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Business, Management and Economics » "Research and Development Evolving Trends and Practices - Towards Human, Institutional and Economic Sectors Growth", book edited by Soha Maad, ISBN 978-953-51-3480-0, Print ISBN 978-953-51-3479-4, Published: September 6, 2017 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

# Human Development and Research-Development-Extension Relationships

By Orhan Özçatalbaş
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69096

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## Overview

Figure 1. Research and development expenditure by country groups.

Figure 2. Public expenditure on education by country groups (% of GDP, 2005–2014).

#### Figure 4.

Standard of living by country groups (% satisfied).

#### Figure 5.

Life expectancy by country groups (2014).

#### Figure 6.

Human development index (HDI) by country groups (2014).

As shown in Table 1 and Figure 7, R&D activities are examined by country groups during the period 2005–2012. According to this, in the high development group, R&D expenditures are highest (2.4% of GDP). Then, the high human development group (1.4%) followed by the medium (1.4%) and low groups (0.5%) are listed. It can be seen that as the level of economic development of the country increases, the share allocated to R&D is also increasing. This suggests that countries in the medium and low groups, especially those in need of redevelopment, should allocate more resources to R&D.

#### Figure 7.

Selected some important indicators by country groups.

The current development is measured by only quantitative data on national income, with national income the average life expectancy of population, education level, and living standard of society will be more meaningful if tried to use in the calculation method to explain development. In this respect, focusing on the development of past 40 years, living conditions in Turkey, Norway, Australia, and Oman are improved by 45, 17, 21, and 1.2%, respectively, and living conditions have been exacerbated in Zimbabwe (27%). As a result, the fact that the some aspects of human development index should be discussed. As a sample, Turkey is in the high development group for human development. Position at the last rows in the group of countries shows that there are many things to be done for the some other countries.

Consequently to increase the prosperity and development of the country, everyone who cares about this has a very big responsibility. For adaptation of this task by community as a mission and in a systematic way, national education policy should be sensitive in this issue and continuity and enforcement is needed. Time is needed for this cause, but from today, anyone who is part of this community in order to contribute to this area should start “doing his job right and doing job by giving his due right.” By developing our sensitivity in this direction, we can sustain this idea by contributing effort in our living and working environment.

## 4. A research and development (R&D) equipped with extension

The level of societal development is closely related to right planning of human resources and research and development policy. Well-equipped human resource is very important for research and development (R&D), and R & D has vital importance from resource development and efficient use of resources perspective. Research and development studies are essential for the future of countries. The first goal of the research must be pure science, for the future of humanity. However, the research should be aimed at changing the current situation, improving it, solving problems, and developing new technologies. The delivery of technologies developed in the second stage to the target groups should be the adoption of innovations. Countries get benefits from findings of the science in order to make their development sustainable and move ahead in this race. This is undoubtedly true for every sector. Animal and crop production can be given as an example to see concrete results. Even in terms of measurability of change, animal and crop production branches of science have important advantages. The reason behind countries with high agricultural potential cannot show the expected performance in agriculture is: inadequacies in human resource planning, lack of R&D, and failure to develop technology production capacity, along with ineffective operation of research and extension. Like in every sector, the technology that is produced cannot be delivered to target masses with the right method is big problem and need urgent importance. According to studies, in addition to R&D, R&E should also be considered important. If the findings do not arrive to target groups, sector, and stakeholders, it is not possible to get positive points from the “impact analysis” of the conducted research. For this reason, both research and development (R&D) and extension are important and should go parallel. Sufficient and adequate budget should be allocated to both.

### 4.1. Research and development policy

It is very clear that science and technology should be supported with long-term policy. Especially, in ensuring economic and social development, science and technology policies offer significant advantages in determining pace and direction of development.

Agriculture started to witness technological changes when the cultivators first experimented growing wild plants under different growing environment almost 10,000 years ago. For centuries, the technical performance of agriculture more or less remained the same in the great civilizations. Until middle of the nineteenth century, there were not any significant improvements in agricultural productivity. In the nineteenth century, induction of new sources of power and new machinery [8], development of scientific plant breeding led by Mendel’s experiment, and development of artificial fertilizers resulted rapid increase in agriculture productivity, principally in Europe and North America.

Research and development often abbreviated to R&D covers all creative work undertaken systematically with a view to increase the sum of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture, and the company, as well as the use of this sum of knowledge for new applications. In general, the term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research, and/or experimental development [9].

In 1960, Turkey switched to the planned development process. With that, the work on formulation of science and technology policies is continuing till date. During this process, Turkish science policy “Turkish Science and Technology Policy Draft (1993–2003)” has been put forward. However, although the documents contain important issues, by not fully putting in practice legal and institutional amendments made it difficult to reach expected results. Later on, work has been done to formulate a country vision on science and technology commonly accepted by all stakeholders (political institutions, public, private sector, and universities). As a result, “vision 2023: science and technology strategies project” entered implementation phase. Following activities are covered by project, assessing where Turkey stands in the field of science and technology, analysis of scientific and technological developments carried out in world with long-term objectives, acquirement of strategic technologies to achieve said targets, and formulation of policies aimed at developing or acquiring said technologies. According to decision of the supreme council of science and technology, in coordination with other related institutions and establishment, the task of implementation of the project has been assigned to the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). Turkey’s R&D policies are based on TUBITAK Vision 2023. Technology fields mentioned in this document (production, biotechnology, food processing, information, protection, diagnosis and treatment, storage and packaging, analysis and measurement, mechanization, and transport) are very closely related to agriculture. Technological activities related to R&D in food and agriculture sector (development of new genotypes seed with combination of classic breeding and technology; production of seed and seedlings; characterization and preservation of genetic resources; variety of processed products and food production methods and processes; food safety and credibility; development of production system in agriculture, forest, food, and fisheries products with help of infrastructure, tools, and equipments; combating disease pandemics with protection, control, and treatment techniques and enabling integrated combating; evaluation and development of natural resources and wildlife; and development and dissemination of remote sensing, early warning system, and information technologies in agriculture and forestry) are related to animal and crops production sector. This draft aims to make Turkey an advance country depending on science and modern technology, by healthy nutrition of society, ability to meet requirement in sufficient quantity and quality, protecting biological diversity and transforming into social welfare, economically, socially, and ecological sustainable, increasing productivity, with help of agriculture and agricultural industry. The Prime Ministry National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy document [10] makes important description to achieve above-mentioned developments. Attention is drawn toward issues that will increase the functionality of the basic dynamic in the R&D and innovation system; in this way, goal is to achieve sustainability by accelerating the speed of development in R&D and innovation capacity. Again, the development of human resources, encouraging the transformation of research results into commercial products and services, promoting multi-partner and multi-disciplinary R&D and innovation cooperation culture, encouraging SMEs to be stronger actors in the innovation system, increasing the contribution of research infrastructures to Turkey’s research field (TARAL), and enabling international cooperation in the development of the science, technology, and innovation strategy, is stressed in document.

### 4.2. The importance of extension and research collaboration

For decades, we know that the possibilities for expansion of cropland declined steadily over the entire planet. Due to deforestation and erosion of slopes, this approach increases the risk of environmental degradation in many parts of the world. That is why the only viable options that remain are increasing yields and the change in product mix. Increasing agricultural productivity is the more urgent task than any other task, the majority of the poor in the developing world live in rural areas, and the productivity of the sector is actually in decline in many low-income countries. The use of irrigation can dramatically improve yields. The adoption of irrigation requires training of farmers and provides extension services for a long time, but it can lead to a substantial increase in yields without intervention by agricultural research. Yet in most parts of the world, the possibilities of expansion of irrigated areas are also limited and, indeed, many of those already suffering from salinization, water-logging and other issues affecting productivity. Therefore, if it is done unsuitable application to better manage irrigation and extending the yield perimeters, it is impossible to rely on it for the physical basis of agricultural production increases which the world will much need in the future. Meeting this challenge comes mainly heavy agricultural technology development and transfer systems improved, i.e., research and agricultural extension. It also depends on the education systems of farm families; some observers even argue that education is the most important factor in improving productivity.

Fulginiti and Perrin [11] have reviewed the literature on the evolution of agricultural productivity in several countries and made their own estimates using other methodological approaches. They observed that all developed countries have experienced their agricultural productivity increase, whereas most low-income countries have seen their productivity decline, even when they have widely adopted the varieties of wheat and rice from the green revolution. Based on their own analysis, they concluded that the productivity decline is real and that the adverse agricultural pricing policies can be a major cause. The overall picture is however mixed. Masters et al. [12] found improvements in cereal yields in some districts of 13 African countries recently.

Despite some positive points, we can say that the performance of agricultural productivity in developing countries have been encouraging. It is clear that agricultural technology systems of these countries face a major challenge, which is likely to further intensify in the future and which is exacerbated by the general trend of reduced funding for agricultural research observed in developing countries over the past decades.

### 4.3. Research and extension policy

Research and extension systems play a crucial role in all sectors, especially agricultural and rural development [13]. As is known all over the world, one of the main purposes of extension is to increase the level of living standards of the rural family through nonformal education. Extension has a very crucial role to play in sustainable development [14]. Moreover, they are central to realizing the potential of agricultural innovation. Many developing countries, however, do not have sufficient resources to properly develop their capacity for innovation. More specifically, the activities of agricultural research institutions are often affected by scarce investments and poor financial management, as well as limitations in technology transfer strategies [13]. For that reason, to develop and enhance research and extension relations by suitable policy acts. In this context, it is necessary to make a strong effort to ensure that the findings of the research reach the producer as well as to the adoption. It is absolutely necessary to bring research and extension together.

Modern technologies and innovation are very important for rural development of many developing countries; these technologies are developed by research institutes or universities or in the other case imported from developed countries, which are leading in field of research and development. Two factors seemed to be very important for farm operators’ technology use on farms: a public and private organization engaged in dissemination of recent innovations and technologies to rural areas and second is socioeconomic characteristics and information seeking behaviors of farm operators, which influence their decision to select information sources of information. It is necessary for farm operators to know about how to carry various framing practices like soil preparation, selection of seed and sowing techniques, fertilizations, disease and pest management, irrigation and harvesting, and storage, for the reason of survival in competitive market and more stable income [15]. Agricultural information systems have very important role in rural development. Besides new information create; professional expert and suitable input via several factors is required to develop. Factors those take place in the list are rural folks, field staff of extension organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and research institutes, becoming increasingly popular in many countries local municipal authorities [16]. Despite the fact that rural population requires extension services, training, and access to information, share of budget endowed is very limited around the globe [17].

It is necessary to clarify the topic here. In particular, R&D refers to the process leading up to the introduction of a technology. However, even if it is not prevailing in sector like industry where professional sense is dominant, but there are many difficulties in quickly and timely reaching findings of research to target groups, especially in the agriculture sector of developing countries. It is necessary that the technologies that are produced are derived from the old technology and are used rapidly in the production process. From this perspective, research and extension (R&E) is equally important like research and development (R&D). Because there is risk that developed technologies will remain in libraries or electronic data banks without coming in force. From this perspective, budget, time, and human resources are used at great cost to produce these research findings or output, their effectiveness and dissemination is important. For this reason, R&E is important like R&D [18]. There are many ancient examples, especially of not taking advantage of technologies produced in rural areas. Maximum efforts should be made to ensure that research and extension get equal importance.

## 5. Conclusion

Human capital is the most important strategic factor for development and also rural development; as new technologies emerge, the market demand for better and healthier products and consumer demand in terms of quality and delivery time are changing. In today’s world, it becomes increasingly important to know how information can be accessed, how it is adopted, and how it can be assimilated. In this respect, each country allocates budget for training, education, and extension according to its own conditions. This budget may be intended for rural community-based social assistance, but the economic and welfare effect is essential. In this way, it is aimed to increase the living standards of the families living in the rural areas. This will naturally contribute to national income and to the prosperity of society.

When Turkey is taken as an example to have huge experiences. in 1846, Agricultural education was started in Turkey. However, the main developments on agricultural research and extension have occurred since the 1930s [19]. Generally, it is developing policies to increase public prosperity in the new millennium in the framework of these developments. According to this, since the beginning of 2000, Turkey with its policies has made important leaps in the field of human, science, and technology development. Turkey has made significant even radical changes in science and R&D policies. Between 2003 and 2004, while increasing its National Income from 305 to 800 billion dollar and increasing GDP 2.6 times, Turkey increased it R&D expenditures seven times. Therefore, the share of R&D has increased to above 1% of GDP in 2015, which was 0.48% in 2003. Private sector stands first with 49.8% in R&D expenditures, followed by higher education (40.5%) and public institutions (9.7%). In 2014, 51% of R&D expenditures are financed by commercial sector, 26% by public, 18% by higher education, 3% by other domestic resources, and 1% by foreign sources. Agriculture share in R&D expenditure are 4%, out of 572 million dollar 51% is by public sector, 46% by higher education, and 3% by private sector [20]. As a result, in order to reach 2023 targets, Turkey is determined to carry out its consistent and innovative policies in the science and technology field. With increasing R&D share from 1 to 3% and R&E integrity, it will achieve significant improvements in livestock and crop production sector like other in other sectors.

As a result, all over the world, particularly in developing countries, that R&E is very important and should be considered at least as much as R&D. However, it will be ensured that societies meet with the technology produced. For this, the development of human resources should be emphasized and a suitable atmosphere should be prepared for this widespread prosperity.

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