Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Hydro Energy Potential for Electricity Generating on Selected Regions in Turkey

By Ibrahim Yuksel, Omer Yuksek and Hasan Arman

Submitted: October 31st 2019Reviewed: February 5th 2020Published: March 5th 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91625

Downloaded: 153

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to provide that hydroelectric energy production in Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins which are selected as pilot region in Turkey. Hydroelectric energy has an important place in energy sector is generated from 26 main Basins in Turkey. Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins are very important water resource in Turkey. In this study, hydro energy potential for electricity generating has been investigated in Turkey and hydro energy potential determined for the selected small streams in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins by using hydro energy calculating methods.

Keywords

  • hydropower
  • energy potential
  • electricity generation
  • Sakarya Basin
  • Eastern Black Sea Basin
  • Turkey

1. Introduction

The Energy Market Regulatory Agency (EMRA) has license fee exemption for renewable energy investors and the Turkish Electricity Trading Company, TETAS, can provide buying guarantees to renewable energy, further supporting inward investment.

In Turkey, present and future installed electricity capacity by energy sources is given in the Table 1. According to the projection, the share of hydro capacity will be highest with 37.4% and share of natural gas will be 32.6%. Renewable energy supply for at the present and in the future in Turkey is given in the Table 2 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and the hare of sources in electricity generation in 2020 is given ın the Figure 1.

Energy source201020122014201620182020
Lignite828082808280828082808280
Hard coal560560560560560560
Imported coal184034704680469046904690
Natural gas14,84017,56018,40018,40018,40018,400
Geothermal909090909090
Fuel oil190019001900190019001900
Other29,38233,92035,97035,98035,98035,980
Hydropower16,39319,88019,88021,09421,09421,112
Total (MW)45,25553,32055,37056,59456,59456,612

Table 1.

Present and future installed electricity capacity by energy sources (MW) in Turkey.

Renewable energy sources20002005201020152020
Primary energy supply
Hydropower (ktoe)26564067490370609419
Geothermal, solar and wind (ktoe)9781683289642426397
Biomass and waste (ktoe)64575325441640013925
Renewable energy production (ktoe)10,09111,07412,21515,30319,741
Share of total domestic production (%)3848332930
Share of TPES (%)12121099
Generation
Hydropower (GWh)30,87947,28757,00982,095109,524
Geothermal, solar and wind (GWh)109490527470208766
Renewable energy generation (GWh)30,98847,77762,28389,115118,290
Share of total generation (%)2529262525
Total final consumption
Geothermal, solar and wind (ktoe)9101385214533415346
Biomass and waste (ktoe)64575325441640013925
Renewable total consumption (ktoe)73676710656173429271
Share of total final consumption (%)1210766

Table 2.

Renewable energy supply in Turkey.

Figure 1.

Share of sources in electricity generation in 2020.

2. Hydropower capacity and hydropower development in Turkey

In the last decade a lot of dams and small hydropower have been planned to build in Turkey in Eastern Black Sea and Sakarya Basins also. Most of them have been already completed (for example Deriner Dam 669.60 MV in Artvin) and others under construction (for example Yusufeli Dam 558 MV in Yusufeli) in the eastern Black Sea region. Similarly, Adasu Small Hydropower (10 MV) has been completed and Akçay Dam (12 MV) under construction in Pamukova in Sakarya Basin.

On the other hand, in the last two decades a lot of dams and small hydropower (SHP) either completed or under construction in Turkey. State Hydraulic Works (DSI) provided equipment for the 140 MW Kigi project in Turkey, including three 46.6 MW turbines with pre-turbine gate valves, three generators of the same capacity, switchgear, and all other equipment for the turbine hall [8].

Figures 2 and 3 show hydropower global capacity, shares of top six countries and hydropower capacity and additions, top six countries for capacity added, 2013 respectively [8, 9].

Figure 2.

Hydropower global capacity, shares of top six countries, 2013.

Figure 3.

Hydropower capacity and additions, top six countries for capacity added, 2013.

3. Calculation method of hydroelectric potential

There are different methods for calculating hydroelectric energy. Since the amount of energy depends mostly on the water drop and water discharge values it is decided to use the method which is mentioned from some literatures [10, 11]. The method and it equations as follows:

N=γHQE1

The equation, N = γ*H*Q , N = 9.81*H*Q* ր (ր = 0.85–0.92) can be written for N and ր is 0.85 the N is calculated as:

N=8HQE2

and then E is calculated as:

E=N24365E3

In these equations:

N = Power (tm/s), (1 tm/s= 9.81 kW = 13.3 HP) and it goes to (kW, MV, GW)

γ = Specific weight (t/m3)

H = Water drop (head of water) (m)

Q =Water discharge (m3/s)

E = Energy value of water resource (kWh, MWh, GWh)

4. Hydro energy potential for electricity generating on Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins

4.1 Water resources and hydro energy capacity in Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins

Out of 26 main basins, Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins are very important about hydro energy potential in Turkey.

In 2016, Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins have 63.358 km2 and 22.845 km2 area and 5.16 km3 and 16.46 km3 annual average flow respectively.

In this study, some streams which are observed their water discharge and the others hydraulics and hydrological characteristic were selected in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins [12, 13].

When considered the alternative energy resources, hydroelectric generation is not generally achieved in Turkey, especially in Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins. However, with some laws and regulations enacted, in many activities and opportunities such as construction, production and distribution related to investments carried out exclusively by the Turkish Government, but private sectors have not used enough these opportunities yet. Therefore, by using these facilities well, it will be possible for the private sector to close the energy gap in Turkey or to minimize it by evaluating the river resources in the region [14]. In this study, some small streams have been selected and their hydro energy potential determined for Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins in Turkey.

4.2 Hydroelectric values for selected small streams in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins

There are three types of potential which are gross (theoretical) potential, technical potential and economical potential [12, 15, 16].

Economical potential in generally depends on some geological and technical conditions such as geographical structure of basin, technical team and equipment facilities etc. To calculate of hydropower potential for selected streams in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins the equations 1, 2 and 3 are used.

Hydroelectric Power (N) and hydroelectric energy (E) have been calculated by using this method. Hydroelectric power and hydroelectric energy values for selected streams in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins are given in the Tables 3 and 4 respectively.

Stream and station nameWater discharge (Q), m3/sWater drop (head of water) (H), mHydroelectric power (kW)Hydroelectric energy (GWh)
Sakarya River - Dogancay121414217364
Kocasu - Rustumkoy17.91983013260
Sakarya River - Aktas7.198375115442
Aladağ Stream - Karakoy13.35055709493
Mudurnu Stream - Dokurcun7.752861884163
Total19,9381722

Table 3.

Hydroelectric power and hydroelectric values for selected streams in the Sakarya Basin.

Name of selected small streamAverage water discharge (m3/s)Average water drop (altitude) (m)Hydroelectric power (kW)Hydroelectric energy (GWh)
Iskefiye Stream1.35355.56448.74
Sana Stream1.54555.46047.83
Orta Stream1.052852.39420.97
Horyan Stream1.122302.06118.05
Canakci Stream2.364057.64666.98
Yanbolu Stream4.90602.35220.60
Kalyan Stream2.451352.64623.18
Fol Stream2.911553.60831.61
Kucuk Stream2.341102.05918.04
Durana Stream1.71901.23110.79
Kadiralak Stream2.901353.13227.44
Manahoz Stream4.98652.59022.68
Baltaci Stream.5.72753.43230.06
Altıntas Stream4.11953.12427.36
Acisu Stream1.561551.93416.95
Akhisar Stream1.601051.34411.77
Solakli Stream2.131051.78915.67
Holo Stream2.65952.01417.64
Askaroz Stream6.261055.25846.06
Kokasor Stream4.031053.38529.65
Pilahoz Stream2.50951.90016.64
Potomya Stream0.841459748.54
Hako Stream0.831056976.11
Hongra Stream.0.361053022.65
Buyuk Stream1.561051.31011.48
Vanazit Stream.2.56701.43412.56
Zekere Stream1.851051.55413.61
Kizilev Stream6.341055.32646.65
Koyunham Stream1.471051.23510.82
Baltama Stream1.761051.47812.95
Tokmadin Stream1.282452.50921.98
Bal Stream0.671558317.28
Catalcam Stream0.891258907.80
Kirikli Stream0.80956.085.33
Yagli Stream13.01555.72450.15
Total89.798786.61

Table 4.

Hydroelectric power and hydroelectric values for selected streams in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (some data are from [17]).

5. Conclusion

In this study shows that Turkey has abundant hydropower energy sources and great renewable energy potential and is keen to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels by increasing its use of renewable energy resources. The hydropower sector is a good example of the increasing interest in generation of electricity with renewable resources. It is expected that the Government will call for tenders for hydropower licenses.

It is well known that the environmental impacts of hydro plants are minimal compared with alternative resources. They make use of our renewable “green energy” resource, without causing pollution. It is not enough for governments to support the development of renewable energy technologies. They must also support their commercial application in the country.

On the other hand, hydroelectric facilities are very valuable resources in Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins, which has a great potential due to meteorological, topographic, hydraulics and hydrological conditions. Using this potential, the economic situation of people most of whom are unemployed and poor and live rural areas will be significantly improved.

Since small hydropower plants are river type hydropower plants, small hydropower potential should be used in the country especially in the Sakarya and Eastern Black Sea Basins. Because river type power plants are superior than the other plants, this type plants have not only cost and operational features but also good environmental effects.

List of symbols and abbreviations

E

energy value (kgm)

N

power (kgm/s)

γ

specific weight (kg/m3)

Q

water discharge (m3/s)

H

head of water drop (m)

ր

efficiency factor of turbine (%)

S

statistic

V

variance

ti

the number of ties of length (m).

Z

the statistic S is then standardized

d

difference between ranks

n

number of data

R

rank value

S

Sen’s slope

x

denotes the variable

i and j

indices

b

median Sk

TWh

terra watt hour

GWh

giga watt hour

MWh

mega watt hour

kW

kilo watt

© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ibrahim Yuksel, Omer Yuksek and Hasan Arman (March 5th 2020). Hydro Energy Potential for Electricity Generating on Selected Regions in Turkey, Renewable Energy - Technologies and Applications, Tolga Taner, Archana Tiwari and Taha Selim Ustun, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91625. Available from:

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