InTech uses cookies to offer you the best online experience. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Privacy Policy.

Engineering » Biomedical Engineering » "Biosensors for Health, Environment and Biosecurity", book edited by Pier Andrea Serra, ISBN 978-953-307-443-6, Published: July 19, 2011 under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

Chapter 9

Biosensors for detection of Low-Density Lipoprotein and its modified forms

By Cesar Andrade, Maria Danielly Oliveira, Tanize Faulin, Vitor Hering and Dulcineia Saes Parra Abdalla
DOI: 10.5772/19938

  1. I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, A. Lakhtakia, 2008 Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing: A Mini-Review. Electromagnetics, 28 3 (April 2008) p.p. 214 EOF 242 EOF , 0272-6343

  2. S. P. Annangudi, Y. Deng, X. Gu, W. Zhang, J. W. Crabb, R. G. Salomon, 2008 Low-density lipoprotein has an enormous capacity to bind (E)-4-hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE): detection and characterization of lysyl and histidyl adducts containing multiple molecules of HNE. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21 7 1384-1395, 0089-3228X.

  3. M. Antonini, P. Ghisellini, C. Paternolli, C. Nicolini, 2004 Electrochemical study of the interaction between cytochrome 450sccK201E and cholesterol. Talanta, 62 5 945-950, 0039-9140

  4. A. Arnau, 2008 A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids. Sensors, 8 370 EOF 411 EOF , 1424-8220

  5. G. Asci, A. Basci, S. V. Shah, A. Basnakian, H. Toz, M. Ozkahya, S. Duman, E. Ok, 2008 Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein induces proliferation and increases adhesion molecule expression of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Nephrology, 13 6 480 EOF 486 EOF , 0093-1041X.

  6. P. S. Bachorik, 1997 Measurement of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, In: Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing, Rifai, N., Warnick, G.R. & Dominiczak, M.H. (Eds.), 145 160 , AACC Press, 978-1-89088-335-5Washington.

  7. J. Bard, L. R. Faulkner, 2001 Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 978-0-47104-372-0 New York, United States of America.

  8. G. Basta, A. M. Schmidt, R. De Caterina, 2004 Advanced glycation end products and vascular inflammation: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes. Cardiovascular Research, 63 4 p.p. 582 EOF 92 EOF , 1755-3245

  9. E. Behm, P. Ivanovich, H. Klinkmann, 1989 Selective and Specific Adsorbents for Medical Therapy. The International Journal of Artificial Organs, 12, 1 1 10 , 0391-3988

  10. J. O. M. Bockris, A. K. N. Reddy, M. Gamboa-Aldeco, 2000 Modern Electrochemistry 2A: Fundamentals of Electrodics, 2nd edition, 2 Klumer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 978-0-30646-167-5 New York, United States of America.

  11. T. Bosch, B. Schmidt, W. Kleophas, C. Gillen, V. Otto, J. Passlick-Deetjen, H. J. Gurland, 1997 LDL Hemoperfusion-A New Procedure for LDL Apheresis: First Clinical Application of an LDL Adsorber Compatible with Human Whole Blood. Artificial Organs, 21 9 977 EOF 82 EOF , 1525-1594

  12. C. M. A. Brett, A. M. O. Brett, 1993 Electrochemistry: Principles, Methods, and Applications, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19855-388-5 New York, United States of America.

  13. B. E. Brown, I. Rashid, D. M. Van Reyk, M. J. Davies, 2007 Glycation of low-density lipoprotein results in the time-dependent accumulation of cholesteryl esters and apolipoprotein B-100 protein in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. FEBS Journal, 274 6 1530 EOF 1541 EOF , 0174-2464X.

  14. R. L. Bunde, E. J. Jarvi, J. J. Rosentreter, 1998 Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Biosensor. Talanta, 46 1223 1236 , 0039-9140

  15. G. Camejo, E. Hurt-Camejo, O. Wiklund, G. Bondjers, 1998 Association of apo B Lipoproteins with Arterial Proteoglycans: Pathological Significance and Molecular Basis. Atherosclerosis, 139 205 EOF -222, 0021-9150

  16. J.W. Choi, K.S. Park, W. Lee, B.K. Oh, B.S. Chun, S.H. Paek, 2004 Regulation of anti-LDL Immobilization on Self-Assembled Protein G Layer using CHAPS and its Application to Immunosensor. Materials Science and Engineering C, 24 1-2 241 EOF 245 EOF , 0928-4931

  17. S. Chunta, C. Promptmas, C. Cherdchu, 2009 Lipoprotein Sensor: A Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Device. International Journal of Applied Biomedical Engineering, 2 1 0973-4562

  18. J. M. Cooper, A. E. G. Cass, 2004 Biosensors- Pratical Approach,Oxford University Press, 978-0-19963-846-8 Oxford, Great Britain.

  19. C. M. Cordova, C. R. Schneider, I. D. Juttel, M. M. Cordova, 2004 Comparison of LDL-cholesterol direct measurement with the estimate using the Friedewald formula in a sample of 10,664 patients. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 83 6 Issue482-7, p.p. 476-81, 0006-6782X.

  20. J. Curie, P. Curie, 1880a Développement, par Pression, de L’électricité Polaire dans les Cristaux Hémièdres à Faces Inclines. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des sciences, 91 p.p. 294-295, 0764-4469

  21. J. Curie, P. Curie, 1880b Sur L’électricité Polaire dans les Cristaux Hémièdres à Faces Inclinées. Comptes rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, 91 p.p. 383-386, 0764-4469

  22. L. D’Ulivo, J. Saint-Guirons, B. Ingemarsson, M. Riekkola, L. , 2010 Quartz Crystal Microbalance, a Valuable Tool for Elucidation of Interactions between apoB-100 Peptides and Extracellular Matrix Components. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 396 1373 EOF 1380 EOF , 1618-2642

  23. L. D’Ulivo, J. Witos, K. Öörni, P. T. Kovanen, M. Riekkola, L. , 2009 Capillary Electrochromatography: a Tool for Mimicking Collagen Surface Interactions with Apolipoprotein B-100 Peptides. Electrophoresis, 30p.p. 3838-3845, 0173-0835

  24. H. N. Daghestani, B. W. Day, 2010 Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors. Sensors, 10 10 9630 EOF 9646 EOF , 1424-8220

  25. N. R. Damasceno, A. Sevanian, E. Apolinario, J. M. Oliveira, I. Fernandes, D. S. P. Abdalla, 2006 Detection of electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL−) in plasma and atherosclerotic lesions by monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Clinical Biochemistry, 39 1p.p. 28-38, 0009-9120

  26. F. S. Damos, R. K. Mendes, L. T. Kubota, 2004 Applications of QCM, EIS and SPR in the Investigation of Surfaces and Interfaces for the Development of (Bio)Sensors, Química Nova, 27 6p.p. 970-979, 1678-7064

  27. M. Esteban-Salan, J. A. Aguilar-Doreste, M. L. Arranz-Pena, S. Juve-Cuxart, I. Gich-Salarich, E. Zapico-Muniz, J. Ordonez-Llanos, 2008 Multicentric evaluation of the homogeneous LDL-cholesterol Plus assay: comparison with beta-quantification and Friedewald formula. Clinical Biochemistry, 41 16-17 1402 EOF 1409 EOF , 0009-9120

  28. T. E. S. Faulin, K. C. M. Sena, A. E. R. Telles, D. M. Grosso, E. J. B. Faulin, D. S. P. Abdalla, 2008 Validation of a novel ELISA for measurement of Electronegative LDL. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 46 12 p.p. 1769-1775, 1434-6621

  29. J. M. Fowler, D. K. Y. Wong, H. B. Halssal, W. R. Heineman, 2008 Recent Developments in Electrochemical Immunoassays and Immunosensors, In: Electrochemical Sensors, Biosensors and their Biomedical Applications, Zhang, X., Ju, H. & Wang, J. (Eds.), 115 140 , Academic Press Elsevier Inc., 978-0-12373-738-0 United States of America.

  30. R. S. Freire, S. Thongngamdee, N. Duran, J. Wang, L. T. Kubota, 2002 Mixed Enzyme (Laccase/Tyrosinase)-based Remote Electrochemical Biosensor for Monitoring Phenolic Compounds. Analyst, 127 2 p.p. 258-261, 0003-2654

  31. W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, D. S. Fredrickson, 1972 Estimation of the Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Plasma, without use of the Preparative Ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18 499 EOF 502 EOF , 1530-8561

  32. K. Gaus, E. A. H. Hall, 2003 Short Peptide Receptor Mimics for Atherosclerosis Risk Assessment of LDL. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 18 151 EOF 164 EOF , 0956-5663

  33. R. J. Green, R. A. Frazier, K. M. Shakesheff, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, 2000 Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Dynamic Biological Interactions with Biomaterials. Biomaterials, 21 18 1823 EOF 35 EOF , 0142-9612

  34. G. K. Hansson, P. Libby, 2006 The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword. Nature Reviews Immunology, 6 7 508 EOF 19 EOF , 1474-1733

  35. Y. I. Miller, S. H. Choi, L. Fang, S. Tsimikas, 2010 Lipoprotein modification and macrophage uptake: role of pathologic cholesterol transport in atherogenesis, In: Cholesterol binding and cholesterol transport proteins. Structure and function in health and disease, Harris, J.R., 229 251 , Springer, 978-9-04818-621-1 Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London and New York.

  36. C. C. Hedrick, S. R. Thorpe, M.X. Fu, C. M. Harper, J. Yoo, S.M. Kim, H. Wong, A. L. Peters, 2000 Glycation Impairs High-Density Lipoprotein Function. Diabetologia, 43 312 EOF 20 EOF , 0001-2186X.

  37. S. Helali, Fredj. H. Ben, K. Cherif, A. Abdelghani, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, 2008 Surface Plasmon Resonance and Impedance Spectroscopy on Gold Electrode for Biosensor Application. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 28 5-6 588 EOF 593 EOF , 0928-4931

  38. C. P. Hodgkinson, R. C. Laxton, K. Patel, S. Ye, 2008 Advanced glycation end-product of low density lipoprotein activates the Toll-like 4 receptor pathway implications for diabetic atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 28 12 2275 EOF 2281 EOF , 1079-5642

  39. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, 1999 Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review. Sensors and Actuators B, 54 1-2 3 EOF -15, 0925-4005

  40. F. Höök, M. Rudh, 2005 Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) in Biomacromolecular Recognition. Biotech International, 2 2032-2887

  41. T. Ishigaki, I. Ohki, N. Utsunomiya-Tate, S. Tate, I. , 2007 Chimeric Structural Stabilities in the Coiled-Coil Structure of the NECK Domain in Human Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (LOX-1). The Journal of Biochemistry, 141 6 855 EOF 866 EOF , 0002-1924X.

  42. H. Itabe, M. Ueda, 2007 Measurement of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its clinical implications. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, 1 14 1 EOF 11 EOF , 1340-3478

  43. K. Jambunathan, A. C. Hillier, 2003 Measuring Electrocatalytic Activity on a Local Scale with Scanning Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 150 6 E312 EOF -E320, 0013-4651

  44. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, 1972 Optical Constants of the Noble Metals, Physical Review B, 6 12 4370 EOF 4379 EOF , 1098-0121

  45. K. K. Kanazawa, II J. G. Gordon, 1985 Frequency of a Quartz Microbalance in Contact with Liquid. Analytical Chemistry, 57 8 1770 EOF 1771 EOF , 1177-3901

  46. E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, 1968 Radiative Decay of Non-Radiative Surface Plasmons Excited by Light. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, 23A p.p. 2135-2136, 0932-0776

  47. Y. Kudo, Y. Fukuchi, T. Kumagai, K. Ebina, K. Yokota, 2001 Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Binding Specificity of Asp-hemolysin from Aspergillus fumigates. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1568 p.p. 183-188, 0304-4165

  48. I. Laffont, V. V. Shuvaev, O. Briand, S. Lestavel, A. Barbier, N. Taniguchi, J.C. Fruchart, V. Clavey, G. Siest, 2002 Early-Glycation of Apolipoprotein E: Effect on its Binding to LDL Receptor, Scavenger Receptor A and Heparan Sulfates. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1583 99 EOF 107 EOF , 0304-4165

  49. I. Levitan, S. Volkov, P. V. Subbaiah, 2010 Oxidized LDL: Diversity, Patterns of Recognition, and Pathophysiology. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 13 1 39 EOF 75 EOF , 1523-0864

  50. P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, G. K. Hansson, 2009 Leducq Transatlantic Network on Atherothrombosis. Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from pathophysiology to practice. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54 23 p.p. 2129-2138, 0735-1097

  51. D. Liu, B. He, S. Han, S. Wang, Q. Liu, A. Jun-ichic, T. Osa, Q. Chen, 2007 An Adsorption Behavior of low-Density Lipoprotein onto Cholesterol-Modified Dextran Studied by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 27 4p.p. 665 EOF 669 EOF , 0928-4931

  52. I. Lundstrom, 1994 Real-Time Biospecific Interaction Analysis. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 9 9-10 725 736 , 0956-5663

  53. P. B. Luppa, L. J. Sokoll, D. W. Chan, 2001 Immunosensor principles and applications to clinical chemistry. Clinica Chimica Acta, 314 1-2 p.p. 1-26.

  54. J. R. Macdonald, 1987 Impedance spectroscopy: emphasizing solid materials and systems, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 978-0-47183-122-8 New York, United States of America.

  55. B. D. Malhotra, A. Chaubey, S. P. Singh, 2006 Prospects of Conducting Polymers in Biosensors. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2006, 578 1 59 EOF 74 EOF , 0003-2670

  56. E. Malle, G. Marsche, J. Arnhold, M. J. Davies, 2006 Modification of low-density lipoprotein by myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants and reagent hypochlorous acid. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1761 4 392 EOF 415 EOF , 0304-4165

  57. J. C. L. Mamo, L. Szeto, G. Steiner, 1990 Glycation of Very Low Density Lipoprotein from Rat Plasma Impairs its Catabolism. Diabetologia, 33 6 339 EOF 45 EOF , 0001-2186X.

  58. W. J. Marshall, S. K. Bangert, 2008 Clinical chemistry, Mosby Elsevier, 978-0-72343-455-9 Philadelphia.

  59. K. A. Marx, 2003 Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A Useful Tool for Studying Thin Polymer Films and Complex Biomolecular Systems at the Solution-Surface Interface. Biomacromolecules, 4 5 1099 EOF 120 EOF , 1525-7797

  60. Z. Matharu, A. J. Bandodkar, G. Sumana, P. R. Solanki, E. M. Ekanayake, K. Kaneto, V. Gupta, B. D. Malhotra, 2009a Low Density Lipoprotein Detection Based on Antibody Immobilized Self-Assembled Monolayer: Investigations of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Properties The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 29 118 Issue43, 14405 EOF 14412 EOF , 1089-5647

  61. Z. Matharu, G. Sumana, V. Gupta, B. D. Malhotra, 2010 Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection. Thin Solid Films, 519 1110 EOF 1114 EOF , 0040-6090

  62. Z. Matharu, G. Sumana, M. K. Pandey, V. Gupta, B. D. Malhotra, 2009b Low Density Lipoprotein Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance. Thin Solid Films, 518 2 719 EOF 723 EOF , 0040-6090

  63. E. Matsuura, G. R. Hughes, M. A. Khamashta, 2008 Oxidation of LDL and its clinical implication. Autoimmunity Reviews, 7 7 558 EOF 566 EOF , 1568-9972

  64. H. C. Mc Gill, C. A. Jr Mc Mahan, E. E. Herderick, G. T. Malcom, R. E. Tracy, J. P. Strong, 2000 Origin of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 5 1307S EOF 1315S EOF , 0002-9165

  65. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, 2006 Principles of Nano-Optics, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-52183-224-3 Cambridge, UK.

  66. I. Ohki, H. Amida, R. Yamada, M. Sugihara, T. Ishigaki, S. Tate, I. , 2011 Surface Plasmon Resonance Study on Functional Significance of Clustered Organization of Lectin-like Oxidized LDL Receptor (LOX-1). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, in press, 1570-9639

  67. M. D. L. Oliveira, M. T. S. Correia, F. B. Diniz, 2009 Concanavalin A and Polyvinyl Butyral use as a Potential Dengue Electrochemical Biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 25 4 728 732 , 0956-5663

  68. M. D. L. Oliveira, C. P. de Melo, O. Glaucius, C. A. S. Andrade, 2011 Development of Impedimetric and Optical Calcium Biosensor by Using Modified Gold Electrode with Porcine S100A12 protein. Colloids and Surfaces B- Biointerfaces, 82 2 365 EOF 370 EOF , 0927-7765

  69. A. Otto, 1968 Excitation of Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by the Method of Frustrated Total Reflection. Zeitschrift für Physik, 216 398 EOF 410 EOF , 0340-2347

  70. R. Prassl, P. Laggner, 2009 Molecular structure of low density lipoprotein: current status and future challenges. European Biophysical Journal, 38 2 145 EOF 158 EOF , 0175-7571

  71. H. Raether, 1988 Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Springer-Verlag, 978-0-38717-363-4 Berlin.

  72. N. Rifai, E. Iannotti, K. De Angelis, T. Law, 1998 Analytical and clinical performance of a homogeneous enzymatic LDL-cholesterol assay compared with the ultracentrifugation-dextran sulfate-Mg2+ method. Clinical Chemistry, Jun;44 6 1242 EOF 50 EOF , 1530-8561

  73. L. L. Robbio, P. Uboldi, S. Marcovina, R. P. Revoltella, A. L. Catapano, 2001 Epitope Mapping Analysis of Apolipoprotein B-100 using a Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 16 963 EOF 969 EOF , 0956-5663

  74. G. Sauerbrey, 1959 Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wägung dünner Schichten und zur Mikrowägung. Zeitschrift für Physik, 155 2 p.p. 206-222, 0340-2347

  75. T. Sawamura, N. Kume, T. Aoyama, H. Moriwaki, H. Hoshikawa, Y. Aiba, T. Tanaka, S. Miwa, Y. Katsura, T. Kita, T. Masaki, (1997). An Endothelial Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein. Nature Vol.386, p.p. 73-77, ISSN 0028-0836.

  76. V. N. Schumaker, M. L. Phillips, J. E. Chatterton, 1994 Apolipoprotein B and Low-Density Lipoprotein Structure: Implications for Biosynthesis of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins, In: Advances in Protein Chemistry, Anfinsen, C.B., Edsall, J.T., Richards, F.M. & Eisenberg, D.S. (Eds.), 205 248 , Calif. Academic Press, 978-0-12034-247-1 San Diego.

  77. K. Skålén, M. Gustafsson, E. K. Rydberg, L. M. Hultén, O. Wiklund, T. L. Innerarity, J. Borén, 2002 Subendothelial Retention of Atherogenic Lipoproteins in Early Atherosclerosis. Nature, 417 750 EOF 4 EOF , 0028-0836

  78. A. Smith, 2008 The Quartz Crystal Microbalance, In: Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Brown, M. & Gallagher, P. (Eds.), 133-169, 5 Elsevier B.V., 978-0-44453-123-0 Amsterdam.

  79. E. A. Smith, R. M. Corn, 2003 Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging as a Tool to Monitor Biomolecular Interactions in an Array Based Format, Applied Spectroscopy, 57 11 320A EOF 332A EOF , 0003-7028

  80. S. Snellings, J. Fuller, M. Pitner, P. W. David, 2003 An Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles: Construction of Selective Coatings. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 19 4 353 EOF 363 EOF , 0956-5663

  81. A. K. Srivastava, P. Sakthivel, 2001 Quartz-Crystal Microbalance Study for Characterizing Atomic Oxygen in Plasma Ash Tools. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 19 1 97 EOF -100 1520-8567

  82. R. I. Stefan, J. F. van Staden, H. Y. Aboul-Enein, 2000 Immunosensor in clinical analysis. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 366 659 668 , 0937-0633

  83. R. Stocker, J. R. Keaney, 2004 Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiological Reviews, 84 4 1381 EOF 478 EOF , 0031-9333

  84. E. Stura, D. Bruzzese, F. Valerio, F. Grasso, P. Perlo, C. Nicolini, 2007 Anodic Porous Alumina as Mechanical Stability Enhancer for LDL-Cholesterol Sensitive Electrodes. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 23 655 EOF 660 EOF , 0956-5663

  85. X. Tan, M. Li, P. Cai, L. Luo, X. Zou, 2005 An Amperometric Cholesterol Biosensor Based on Multivalent Carbon Nanotubes and Organically Modified Sol-Gel/Chitosan Hybrid Composite Film. Analytical Biochemistry, 337 1p.p. 111-120, 1096-0309

  86. D. R. Thevenot, K. Toth, R. A. Durst, G. S. Wilson, 1999 Electrochemical Biosensors: Recommended Definitions and Classification. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 71 12 2333 EOF 2348 EOF , 1365-3075

  87. A. J. Tudos, R. B. M. Schasfoort, 2008 Introduction to Surface Plasmon Resonance, In: Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Tudos, A.J. & Schasfoort, R.B.M. (Eds.), 1 14 , RSC Publishing, 978-0-85404-267-8 Cambridge UK.

  88. M. Viigimaa, J. Abina, G. Zemtsovskaya, A. Tikhaze, G. Konovalova, E. Kumskova, V. Lankin, 2010 Malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoproteins as biomarker for atherosclerosis. Blood Pressure, 19 3 164 EOF 168 EOF , 0803-7051

  89. R. W. Wood, 1902 On a Remarkable Case of Uneven Distribution of Light in a Diffraction Grating Spectrum. Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, 18 1 269 EOF 275 EOF , 0370-1328

  90. W. Yan, X. Chen, X. Li, X. Feng, J.J. Zhu, 2008 Fabrication of a Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor of Low-Density Lipoprotein The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 112 4 1275 EOF 1281 EOF , 1089-5647

  91. C. Y. Yang, S. H. Chen, S. H. Gianturco, W. A. Bradley, J. T. Sparrow, M. Tanimura, W. H. Li, D. A. Sparrow, H. De Loof, M. Rosseneu, F. S. Lee, Z. W. Gu, A. M. Gotto, Jr , L. Chan, 1986 Sequence, Structure, Receptor-Binding Domains and Internal Repeats of Human Apolipoprotein B-100. Nature, 323 738 EOF 42 EOF , 0028-0836

  92. H. Zhao, H. Ju, 2006 Multilayer Membranes for Glucose Biosensing via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Glucose Oxidase. Analytical Biochemistry, 350 1 138 EOF 144 EOF , 1096-0309