Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Organochlorine

Edited by Aurel Nuro

University of Tirana, Albania

Organochlorines (OC) are organic molecules with chlorine in their structure. There is a large number of organochlorine compounds known. Large amounts of chlorinated organic compounds are produced for industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical, household purposes, etc. In many studies, the main focus is on OC that have been evaluated as environmental contaminants with toxic effects on humans. Different types of organochlorines have been produced throughout the world. Some of the most popular classes are organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated alkanes, etc. Organochlorine compounds are very stable. Generally, they are molecules of moderate polarity (low solubility in water). This makes OCs easily soluble in fats. They are found in almost all environments: air, water, soil, sediments and biota samples. They can spread out easily in different geographic altitudes and latitudes. Volatile and semi-volatile OCs have the ability to travel far distances from the place where they were used. Some studies have reported some organochlorines in the North Pole at the same levels as the areas where they were produced or applied. They have the ability to bioaccumulate easily in biota. Passing through the food chain levels, they increase their concentrations (biomagnifying). The main access pathways for OCs to the human body are through foods and exposures. Generally, they display their effects after a relatively long period of exposure. This is the main reason why they were produced and used for a long time before their production and use was banned. The most important health effects that organochlorines can cause are: mutagenic, endocrine-disruptor, carcinogenic and central nervous or peripheral disorders. After identification of the consequences, production of OCs and use was banned in many countries but their effects are still being seen many years later.

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IntechOpen
OrganochlorineEdited by Aurel Nuro

Published: October 24th 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74499

ISBN: 978-1-78984-264-7

Print ISBN: 978-1-78984-263-0

eBook (PDF) ISBN: 978-1-83881-798-5

Copyright year: 2018

Books open for chapter submissions

912 Total Chapter Downloads

chaptersDownloads

Open access peer-reviewed

1. Introductory Chapter: Organochlorine

By Aurel Nuro

196

Open access peer-reviewed

2. Dioxin and Furan Emissions and Its Management Practices

By Mekonnen Maschal Tarekegn and Efrem Sisay Akele

257

Open access peer-reviewed

3. Mechanistic Considerations on the Hydrodechlorination Process of Polychloroarenes

By Yoshiharu Mitoma, Yumi Katayama and Cristian Simion

210

Open access peer-reviewed

4. Application of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Dechlorination of Chlorophenols

By Fuchong Li, Yansheng Liu, Linlei Wang, Xu Li, Tianqiong Ma and Guangbi Gong

252

Edited Volume and chapters are indexed in

  • Worldcat
  • OpenAIRE
  • Google Scholar
  • AZ ebsco
  • Base
  • CNKI

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