Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Digital Marketing: Scope Opportunities and Challenges

By Chandan Kumar Mishra

Submitted: August 18th 2019Reviewed: March 31st 2020Published: June 2nd 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.92329

Downloaded: 135

Abstract

With the onset of Internet reform and economic growth of country, consumer expectation and need have formed a shape where comfort and delight service has become vital criteria for product selection. Several brands in market keep working to evaluate the changing need of consumers, developing suitable product and finding market place to reach the right customer. This digital reform has paved a new marketplace on Internet where everything and anything is available to explore and review and have a virtual feel. India is a growing economy country and has been considered in the article to brief the concept and scenario of different trends of digital marketing. The article will bring insights into the scope of different digital trends and future scope. In the 2019 summit of United Nations, leaders spoke about borderless economy reforms connecting new business players to invest in growing economy country. Here, to bring borderless and seamless economy, digital platform will play a major role for entry player as well as big MNCs evaluated in the need section of digital marketing. This article has referred collective researches and survey inputs from various sources and used secondary data mixed methods, keeping it unique and best suited for students to capture many new terminologies of digital marketing and bring utmost clarity on future trends of digitalisation. Agricultural segment has been studied in brief in correlation with digital marketing. This article refers to study on digital marketing suiting current need of people limited to its optimum and safe usage of Internet, considered as one of basic rights of human kind in twenty-first century.

Keywords

  • scope and challenges of digital marketing
  • future trends of digital marketing and its scope in agricultural segment

1. Marketing

Marketing is the oldest science with the human beings of identifying, creating, exchanging need and relationships between seller and buyer at a profit, thereby promoting and enabling the process of trading product or service. Definition of marketing as explained by Dr Philip Kotler, states it as “Satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process”, the marketing is the broader way to reach customer which involves selling as the prime cause been influenced through different steps like need understanding, brand recognition and thereby completing element of sales and purchase. This includes different key process such as Need Identification—product development—customer reach and retention with loyalty building—need fulfilment. Following these each process gives sustainable market for marketer [1].

Connect to create and enabling reach of product and service from concept to customer is the base line in Marketing. In twenty-first century, approach of marketing has evolved opting digital form where product and brand is made to reach customer mind and influencing decisions through different tactics opted by brands. [1] This digital approach evolution of service marketing mix becomes more customer focus and new products made keeping Customer in centre. Thus 7 C’s becomes more useful rather than 7 P’s which reimagine the 7 P’s in customer-focussed manner as mention Product—Customer, Price–Cost, Place—Convenience, Promotion—Communication, People—Caring, Process—Coordination, Physical Evidence—Confirmation [1].

The promotion of service or product to be deliverable is necessary to reach its people and there are various ways of promotion to increase awareness, generate sales and brand loyalty, develop interest and curiosity among buyers.

With the industrial reformation, the need of fast and impactful marketing is in demand and the technological advancement has changed the way of reaching to customer. Many advertisers/industries are using search engines to promote their businesses. The journey of paper writing to blog has been much faster and trends of marketing has shown paradigm shift in last 5 years than in last 50. Ease of access to internet is now trending from 2G to 4G/5G and this has become base for new era on which different products are placed and explored on Internet. The online marketing is now an ever-growing industry [2].

2. Need of digitalisation

Digitalisation has played a crucial role in the fast advancement of global economy. In developed markets, Digital market is one of the most prominent and established platform. Organised digitalisation has a 75–80% share in total marketing as compared with developing economies, where BTL marketing activities has a dominant share [3].

There is a local say “Be there where your customer Are” and digitalisation is enabling brand to remain where current customers stay i.e., in social media—Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram. Digitalisation is maintaining its impressive growth in all markets, whether big or small. Big markets are countries that are always going to be e-commerce behemoths because of their size, and the smaller are promising markets where potential matters along with size (though not always).

Recent verdict in high court of Kerala, consider Right to Internet as fundamental freedom and is a part of Right to education for mankind. In 2019, there are 1.92 billion online buyers in world, accounting for a quarter of world population with 4.39 billion users on Internet and 3.48 billion users active on social media with increase of 9% YOY. In 2014, online buyers were at 1.32 B expected to touch 2.14 billion by 2021, and over the next 5 years growth is expected to grow 21%. India, with world’s second highest population, is a developing country where 627 million users are active on Internet with active buying at 273 million and with a growth rate of 20% increase for online buyers [4].

Digitalisation has become very decisive platform for the product and brand.

3. Scenario in developing countries: India and South East Asia

3.1 The information revolution

The spread of mobile and other means of information technology has been truly pervasive in India. Having a population of 1.3 billion, India has 970 million number of active mobile phone connections. Since 2000, there has been exponential growth in the number of cell phone users in India (see Figures 1 and 2) [5].

Figure 1.

Individuals using the Internet. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report and database.

Figure 2.

Digital Buyers in India 2014-2020. Source: Published by Statista Research Department, August 15, 2016.

It is also estimated that by 2019, there will be about 299 million smartphones in India as compared to 140 million in 2014. Low cost smart phones running on low cost operating system like Android One are fuelling the rise of smartphones in India. It is also estimated that there will be 527 million total Internet users in 2018, up from 213 million in 2013. Thereby given their reach, the combination of mobile and internet technologies has the potential of engaging a billion people in India [5] (Figures 3 and 4).

Figure 3.

Mobile cellular subscription per 100 people in India. Source: Data from World Bank.

Figure 4.

Rise of total mobile subscription in India. Source: Data from World Bank.

4. Change in consumer behaviour

Today’s consumer is tech savvy, socially empowered, information rich and lacking time. At the same time, technology is quickly evolving and embracing the needs resulted from new consumer motivations. Consumers’ ability to influence fellow consumers and companies alike is much bigger than earlier generations [2].

As a result, consumers expect the world at their fingertips, when they want it, how they want it and where they want it. Shopping is not a planned destination or event—they are shopping, 24/7. And they want an authentic shopping experience tailor-made specifically for them.

‘Generation Z’, want it all. They want to make an impact to the world and share all of their experiences on their journey. They strive to be authentic, socially sensible and in many cases value purpose over cost. They are driven by ambition and a strong moral conscience. They strive to independency, are more vocal and more informed than any generation before them. They are cognizant, engaged and choosy. They expect these standards are met by the businesses with which they deal with or take their business elsewhere. Furthermore, they will express their opinion, available for other fellow consumers to read.

With the onset of 1990s, Indian politics has seen digital changes where computerization and digitalisation invited by political leaders. Telecom revolution and IT revolution was started by the then prime minister of India Late Mr Rajiv Gandhi, which paved the way for many global players to enter the Indian economy. These companies saw India as a big opportunity and rushed to cater to middle class consumers—an estimated people of 200 million. India became biggest consumer of world for most industry section and responded to world market at double pace to see economy boosting. This elevated again with the launch of mobile at cheapest rate bringing mobile revolution in 2000 and Internet revolution by Jio in 2017 in India. These two steps paved India to see the world in similar specs as developed countries are seen bringing global market on tips. India with its strong growing GDP around 8% bring sustained market place for big MNCs, Although, current GDP rate reduced to 6.6% due to several recent government policies like demonetisation and GST implementation, country is focussed to see $5 trillion economy which is boosting global MNCs to cater Indian market. Beside economy, India stood first with highest youth population of world making country biggest market place and prominence to accept digital market [6].

4.1 Indians are getting more materialistic

Indians are often stereotyped as deeply spiritual people who reject materialistic values. But this stereotype no longer reflects reality.

Indians have their mark globally and preferred for their dedicated and hard work. They are now motivated to grow and elevate globally to receive factual and material success. Average workweek of 50 h makes India hardest working nations globally (average workweek in US is 42 h; European nations have workweeks of fewer than 40 h). These materialistic characters bring nation close to keep youth busy and demand for easy and fast life. Digital sense became key and focussed on requirement by mass [7].

4.2 Consumerism is becoming a way of life in India

A study on Indians’ savings goals reveals the increase in materialism. Savings and property making for next generation is long term priority, life’s pleasure and status symbolism have gained importance in last decades keeping growth in tendency for Indians money aside for electronics and smart gadgets (Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5.

People investing on commercial and market development. Source: Original.

Figure 6.

Changes in consumer behaviour.

Digital marketing accounts a new way to promote products thereby wholesale and retail industry are largely affected with its implementation. Reference to ICRIER (Indian Council for Research and International Economic Relations), retail market accounts to 10% of India’s GDP. It is sparked with increasing footfall of customer base, rising Indian economy, fast face life of youth, adoption of change in lifestyles and growing concept of Make in India. Organised retail sector is likely to have growth rate near to 45–50% p.a. and booming further with adoption of digital technology.

In country like India where population is more than 130 Cr has online penetration to a tune of 60% and it brings challenge to have immediate shift of traditional retail channel to get embrace with Internet as alternative media to promote product.

However, the growth patterns are impressive for India’s digital e-commerce, which has exponentially increased in recent years. It rose by more than 600%, reaching $16 billion mark in 2014 from $2.5 billion in 2009 [7]. With flooding of digital e-commerce firms like Flipkart, Snapdeal, and Amazon in the country, the small and medium physical retailers were affected and suffered a lot. This dramatic change from physical retail to online retail benefitted the consumer bringing big firms and brands to think bringing their presence in the digital world to be connected to these new segments of consumers (Figure 7).

Figure 7.

A man with e-commerce goods for delivery.

5. History of digital marketing

In late 1900, marketing has seen adopting technology and it evolved to make marketing and technology inseparable. This has brought the concept of digital marketing through various steps of events mentioned below (Table 1).

Important events in digital marketing
1945–1970Idea contemplates for linked documents by Vannevar Bush along with adopting Net by Computer Science departments in US universities
1971–1980Bob Metcalfe writes his thesis on Ethernet, Apple II personal computer series introduced
1981–1990IBM launched its first computer, ANSI adopted SQL as a standard and also 100 MB capacities seen in computer storage
1990First coined digital marketing, Archie launched first search engine
1993–2001Seen first Web Ad banner, e-commerce transaction started, launch of Yahoo, birth of Google, first mobile marketing campaign started by Universal Music
2002–2010Launch of LinkedIn, Go Live of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, Google Buzz, Amazon sales seen $10 billion sales, iPhone series launch, China overtakes US on count of internet users
2011–2015Social media budgets up 64%, Facebook takeover WhatsApp, mobile internet users exceed PC, Snapchat launches discover feature
2016- todayIndia seen a big move on Internet Go Live with the launch of JIO, ever highest user login in YouTube, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Instagram [8]

Table 1.

History and evolution of digital marketing.

Source: Digital Marketing Insights 2019.

6. Digital marketing

Digital marketing is a non-conventional virtual platform basically on Internet for promoting products, services, connecting customers, identifying and understanding needs of user using digital technologies and devices. It is one of most effective and prominent strategy to promote business online for brand awareness and business development.

The base line of digital marketing is to have individual Website or App through which different promotion and tools are linked and used. Digital marketing is the best approach to reach target audience in cost effective manner and is easier to scale the business on faster rate. In current scenario average user with internet spends 3 h on internet platform daily and it makes it biggest platform to promote any brands to eye catch user or buyer. There is a strong proverb in Hindi “Ants find the sweetness in room kept anywhere” hold good in case of digital marketing, wherever marketer find the right customer with the different tactics through digital marketing be it click type or search engines. It is found in several researches, 85% search happens before purchase, in 1 s almost 84+ thousand viewers’ remains online in YouTube, and currently 89% users purchase based on available reviews and comments made for respective products. The young generation even kids are now tech savvy and since very early stage they know to operate smart devices and are fond of accepting technology [9] (Figure 8).

Figure 8.

A 1-year-old child with Tab in his hand: realm of digitalisation. Source: Original.

In order to have sustained product below journey need to be followed by the marketer for his product. These all steps are achieved by different tools of digital marketing (Figure 9).

Figure 9.

Customer journey worksheet. Source: Courtesy of The Launch Grid (Digital Marketer).

7. Channels of digital marketing

Digital marketing is incorporated by different brands through various channels suiting their product and means of communicating to their buyers. It also depends on choosing best channels that give better ROI for brand. Most used channels of digital marketing are briefed below [8]:

  1. Affiliate marketing: It is perceived as a tool to produce demanded number of customers through independent marketer. It allows the brand to market its product through websites, create traffic and publish information. Individual work on behalf of brand using different tools of digital and leveraging devices. This concept is also popularly known as website marketing where commission to marketer is received only on the sale of a product.

  2. Display advertising: It is one of the concepts to use the display organic to attract traffic like used by Google AdWords. Through this small banner, gif images and videos are made to highlight the product or brands. It is one of effect method of digital marketing where visual effect made to eye catch the traffic.

  3. Email marketing: This tool is used to communicate to the individual where the promoter is aware about the intender or buyer and communicate directly. This is one of the cheapest modes of marketing and need to ensure effective content drafting. This email marketing is sometime less preferred as the user gets irritated as spam email so the user interest is legal obligation to receive, unsubscribing leads to stop receiving such communications.

  4. Search engine marketing: It is a form of internet marketing based on websites. It is one of paid digital marketing concept through which traffic from search engine are brought to product or brand owing business websites. Search engine marketing platforms are Google AdWords, Bing Ads, Yahoo search Ads [8].

  5. Search engine optimization: Marketers use different factors and tactics to bring the website to achieve top ranks on organic search results through optimization of search engine. It is based on algorithm and content drafting through which the search are made to attract the traffic of business websites to the top of search engine.

  6. Social media marketing: It refers to the process of gaining traffic through social media sites. Paid marketing also commonly known as social media marketing includes promotion of content, websites or products through ads in several mobile apps, trusted and established channels like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Pinterest, Google+ etc. It is process of advertising on external social sites executed to draw attention of buyers. It is also based on remarketing activities like user, buyers visiting to buy products in Flipkart happens in a way like Flipkart ads follows him even when user is visiting Facebook, Yahoo, Rediff or so similar another social media platform [8].

  7. Apps marketing: Promotion of brands in different apps is a new way of promoting products. There are different apps been built for various sections of human livelihood and finding spaces in between or on the app section is the better to reach specific and defined segment. Product related to specific app are also mapped and tie up done by brand so as persons using app are considered to have interest in app related products. To put this as an example, people using health app may be interested in buying health products and so any app promotion of protein products could be interested in segment of people using health apps.

  8. Web analytics: It is the process of analysing the behaviour of traffic on websites and search engines through measures are decided which will promote and attract more traffic. It is the analysing part of digital traffic through which human behaviour on platform are studied, used for researches so that more valued concept are brought suiting traffic. There are two common categories: onsite and offsite web analytics.

Other frequent used digital marketing channels are like Pay per click, Pop-up Ads, Match content ads, Floating Ads, Interstitial Ads, Online classified Ads, Frame Ads, Banners Ads.

8. Digital marketing in agricultural industry: India and world

India contributes to 18% of world population and ranks seconds by population. More than 60% of population dependent on agriculture in India contributing 17% of India GDP, giving jobs to 53% Indians. This sector is considered unorganised and tapped with many intermediaries due to which farmers has to sacrifice profits, this leads to necessitate removing middle men thereby bringing concept of Farm to Consumer (F2C). Agriculture has seen phases of changes as shown (Figures 10 and 11).

Figure 10.

Evolution of digital agriculture. Source: Accenture.

Figure 11.

Transformation in agriculture. Source: Original.

Many companies are now working to bring realisation of precision farming which would be catalyst in meeting food requirement of future. Current agricultural requirement be it F2C or precision farming necessitates integration of digital marketing in agriculture.

Precision farming is true data driven concept for managing resources and optimising crop production. In last few years, industry has seen agriculture machines are getting equipped with smart intelligent devices to monitor, capture and bring analytical view while working in field. Agricultural machinery giants like New Holland, Case, John Deere, M&M adopting digital technologies like Sky watch, Eagle Eye, Digi Sense to ensure enabling steps in precision farming. Few digital apps like Mach Rent, CapTon, Farm Passion, DeHaat, Big Basket, Grofers, etc. are connecting farmers with consumer. May start-ups are growing in this field and looking higher opportunity in future.

In a recent survey onto Nebraska farmers, there is adoption scenario of several technologies in agriculture, which shows possibility of resembling future movement of such technology in other countries in recent years. This shows the trend in agriculture integrating digital mechanism into farming practises.

These practises are focussed to increase average crop yield and increasing farm efficiency. One research of Goldman Sachs says there is potential of 1969 US$ bn global crop value by 2050 showing increase of 70% over current value [10] (Figures 12 and 13).

Figure 12.

Precision agriculture technology usage. Source: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figure 13.

Tech farm to global crop production. Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Company Data.

The value of digitalisation in precision farming aims to bring better profit and easiness which is targeted to bring educated youth in this segment. This has led a considerable impact on market size of precision farming in developing countries due to current lower cost of farming. Its adoption is significant in bringing improve income, reduce wastage, disseminate information and customer involvement with interaction.

9. Few of the major digital technologies in agriculture

One of the recent researches by Goldman Sachs Global Investment says average age of humans has increased in last 30 years and expected world population by 2050 is 9.7 billion, which requires 70% more growth rate than current to serve the world by 2050, which is possible with adoption of precision farming that includes digitalisation in agriculture commonly known as digital agriculture [10].

9.1 Field monitoring

  • Crop health monitoring: With analysis on imagery received with the use of drone and satellite helps to assess the health of crops. It works on the method of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) through the various visible and non-visible wavelengths of light.

  • Crop scouting: Using NDVI, scouters capture important crop data on tablet/mobiles which is then analysed by several platforms to understand the pest and weed activity on farm.

  • Yield monitoring and forecasting: Yield sensors/moisture sensors on harvesters, tractors are used to understand best harvesting period. Drone imagery also used to analyse this information.

  • Detection of diseases, pests or weeds: Gamaya’s hyperspectral camera integrated with software yields input about the extent of pests or weeds in field.

  • Weather, irrigation and soil quality: Mechanisms like drip irrigation are popularly used concepts by farmers instead of rain-fed farming. Satellites give proper information about weather and irrigation input. Few plant sensors are used to collect soil quality [10].

9.2 Data management

Mobile apps or integrated software linked with farms and farm business network to manage crop production, helping farmers make right decisions on managing farm operations. Presently two types of data management concepts are widely used Europe and USA [10].

  • Farm management software platforms: Digital apps providing assistance to farmers with information on and from preparing soil condition suitable to crop to post harvesting, selecting pesticides, insecticides and knowing best sowing times to harvesting time are flourishing currently. Few of apps in India such as FarmLogs, Sirrus, Agrivi, Agworld, AgriDoctor, and Kisan App are widely used.

  • Data platforms: Data platforms are used to predict, guide, assist, prescribe, and produce high-yield crops. It supports to store historical behaviour of farm practise, integrate range of farm data and analyse them to derive and utilise resources suiting best to crop and its yield.

10. Automation in agro industry

Technology enabling digitization in farm are now also based on concept with automate the operation with minimal user interface. These needs facilitate development of technologies never seen before like farm robots, guidance system based on GPS, telematics, precision planting [11].

With the onset of these technologies, correct data capturing is ensured in farming which thereby used to determine correct market for the quality of crop produced along with determining right price. Consumers and agri-allied business look digital marketing an opportunity to reach farmers removing middle men. In rural areas, the use of Internet is increasing, and research shows ample opportunity exist in communication, loyalty development, customer service improvement in agriculture sector. Agricultural marketing includes planning, selecting crop, method of land preparation, renting machineries, precision planting, fertilisers, pesticides, choosing right irrigation practices, determining correct harvesting time, grading, packing, transport, storage, selling and promotion. Digital marketing used to connect and promote every step of farming facilitating right use of technology. Like other segment or business, agriculture has all that digital platform can enable it to grow similarly however the intense data mining is the future trend of digitization. Currently digital platform are in mostly used four forms in agriculture [11].

  • Website development

  • Mobile app development

  • Social media marketing

  • Content marketing

Education is the base to knowledge and understanding current trend and market. With the penetration of schools and colleges in rural areas, along with high growth of mobile network in rural areas are paving platform to digitization. The challenges of agricultural sector are counter with digital marketing, like selling of crop at right price to right market, digital marketing gives the platform. Daily price of milk, crops, poultry, pulses are get known to farmers through Internet. Training on current agricultural practices is also made possible through Internet. YouTube, Facebook are now widely used among youth in rural areas and become source of networking and connect to world. In long term, digital platform will bring higher consumption in rural India with creating more employment opportunities—this in turn will bring growth in country economy.

11. Scope of digital marketing

Few global driving factors to define scope of Digital marketing are briefed below [12].

  • Digitalisation is directly linked with growth in Internet users. Country like India has seen 63.4% of all mobile users are accessing Internet from their mobile devices by end of 2019, which is likely to grow 80% by 2025 globally [13].

  • 66% of users on Internet make buying decisions on digital platform [13].

  • E-commerce sales B2B reach $12 trillion globally by end of 2019 and likely to grow $ 24.3 trillion by 2025. India, a developing country, targets to reach US $200 billion by 2026 from US $38 billion in 2017 (Report based on Meticulous research) with growth rate of 11.1% CAGR [13].

  • Globally 34% organisations are investing more than half of their annual budget of marketing on digital marketing. Digital contributes alone 51% in US and 22% in India against total budget advertisement and marketing promotion share [13].

  • Technological development from Radio to Television, Smart Phone to Alexa, development of machine to automated robot scratches 360* all around the need of giving comfort with quality, customer satisfaction to delight thereby creating a trend in society for ease of purchase with base of strong reviews and feedback thereby maintaining Trust with loyalty [12, 13].

  • Trend shows shifting of price conscious market to value conscious and digital market continuously developing to create value of the product and promote the value rather only price and thereby most preferred market place and so growing exponentially.

  • Seeing is believing, and based on this concept, digitalisation is also growing.

  • Growth in economy, demanding more entrepreneurship and start ups give birth to more brands to come in industry and their need of promotion to larger mass in short period leaves digital marketing as only and best media.

  • Technology advancement in artificial intelligence is a new wave in digital marketing.

  • In current world, data is money and most valued for every industry and digital marketing is the best platform through which different types of data are preserved, captured, analysed which helps industry to draft his product definition, making belief true—DIGITAL IS FUTURE.

  • Creativity backboned with right analysis results correct business decisions which pushes the business with higher ROI. This right analysis is based on data which is possible to capture in digital marketing trend.

  • Marketing automation is the trend in society and is expected to grow at a rate of 22% YOY. This gives digital marketing more exposure to expand and sustain customers [12].

It is seen above factors are working as a catalyst which keeps digital platform booming. Understanding change is the truth of humanity, digital platform keeps on developing new segment and channels of promotion which keeps users stick to the digital market place. Every day something new is added to the content platform which maintains the expectation bar excited among users keeping engaged in social and internet platform.

12. The future of digital marketing

The future of digital marketing will be integration of successful past technology and growing interest to personalise and customise need of individual.

It has changed most in last 5 years than the shift seen in last 50 years. It has resulted owing to change in human lifestyle and their interest on technology. Every individual business is now tech-savvy and wishes to be more productive and profitable in shortest possible time. Optimization is happening all around, and deliverable made to happen within available resources. Every industry and its segment want to gain and prove his product best in class with superior quality. The real difference in past and future scenario is not the quality of product someone delivering but the service someone offering along with the product will create differentiating factor and put him ahead in business race. Service of delivery and need based customization is the future of all and any product.

The digital transformation trends and strategies are evolving in data cloud, internet-based platform where script post is changing to voice search dominated with artificial intelligence.

There are majorly four factors contributing to the transformation of digital marketing [8, 12]:

  • Tech advancement

  • Storytelling

  • Advantage of first mover

  • Smart device focussed marketing

Above mentioned factors lead customers gain experiences which keeps him love with the brand and maintain his loyalty.

Tech advancement helps marketers to analyse and form strategies more effectively, making digital marketing more effective and productive. Advancement in technology place you ahead in understanding customer demographics, preferences, behaviour, requirements which helps to decide effective campaign and timing as per for business plan.

  • Artificial Intelligence Chatbot: It is a computer program capable of simulating human conversation through oral commands or text chats or both using AI feature that is embedded through smart devices application. It is most seen at Starbucks taking orders for his customers and interacting status of order.

  • Data and predictive tools: Data is value and companies are working to capture more data to understand their customer better. In Hotel industry, today they introduced the trend of Alex in rooms to place orders and interact which keeps record of order trends and like dislike of customer which are later analysed by personalised CRM activities of hoteliers to retain and attract more customers. Travel and ecommerce industry are also using predictive tools to understand the behaviour and preference of the site visitors before making suitable recommendations which will suit individuals.

  • Virtual reality and augmented reality: Augmented reality uses live view like using smartphone camera whereas virtual reality creates an experience out of physical world through complete immersion using independent device like Samsung gear, Microsoft Hololens. Lenskart a known brand for smart glasses allows user to choose best specs suiting your face and style using AR technology making buying experience more customised.

  • Marketing automation: It is a platform used to plan and manage marketing campaigns be it online or offline across channels including automated email, messages, websites, and social platform. Automation with predictive tools makes digital campaign super productive.

Story Telling: It is one kind of script in digital media for attracting traffic and connect emotionally, thought provoking and entertaining existing noise to differentiate your business and brands. Content creation in a form of storytelling and video marketing is the new trend to influence traffic. This type of initiative also helps brands to go viral and attain new shapes creating impression on their viewers. Some kind of interacting campaign between the blogger and user keeps attention of traffic making individual brand centric and eye catch new viewer in social media. Recently #10DaysofGoodwill is one of right example of Siyaram’s ads run during Navratri Campaign in India [8].

Advantage of first mover is benefitting in every field and is true for digital marketing campaign. To be placed on top, brand should be capable of implementing latest trends in digital field. As like in recent days, Brands need to create content and be the first mover during technological advancement like shift of image or content post to live streaming videos and capturing traffic on YouTube. Similar trends to be hacked by brands to be on top [8].

Smart device focussed marketing is the change in digital trend where desktop version of website change to mobile device compatibility. Traffic on mobile apps is more than on desktop websites and so websites’ compatibility with smart mobile devices is a need of every brand having suitable apps, which function smoothly on the mobile device. Having more of video content than script is most likely to acknowledge by viewer is the prevailing which is now shifting to voice search and command. Compatibility to Voice command is the next move for very website owner or blogger or brand [8, 12].

Fewer future dimensions in digital era described below for understanding [12].

  • SEO A/B split testing: It is one of new tool which is used to increase organic traffic without

    • Major change in website

    • Sacrificing ranking numbers

    It allows isolating variables increasing traffic so as to take targeted approach for changing the content. This tool also protects website being negatively impacted from outside of developer control. Recently with the changes made by Google in their “best practices” with the release of EAT (Expertise, Authoritativeness, Trust) has caused losing more than 50% traffic in well-known sites of healthcare industry. It gives a targeted approach by defining clear hypothesis statement to work upon for increasing traffic. This testing is carried majorly adopting technique using Clickflow, Google optimise, Google Ads.

  • Programmatic advertising: It is the algorithm buying and selling of advertising space in real time. This process involves software to play a major role and achieved targeted advertising without manual interference or touch. It allows marketer to decide and acknowledge the right segment, demography, tailored script to reach to the right targeted customer at target time. It optimises spend and resource. Programmatic advertising moving at a faster rate into the realms TV, radio, out of home (OOH) advertising (Figure 14) [8].

  • Personalization: It consists of tailor made concept in achieving individual or group requirements thereby customising the need and framing the advertising as per the market move and customer base which improves customer satisfaction and leading high rate of digital sale conversion, improving website metrics. It is a key element which is growing with the advancement of technology rendering tastes and varied preference. Deloitte study says, almost 36% customer preferred to have not only personalised communication but product and services also to be customised and personalised. It is growing in recent years and more advancement is to be seen in this segment (Figure 15).

  • Video marketing: It is one of best tools for traffic engagement and keeping audience believing and trusting product with the concept generating through video streaming. There are instances of product becoming symbol of message generating through video. Video marketing enables symbolising company’s mission and vision in a better way thereby creating more impact than script content and leverage in establishing higher brand value [8].

Figure 14.

Increase in programmatic spending. Source: Forbes (stateofdigital.com–Current State of Programmatic advertising).

Figure 15.

Representation ratio to personalisation. Source: Digital Marketing Insights.

Few facts on video marketing [8] (Figures 16 and 17)

  • Video is more promising in communicating message than the audio or image.

  • Facebook video contents are shared more than the image or script post.

  • Survey reveals 65% of information is retained 3 days more by viewers with a visual aid.

  • Influencer marketing: Currently one of social website, LinkedIn is seen getting more popular among professional and one of main reason is the endorsement, it brings which creates sense of confidence on content or message been published by individual. This holds true even in marketing where endorsement from known personality, organisations as an influencer becomes active reason for the brand establishment. It works on the credibility factor of individual which symbolises the brand user or recommender. This is one of the safest modes of marketing which also penetrated in digital platform [8].

  • Visual search: It is currently trending digitally where someone can search what he sees and can filter search elements based on his preference where instead of text or content he desires to give the image or screenshot of his preference and the search engine give him the result. Recently noticed this development where Google gives the search for any kind of species or flowers which you do not identify whereas once you click the picture and give to search engine, it will result in giving the detail of image. This type of search engine mostly uses techniques related to content based image retrieval. With the development of Google lens camera, it is getting possible where you click viewing any brand or object to identify and Google will let you identify through World Wide Web information [14] (Figure 18).

    It enables time saving and convenience bringing opportunity for ecommerce where using this feature someone can buy what he likes to see rather which he do not identify which brand or what is the called so but is impulsive buying nature of individual will lead to search through visual search technology. Visual search is now available with Pinterest, Bing, Google [14].

    Report by Jumpshot and Moz in 2017 reveals statistics of increasing visual search have rising trend by traffic with 27% stake in image search for 10 major properties [14].

    Micro moments: These moments are I-want-to-know moments where consumers using smart phones or tablets revolve around intent-rich moments. These needs are somewhat related to going, knowing, doing, buying something. These moments are captured using AdSense and thereby providing inputs of brands or results during search. Analysing micro moments helps to decide brand its sales strategy—make easier buying interface, content as per customer preference, process convenient to consumer [8, 12].

  • Voice search: With more than a billion-search happening currently becoming a new revenue source, marketers are investing much on regional language artificial intelligence enabled technology voice search which make possible to compile and analyse data. With the onset of Google Assistant, Cortana, Alexa and so like technology it is expected to reach 50% of search through Voice enabled features by 2020. It is also noted with smart devices in hands, more than 50% of searches through Voice is seen through mobile or tablet this enables marketers to adopt mobile–first technology approach for marketing or promotion of its product (Figure 19).

  • Artificial intelligence: AI gives intelligence to machine to think, respond, and perform tasks like human. AI in marketing market is said to grow with a CAGR of 26% reaching 21 bn USD by 2023 [8, 12] (Figure 20).

    It is increasing popular because

  • It is seamless and work with high efficiency

  • More deeper insights are analysed for better experience

  • It adapts regular input through progressive learning algorithms

Figure 16.

Video marketing representation. Source: Blue Corona. Measurable Marketing Solutions.

Figure 17.

Video marketing: representation. Source: Bluecorona Available from: https://www.bluecorona.com.

Figure 18.

Distribution of US searches across 10 web properties. Source: Jumpshot’s Moz October 2016.

Figure 19.

Voice search: quick stats. Source: Saynetech.

Figure 20.

Future AI demand trajectory. Source: McKinsey Global Institute AI adoption and use survey, McKinsey Global Institute analysis.

It gives competitive edge to digital marketing owing to its feature [15]

  • Understanding need of consumer better

  • Enhance user experience and interface

  • Increase marketing effectivity

  • Increase ROI

12.1 Latest tools of digital marketing

Many new companies in recent years with their start up gives boost and new tools to Digital industry. Few of trending tools used by marketer are HubSpot, BuzzSumo, PowToons, Apester, Google Trends which is enabling them to have tools for CRM, content marketing, social media marketing, develop powerful interactive session in terms of power point, data mining, video, supports comparison of search volume, thereby facilitating customer getting attractable, to remain with brand for longer period, sense of delight. These tools are most advanced marketer and breach the gap of consumer need and product development.

13. Challenges in digital marketing

It is said World War III between nations will be for data security theft and biggest threat against digitalisation is high chances of data loss, breach of privacy. Data mining is the base of digital marketing and same is the threat owing to its possibility of being hacked by bugs or virus. In current scenario of digital marketing, several data, be it personal or business strategy, plan, or budget, all are available in digital form and have chances of being hacked by someone who can breach subject security. People have become dependent on gadgets and devices, hindering innovation, and new development or discovery is limited, and only improvement in process and product is seen in current scenario. This digital marketing made consumer more powerful by giving several options to choose from big digital platform, raising sense of high competitiveness owing to transparency in price and globalising product (Figure 21).

Figure 21.

2020 challenges for agencies. Source: WIX.

The challenges evolve every year with the technological advancement in digital platform. Risk of yesterday is gone, and unseen factors of tomorrow are the threat to digital platform. Competition to be as top brand is perceived as biggest challenge in digital world as brands must evolve themselves to understand the evolving need of consumers. This bring brand to reframe and refresh his technology updates regularly which is challenging to main as every new start up gives a threat to existing technology. Since today product alone is not sold rather service is accompanied with product, the frame of words to product is necessary to build in a way to connect correct features and strength otherwise it even leads to failure of product or brand. The fast reach and easily accessible feature of digital platform is even seen sometimes a threat as consumer gives open reviews which is seen by mass and even affects the sales growth of brand.

Discipline and prevailing trend knowledge is needed in handling brand on digital platform (Figures 22 and 23).

Figure 22.

2019 challenges in digital marketing. Source: State of Inbound Report.

Figure 23.

2017–2018 challenges in digital marketing. Source: State of Inbound Report.

14. Conclusion

Above article reveals digital market as a new place for different brands where company and consumer can interact and evaluate each other. Significant increase of Internet users seen globally with India crossing 350 million, where 93.91% make their presence to digital world through mobile devices [16]. Since 2017, JIO as network provider has given India cheapest mode of Internet, leveraging mass usage of Internet in India, giving estimated market for mobile commerce to a tune of $19 billion by 2019 [16]. The social media platform has become unique market place for different brands and AI is new language of Digital market which is enabling industry to evolve and increase efficiency. Irrespective of regional differences, digital frequency is unanimously increasing, various age group people accepts online transaction as safe and secure mode, male and female purchase behaviours are same, male female behave somewhat alike with respect to purchase frequency, urbanity and online security perception. Nuclear family is the booster to digital platform, and social networking is available through digital platform. It gives equal opportunity to small and big brand to grow. Internet growing in rural areas, connecting it to urban culture brings immense opportunity to consumer. Technology is acknowledged to have shift in every decade and noticed such shift from Radio to Television to Mobile. Mobile empower consumer with their rights through connect to source of knowledge and as each. Digital marketing helps consumer Connect to product, Create its own requirement. Communicate, Collaborate with brand. Discipline to data privacy by the network and social media platform is sensitive to maintain for enabling extensive and mass usage of digital marketing. Although digital platform has some threats to security and privacy, it is the trend in current society and is accepted worldwide as the biggest market for all brands.

© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chandan Kumar Mishra (June 2nd 2020). Digital Marketing: Scope Opportunities and Challenges, Promotion and Marketing Communications, Umut Ayman and Anıl Kemal Kaya, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.92329. Available from:

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