become a leader, a captain of the team10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Table 1.

Questionnaire of highly qualified athletes involved in five-a-side blind football.

Respondents were asked to indicate the degree (point) of importance of the proposed motives on a 10-point scale (1 point-minimum, 10 points-maximum). Moreover, depending on the degree of significance of the motive, expressed in points, the answers were divided into groups: 9–10 points: “extremely important”, 7–8 points: “very important”, 5–6 points: “pretty important”, 3–4 points: “not very important”, 1–2 points: “absolutely not important”.

The questionnaire was conducted in June 2018 during the period in which the international friendly football tournament 5 × 5 (B1) (sport of the blind) was held in Silvi Marina (Italy). The study involved active athletes of the youth and main staff of the Russian national team. Football players represented three regions: Moscow, Moscow Region and the Republic of Mari El. In total, 13 respondents took part in the survey. The data obtained were statistically processed using the method of average values (calculations were performed using the standard Microsoft Excel for Windows software package).

2.2 Results and its discussion

Questioning of Russian highly qualified Paralympic futsal players showed that four motives are not significant and are classified in the category “Absolutely not important” (1–2 points). Three motives scored an equal low average (X) value: “To get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular”; “Sports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house”; “I like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements”—2.538. Also included in this category is the motive “To quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street” with an average of 2.923. Values of mode (Mo) in the group of motives “Absolutely not important”—1 point, medians (Me)—2–3 points; the standard error (m) from 0.40 to 0.62 indicates the unanimity of the opinion of the athletes and the regularity of falling of these motives in the category of “absolutely not important”.

The motive group “Not very important” (3–4 points) is the largest, 15 motives from the average value of 3.462 (“Approval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people”) to 4.923 (“I’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and can’t do anything else”). The group is characterized by equal values of analytical indicators: mode from 1 to 5 points, median—2-5 points, standard deviation (σ) does not exceed the value of 3.26 points, and the error is not more than 0.9 points. The homogeneity of the motives of this group under consideration is confirmed by the indicators of excess (Ex) and asymmetry (As) close to the symmetric distribution. The motive group “Quite important” (5–6 points) consists of 10 motives from 5.154 (“To be more attractive to the opposite sex”) to 6.692 (“Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)”). The group is characterized by a symmetrical distribution, close points of the mean, mode and median. The values of the standard deviation and standard error also do not stand out from the general trend. Everything speaks of the homogeneity of the motives in question and the same opinion of the respondents regarding them.

The motives category (7–8 points) included motives with an average score of 7.154–8.769 (indicated by increasing average value): “The opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities”, “The desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection”, “It’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates”, “Desire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games”, “Develops character, mental and physical qualities”, “Improvement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience”, “The opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions”, “High prestige of victories in major competitions” and “Your motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal”. Despite a slight divergence of motives in terms of analytical indicators in each individual case, the general characteristic of their homogeneity and regularity of attribution to this group remains.

The most significant and relevant motives for the respondents-players of the Russian national team (9–10 points) were the motive “It’s nice to experience the joy of the victory” with average value of 9.0 and the motive “Sport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family”-9.462. In both cases, the median and mode correspond to the average score, the standard deviation is close to unity, and the error showed no more than 0.3 points. The exponents of the symmetric distribution of Ex and As are close to the normal distribution (Table 2).

Rank of relevanceQuestionnaire numberMotives of qualified athletesAverage score, X (points)Standard error, m (points)Median, Me (points)Mode, Mo (points)Standard deviation, σ (points)
114Sport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family94620.2710100.97
233It’s nice to experience the joy of the victory90000.309101.08
32Your motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal87690.329101.17
413High prestige of victories in major competitions87690.399101.42
515The opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions86920.369101.32
64Improvement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience83850.31881.12
73Develops character, mental and physical qualities80770.33881.19
839Desire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games78460.8210102.94
928It’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates76150.38881.39
1016The desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection75380.628102.22
118The opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities71540.32781.14
1226Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)66920.807102.87
1325Desire to be one of the best and outstanding athletes65380.78752.82
1422I am pleased when the coach praises and approves me58460.72552.61
1512Contributes to the organization, including everyday life57690.52651.88
167A way to meet the need for new sensations, and the desire to prove that you are capable to do more56920.38651.38
1738Because doing sports increases self-esteem56920.73662.63
1836To live up to the hopes of my coach, parents55380.62772.22
195You like the process of sports training and its components: training, training camps, friendly games, control competitions, etc.53080.29551.03
201You are always in a state of physical or emotional stress51540.54551.95
2137To be more attractive to the opposite sex51540.64562.30
2211I’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and cannot do anything else49230.55441.98
2334I believe that only in this sport I will be able to achieve48460.42551.52
2432To recover quickly from illness (injury)47690.39551.42
2535My coach invited me to join the team46150.83432.99
2640Desire to become a leader, a captain of the team45380.78412.82
2727Family tradition, parents (brother or sister) are engaged in sports44620.90513.26
289The ability to throw out emotions, relieve nervous and mental tension43850.29441.04
2910The requirements of this sport are clear and close to my inner beliefs and values41540.61552.19
3024This is a sport where you can train individually, regardless of others40770.58332.10
3129It’s nice when athletes are shown on television, when people talk about them on the radio, in newspapers and magazines40770.43431.55
3219Because this kind of sport is very beautiful40000.38441.35
3320To have more friends38460.77322.79
3417To try myself as a coach after retiring as a player36150.65412.33
3521To broaden my horizons and outlook36150.77222.79
366Approval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people34620.43331.56
3731To quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street29230.45311.61
3818To get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular25380.62212.22
3923Sports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house25380.40311.45
4030I like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements25380.43211.56

Table 2.

The results of mathematical and statistical processing of data on the motives of highly qualified Russian players involved in five-a-side blind football from the point of view of athletes (according to the results of the survey n = 13).

3. Conclusions

Summarizing the results, it should be emphasized the homogeneity and the same attitude of the Russian national team players to the motives proposed in the questionnaire to engage in five-a-side blind football. The values of the totality of analytical indicators reinforce the conclusion about the regularity of ranking and classifying each motive in the corresponding category of significance.

In this regard, the relevance of developing and improving the methodology for sports training of qualified 5 × 5 (B1) football players (sports of the blind) is beyond doubt.

Summing up the research attention should be paid to homogeneity and collective opinion regarding the group of motives of each significance category. Analytical calculations confirm this thesis. The survey results suggest that highly qualified.

Paralympic blind football players, possessing significant baggage of competitive experience, mainly international, are aware of the significant requirements of the sport in question, appreciating the importance of the correct way to prepare an athlete.

In accordance with this, the sports training of highly qualified Paralympic blind football players should be determined by the scientific and methodological content and be based on the international best practices of the best teams in organizing the sports training process.

Such an approach will allow not only high-class athletes to realize their potential and achieve the highest results, but also less qualified players to improve their skills and become candidates for joining the national team of the country in the future.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank everyone who participated and continues to participate in the study of the problems of Paralympic futsal (blind sports) in Russia. First of all, I would like to mention the doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor and part-time colleague of mine in five-a-side blind football sports team of the Russian Federation Alexander Makhov for valuable advice, guidance, experience in preparing and organizing scientific activities. My friend, chief and also colleague on the Russian national team, Pechenin Kirill, who supports me in my initiatives, provides a basis for research on the above topics.

I also express my respect for the work to the head coach of the Russian national team Alexander Nikolaevich Erastov, in which the team became the European champion in 2017, as well as to the head of the team Sputnov Valery Vasilyevich for unlimited optimism and imagination.

© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Konstantin Popenko (September 9th 2020). Motives of Training and Sport Routine Highly Qualified Athletes of 5-a-Side Blind Football National Sport Team of Russia, Sports, Health and Exercise Medicine, Samuel Honório, Marco Batista, João Serrano and Maria-Raquel G. Silva, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90900. Available from:

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