Open access peer-reviewed chapter

The Vital Readiness Level of the Youth: Psychology and Education Management Approaches

By Nicel Masaoğulları, Müzeyyen Alasya, Sibel Dinçyürek, Yeliz Akıntuğ, F. Burçin Hocaoğlu and İpek Alkan

Submitted: April 14th 2017Reviewed: September 20th 2017Published: December 20th 2017

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71090

Downloaded: 244

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the problems, expectations, and readiness-for-solution of the young people living in the town. In order to present suggestions about how school administrations should have an approach to education management, 36 voluntary young people (10 women and 26 men) participated to the study who lived in Famagusta city of TRNC in 2016. In this study, the data were collected through semi-structured focus group interview. The data, which are used for the results, were analyzed through content analysis. As a result of the data analysis, participant’s expectations are grouped under four headings. After analyzing the data, it is recommended that state, in cooperation with several public bodies including local governments, has to find commissions on voluntary basis toward youth and give the young people some roles in these commissions so as to prevent discrimination and marginalization, and enforce the sense of belonging. For this reason, it is recommended that in addition to their principal roles, local governments and education management should lead services for keeping the youth out of bad habits.

Keywords

  • city
  • young people
  • youngsters roles
  • young people’s expectations
  • young people’s problems

1. Introduction

Since the day societies existed, they have gone through some changes due to several reasons characteristically; however, all societies basically tended to continue their existence and their generation. For this reason, societies need young people with awareness and responsibility so as to continue their functionalities and make possible their basic purposes in a healthy manner. In other words, regardless of the characteristics of a society, they need the dynamic structure of young people so that they can improve in areas and institutions such as social, political, economic, family, and religion.

As a result of the phenomenon of urbanization and fundamental changes in industrial revolution and education which emerged with modernization [1], the concept of youth appears as a separate category. However, youth period is not a period which can be handled unidimensional; the multi-dimensional period of youth which includes changes in biological, psychological, and social-cultural functions represents an era when social and economic problems are experienced and some critical decisions are made as regards life and future [2]. In order for the young people to overcome this complicated period, they have to make sound future planning and establish healthy social relations.

Obviously, the most prominent feature of our day is the rapid changes that occur in all areas. These rapid changes and the increasing diversity in the world further increase the needs of citizens who are aware of their knowledge and responsibilities. The education of the establishment of this citizenship, that is, the prosperity of the schools, is widely accepted [3]. For this reason, it may be appropriate for schools to make the system suitable by following the innovations that cannot be ignored and the education system will keep up with these changes.

The education system is a whole and this system constitutes a student, teacher, school, inspector, manager, family, purpose, subject, method, and environment items which have a close interaction between them [4]. It is thought that all these items in the system should work in a harmonious manner and be equipped with the awareness, knowledge, and skill to keep up with the changes brought about by today’s world and to be able to apply them.

There is a need for general rules and constructs that will support openness to change, which will facilitate compliance with these changes. In this context, the important factors are school administrators’ perspectives and value systems [5].

In addition for that, national mechanisms, local governments, and school managements are expected to provide opportunities to the youngsters and support them in designing their future in the best way possible. It is believed that offering these opportunities to the young people and giving government support in shaping their future plans will carry the state and society to the future. One of the most basic mechanisms to achieve this is undoubtedly education administrators, school administrators, and schools.

Student-centered leadership is the forerunner in the formation of research contingency, decision-making, systematic community integration, globalization and the development of the information society, education and contemporary context of school leadership. In this context, the needs, expectations, and problems of the young people are determined by scientific means so that education administrators and school administrators should evaluate these data and provide services to provide the development of young people and their social integration [6].

According to Başaran, a system should have a favorable environment for living, because the environment is necessary for the life of the system. The environment is formed with inputs that the system can provide to be convenient. There are two types of systems: general and specific. The general environment of the school, the society and the private environment, affect the graduates and are affected by them. Many indirect and direct variables affect schools. For example; social structure, political structure, administrative units, economic structure, social change and tendencies, resources, legal regulations, and scientific and technological developments are some of these. The school is connected to all these variables in terms of input and output. So it can sustain its existence [7].

For this reason, well-grown, well-educated youth is expected to have the potential which will lead to positive fundamental changes for the state, society, and school. Briefly stated, it is expected that institutions such as family, religion, education economics, and politics can perform their functions in a systematic manner, and relations and interaction level between institutions can be associated with national targets and modern global standards with positive contribution of education institutions [8]. As mentioned above, it can be said that the greatest task generally falls on the state, in particular, local governments.

From an economic point of view, development and revival of the state in economic terms, associated with industrialization, led to a steady increase in the need for qualified individuals. For this reason, well-grown and educated individuals will mean qualified workforce and bran force for the state, which means that state and society will be able to develop independently. In other words, appropriate education environments have to be created so that the qualified personnel needed for the economic development of the society can be educated and youngsters can adapt to the social order in which they live [1]. In order to achieve this aim, education must be provided equally and must be accessible and available to all citizens in society.

Examined from a societal point of view, youngsters who complete their socio-cultural development fully with a good education, as regards the society they live in, can be earned by the society as individuals with the potential for transferring national cultural heritage to new generations. Otherwise, the youngsters will face with adaptation process and efforts for dealing with difficulties which is a result of differentiation in economic and social platforms in the world changing with modernism will lead them to suffer from higher anxiety levels [2]. Anxiety is a state of emotion which is experienced against a possible danger from internal or external environment or a situation perceived as dangerous by the individual [9]. It is known that if anxiety increases, young people will have serious problems in planning their futures and decision-making. In other words, it is known that responsibilities in making professional decisions, planning their futures, making friends, and fear from future causes anxiety among young individuals [9]. In order to eliminate or minimize the anxiety levels of youngsters as regards these problems, conditions in all state institutions, especially in economic and educational agencies, have to be improved and restructured. “It can be recommended that services which will reduce the anxiety of youngsters toward future in terms of social welfare, and help them continue their lives more healthily in both physical and mental terms, should be extended and necessary policies should be formulated and implemented” [2]. Earning the youngsters, using their existing potential, and making them a part of the society in the best way possible is the task of not only the state but also a problem which deserves attention of local governments. It is known that youngsters have a very important place for local governments beyond being essential for the state and the society at large. City councils can be founded to earn the youngsters and use their potential, and their opinions can be evaluated in the projects under the umbrella of a platform open to the opinions of young people. This will also make possible to evaluate the strategy which will be developed as regards the city in the most broad-based manner. When city councils are founded and put into implementation, they will take place as an essential part of participation at local level [10]. Efforts on the participation of the mentioned youngsters argue that participation takes place in three formats, namely individual, collective, and official [11]. For this reason, as participation occurs in three dimensions, desires and wishes of individuals are more easily answered by local governments. In other words, in the face of the expectations, the problems and the difficulties, the local authorities can react instantly to the problems. Also, it is important how people can access local governments in such situations. In addition to the principal roles of local governments, it can be accepted that expectations of people from local governments can change depending on the space and different problems can occur. For example, taking into consideration that Famagusta is a coastal town, local people can expect from local government that services in water sports will be increased; people of another town which is not located on the coast will not have such an expectation from local government. In addition, from the facts that Famagusta has a multi-cultural university and has a closed area under military control, Famagusta youngsters have different expectations and problems; lack of sufficient activity centers, being an historical town and relevant problems are different from other regions.

As mentioned above, taking into consideration that every society has a unique social structure, it can be said that Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) also has a unique structure. Geographical location, neighboring countries, interacted societies and/or historical process, past wards are important factors for a society to develop a unique identity. In this context, it can be said that these factors have great importance in the formation of TRNC’s present identity. In other words, considering historical process, it can be claimed that TRNC passed through several stages before reaching its present structure, and both positive and negative processes emerged within past political, economic, and social changes. It is observed that this situation triggers hopelessness especially among youngsters. In this context, it can be said that ensuring that youngsters grow and develop in integrity as a part of their society where they feel healthy and happy is essential. Especially, local governments can play role in eliminating the exclusion tendencies caused by ethnic, religious, political, age, gender, etc. differences among citizens. The exclusion eliminates by improving their belonging feelings, increasing their awareness and participation. “Social exclusion and participation of young people is seen as two opposite concepts and it is emphasised that social inclusion policies cannot become successful unless participation of young people is ensured” [12] as some groups are seen as disadvantaged due to their race, economics status, minority status or social status. Young people are accepted as one of the disadvantaged groups by the United Nations, and participation is emphasized [13]. They form a privileged group for which all local and central mechanisms are given responsibility for improving and increasing their participation. It is expected that the responsibility of increasing and improving participation of young people, ensuring their sense of belonging and social integration should be assigned to both the local governments and national authorities [13, 14]. In this context, within the scope of social integration, local governments must support socially weighted projects such as culture, sports, alcohol and substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases and felony-committed youth with the aim of reintegrating them with the society or organize voluntary activities at local governments [15]. Within these activities, youth having a say in decisions will have positive impact on their internalization of social issues. Although youth having an impact on decisions is essential, attention must be paid to the distribution of individuals in the group which is supposed to represent the view of young people. For example, if young people who suffer from exclusion problem are not included in this group, an underrepresentation problem will occur [16]. In the formation of city councils, balance and equality from all respects, especially gender, must be taken into account and the role of organized groups in city councils must be clearly defined [17]. If this distribution is made equally and young people are included in planning process by the local governments, the desires and wishes of young people will claim their place in the plans [18]. However, in the local government laws of TRNC, there are no articles which provide for the participation of young people. In other words, the law 51/1995 states that local governments in TRNC are generally authorized to establish social facilities in only social issues. On the other hand, in Turkey, local governments are determined as special provincial administrations, municipalities, and villages. Municipalities Act No. 5393 and special provincial administrations Act no. 5302 mention youth in the duties and authorities of local governments. Taken from that perspective, it is envisaged that in addition to present laws, local governments will act as guides in directing future generations and shaping the society in terms of ensuring participation of young people and their social integration and development. Therefore, this study will argue that local governments and young people have to work in coordination and based on scientific principles.

2. Importance of the study

The foundation of the future of a country is its youth. For this reason, it is necessary that the problems, expectations, and needs of young people are identified and their perspectives for today and the future are determined.

Taking into consideration the past events in Cyprus and today’s solution or deadlock situation, knowing how young people are affected and their readiness levels are important in terms of regulations and services that will be developed by institutions and agencies, researchers, and experts in the future. Especially in the peace process, the administrators and educators in the schools have very important roles. Considering the expectations and needs of the young people, it is important that the education programs should be reconsidered and arranged; thus, educators and the school administrators should provide services by taking these into consideration. In addition, literature search showed that such a study has not been conducted in the island before, as a result of which it is expected that the data to be obtained will shed light to the future services. It is thought that the data obtained will give a sense of the services they will give to the education administrators and school administrators.

3. Purpose of the research

The primary aim of the research is to determine the problems, expectations, and readiness-for-solution of the young people living in the town. In this direction, it is aimed to present suggestions about how school administrations should have an approach to education management.

3.1. Subproblems

In order to reach the general purpose given above, the following subproblems will be employed:

  1. What are the expectations of the young people from local government?

  2. Where and how are the young people seeing themselves in the developed world?

  3. What kind of social projects can the young people develop jointly with local government?

  4. How are the young people evaluating their leisure time?

  5. What are the problems experienced by the young people?

  6. In case of a possible agreement, to what extent the young people in the town are ready to the opening of Kapalı Maraş?

  7. What is the readiness and expectations of the young people for a solution (peace process)?

4. Method of the research

In the study, case study pattern of qualitative research method was used in order to identify the opinions of young people living in the city. Case study makes sure that factors such as environment, individual, process, and event are examined in an integrated manner. The focus of this study is to reveal how these factors are affected by the case or how they affect the case [19].

4.1. Working group

Findings obtained in qualitative studies do not have to be generalized to the universe; therefore, having a sample representing the universe is not an obligation [20]. For this reason, a sample was not chosen in this study and a case study group was determined instead. A suitable working group was chosen which consisted of individuals from whom relevant data could be obtained by the researchers easily [19].

Working group of the research was attended by 36 young people (10 women and 26 men) who lived in Famagusta city of TRNC in 2016.

4.2. Data collection techniques

Through semi-structured focus group interviews, participants of the study were asked their expectations from the city, where and how they saw themselves in the developing world, what kind of social projects they could develop in cooperation with the local government, how they evaluated their spare time, what kind of problems they experienced, in case of a possible agreement, to what extent they were ready to the opening of Kapalı Maraş, and what was their readiness and expectations for a solution. The answers they have to these questions were obtained using an open-ended data collection tool.

For validation of the research, opinions from five experts were obtained on the legitimacy and suitability of prepared questions. In line with the received opinions, necessary corrections and changes were made and the questions were given their final shape. In addition, understandability and ordering of questions was tested with a pilot study.

Internal reliability and consistency of the research were determined by examining the relation between opinions of the participants by two researchers. For external reliability, the data collected in the research were presented to the working group and stored.

4.3. Data analysis

In focus group study, questions were asked to the participants and interviews continued for 4 hours. The collected data were recorded and then analyzed. In the analysis of data, participants were coded with numbers from 1 to 36. In the analysis of data, content analysis and data reduction methods were employed. Questions asked in the research were accepted as themes depending on which subthemes were formed.

5. Findings

5.1. Expectations of the youth form local government

Expectations of the youth form local government are given in Table 1.

Athletic and cultural• MAG being usable by the youth 23 pupils
• Increasing athletic activities 23 pupils
• Putting Maraş MGA into practice 6 pupils
• Formation of municipal music orchestra 2 pupils
• Organization of education activities
• Increasing water sports activities
Public relations and support services• Support for athletic activities (material rewards) 8 pupils
• Announcement of municipal activities (press-publication), conveying to the public and creating alternatives 3 pupils
• More frequent collection of society’s opinions
• Collection of fees from people who are not under poverty line
• Health unit working more effectively
• Bringing instant service to the people
• The young people and municipality acting together at old age asylum and special education centers
• Contacting youth with student clubs
Environmental protection, control and safety• Environment cleaning and dissuasive penalties 5 pupils
• Building a bicycle road 3 pupils
• Environmental organization 3 pupils
• Creating social areas (tea garden, park, etc.)
• Bicycle renting stations 2 pupils
• Bringing sea to Famagusta 2 pupils
• Increasing the services of animal shelter 2 pupils
• Creating a Cleaning Team with the youth and performing activities under the project “Hygiene Famagusta”
• Discussions with institutions on safety
Human resources and education• Creating a youth unit inside the municipality 3 pupils
• Creating family counselling centers 3 pupils
• Raising awareness among youth and parents to prevent substance abuse 2 pupils
• Developing the sense of belonging to Famagusta among youth with MEB-municipality cooperation 2 pupils
• Activities for increasing environmental awareness (seminar, application, etc.…)

Table 1.

Expectations of the youth form local government.

As can be seen in Table 1, youth identified their expectations as regards athletic and cultural, public relations and support services, environmental protection, control and safety, human resources and education:

“MGA is not used by the youth as they wish at the moment. MGA must first be opened to the use of us, young people” (6).

“Yes, there are sports activities but activities are many sports branches are missing; they have to be increased” (A and H).

“It is impossible for us to do sports with our own resources in these living conditions; for this reason municipality must give support to us” (3).

“We want to participate in the activities of the municipality but we are not notified enough. I think that activity announcements of the municipality are not sufficient” (18).

“I want my opinions to be taken, public should be asked while acting, if our opinions and ideas are taken the municipality will work better” (32 and 34).

“Sufficient and dissuasive penalties are not applied in environmental cleanliness, monetary fines must be replaced with penalties which will ensure that environmental pollution is removed by the pollutant” (22).

“There are no bicycle roads in Famagusta, we cannot cycle comfortably; for this reason, it is dangerous” (22, 30, 36).

“Not enough importance is given to our environment; urbanization and urban architecture is lacking. It creates visual pollution” (27).

“We need a forum to create our ideas, projects and activities. Municipality must act as leader and form a unit” (1).

“In our country, one of the most important problems is substance abuse which haunts the entire youth. Young people and our parents are not knowledgeable enough; for this reason, family counselling centres must be founded” (3).

“We do not know how to become spouses when we marry and how to behave to our children; for this reason, there are too many divorces in our country. In addition, we also do not know how to direct our children in their education and career. For this reason, we need a place where we can receive support in these areas” (2).

5.2. Where and how do the young people see themselves in the developing world

Table 2 gives where and how do the young people living in the town see themselves in the developing world.

Where• To foreign countries due to insufficient education 4 pupils
• Behind individuals of other countries (general social lack of awareness)3 pupils
• As it is an insufficient country for working and material income I see my future abroad 3 pupils
• Today’s society is where the youth spend time in cafes, bet offices, abandoned zones, and entertainment places 2 pupils
• In a place with technology addiction where cultural values are lost
• In a place with limitations on occupation
How• Unemployed 9 pupils
• Youth lacks direction for profession 3 pupils
• Marginalized youth in identity crisis 2 pupils (TC-TRNC)
• Hopeless, unhappy, and frustrated youth 2 pupils
• Low, insufficient productivity in different branches
• Under desired success level
• Youth ready for development
• Youth moving according to the will of the majority

Table 2.

Where and how do the young people see themselves in the developing world.

As can be seen in Table 2, young people mostly see themselves abroad and backward compared to other societies due to insufficient education, and feel unemployed, marginalized, and unhappy:

“Due to the problems I am experiencing in education I will go abroad, I have no future here” (7).

“Looking at other countries, I can say that we are rather backwards as a society”(1 and 13).

“Money I make is not sufficient to support my family. I have no alternative other than going to another country” (19).

“Due to the conditions here, I am having trouble in my job, I do not how long I can deal with the risk of becoming unemployed all the time” (5).

“If I received help in choosing my profession everything would be very different. Unfortunately there is no place that we can use in professional problems” (1 and 13).

“I was born here but my parents were born in Turkey. Now I am neither Cypriot nor Turkish, I am in the limbo and an outcast everywhere” (25) .

5.3. Social projects and activities that the youth can perform with local government

Table 3 gives the social projects and activities that the youth can perform with local government.

Projects• Creating the “people’s council” which will be membered by people of all ages 3 pupils
• Integration projects that will bring youth together (disabled, different cultures-religions, etc.) 3 pupils
• Creating a youth center independent from parties 2 pupils
• Environmental Education Project 2 pupils
• Water sports project 2 pupils
• Bringing to life the mass transport project
• Organization of historical areas
• Social support project (to the young people in need)
• Social responsibility projects undertaken by young people
• Creating sports areas
• Financial support to project production by the youth
• Creating picnic areas
• Realization of free school project
• Giving incentives for Suriçi’s development
• Including youth in municipal projects
• Giving the veterinary office to young people
• Building a youth center for young people
• Activities towards disabled people
• Cooperation project between sports clubs
• Opening businesses for leisure activities and young people being employed in these companies
• Awareness-raising and information projects
• Promotion days with different cultures 5 pupils
Activities• Forestation 4 pupils
• Environmental cleaning 3 pupils
• Increasing street activities (street concerts) 3 pupils
• Increasing the number of charity sales
• Public awareness-raising works with reading-writing courses
• Open-air cinema

Table 3.

Social projects and activities that the youth can perform with local government.

As can be seen in Table 3, young people mentioned such activities as creating a “people’s council” which will be membered by people of all ages, integration projects where young people will come together, creating a youth center independent from parties, social projects such as environmental education and water sports, and promotion days with different cultures, forestation, environmental cleaning and increase of street activities as well as charity sales all of which can be performed in cooperation with the local government.

“People’s council must be formed which will be membered by people of all ages” (4).

“Young people must come together and do integrating projects towards for example disabled people, and people with different cultures and religions” (17).

“Each party has a youth centre but there is no youth centre independent from parties unfortunately. Creating a youth centre independent from parties is a necessary project for the youth of Famagusta” (3).

“I think that there is lack of awareness about environment and that we need a project for providing education in this direction” (22).

“There are some places which provide water sports services but we cannot benefit due to high prices. Water sports for youth can be done in municipal beach and the young people can benefit from it” (12).

“we want to perform activities with different cultures. As youth we do not have much information about different cultures and I think that such an activity might be useful” (9).

“We, young people, can perform forestation works altogether so that the town of Famagusta can become a more beautiful, greener place” (1).

“We are suffering from lack of street activities in Famagusta. As we do not have much opportunity to go to other cities with street activities, street concerts must be organized for youth” (1 and 13).

“If environmental cleaning activities are performed with young people, attention might be attracted to the issue of environment and higher awareness than other people can be ensured” (6).

“Famagusta youth and municipality must organize common charity sales. With such sales, the city can gain momentum and young people can be doing things together” (2).

5.4. Evaluating leisure time

Leisure time activities of the youth are given in Table 4.

• Sports activities 3 pupils
• Spending time with friends 3 pupils
• Supporting social responsibility projects 3 pupils
• Reading
• Historical, daily researches and producing ideas
• Going to café
• Playing musical instrument
• Using Internet

Table 4.

Leisure time activities of the youth.

As can be seen in Table 4, leisure activities of the youth are identified. Young people mostly spend their leisure time with doing sports, seeing friends, and taking part in social responsibility projects.

“I am spending my spare time with doing sports and visiting my friends” (8,23).

“I am spending my time with supporting social responsibility projects” (7).

“I like doing research and producing ideas about historical topics that I am studying” (29).

5.5. Problems of the youth

Problems of the youth are given in Table 5.

Family• Lack of communication (not being listened to, conflicts) 6 pupils
• Lack of interest (physical, economic, and social interest) 5 pupils
• Money, economic problem 3 pupils
• Conflict of generations 2 pupils
• Lack of trust by the family (circle of friends) 2 pupils
• Extravagance 2 pupils
• Being a control-freak 2 pupils
• Not accepting that he/she has grown 2 pupils
• Hour limitations
• Divorce
• Lack of tolerance
• Disagreement with the family due to smoking
• Lack of respect to individual differences
• Marginalization 10 pupils
Friends• Prejudices 4 pupils
• Social media addiction 2 pupils
• Wannabeism
• Jealousy
• Worthlessness
• Failure to take on responsibility
• Becoming haughty
• Lack of respect
• Lack of trust

Table 5.

Problems of the youth.

As can be seen in Table 5, young people told that they mostly had problems with their families and friends:

“My family does not listen to me; they shout and try to impose their will suddenly” (29).

“My family does not show sufficient respect to me; they even discriminate me and my siblings; whenever I want something the answer is “no” (21).

“Economic situation of my family is not good; I always have to postpone my needs” (10).

“When I am making friends I feel that they do not accept me. I feel like an outcast as my parents are from Turkey” (9).

“I feel uncomfortable in that Cypriot-Turkish issue. We are blaming each other for discrimination” (12).

“I am fed up with people with prejudices towards me due to my ethnic origin and family structure” (16).

“We cannot communicate with each other in peer environment as everyone is tackling with his/her phone” (36).

5.6. Readiness of the youth for opening of Kapalı Maraş

Data as regards readiness of the youth are given in Table 6.

• Social harmony/integration 6 pupils
• We are not ready in terms of tourism 6 pupils
 -qualified personnel
 -language
 -geographical drawbacks
• Economic problems
• Cultural shock
• We are not ready in terms of trade, health, education, and religion

Table 6.

Readiness of the youth.

As can be seen in Table 6, youth stated that they were not ready in several areas such as harmony, tourism, economy, health, education, religion, and trade if Kapalı Maraş was opened.

“As we were not together for long years, I am worried about how we can live together now” (30).

“We are in fact a tourism island but we do not have qualified personnel; how can we do it?” (28).

“At first sight we have different religion and language, we are not yet ready to join them at a point where all sides can be satisfied” (1).

5.7. Readiness of youth for solution (peace process) and their expectations

Readiness of youth for solution and their expectations are given in Table 7.

Readiness• I am not ready 10 pupils (unconscious, fear, past events, psychological trauma, guarantee, the issue of land, protection of equality, trust and social harmony problem, lack of system)
• If uncertainty in the agreement is removed, we are
ready for solution 3 pupils
Expectation• Social and economic development 2 pupils
• Protecting special situations, language, religious and
ethnic structures
• Guarantee, land and security issues have to be clear and
express 2 pupils
• Equality

Table 7.

Readiness of youth for solution and their expectations.

As can be seen in Table 7, most of the youth confessed that they were not ready for (peace process) solution; in case of a solution, they expected social and economic development, protection of language, religion and ethnic structure, and clarity and equality in guarantee and security issues.

“We are not ready, we did not forget what we lived in the past, we are not fearless” (5, 7, 22).

“I am ready for solution but nothing is clear; they have to be clearer in this” (17).

“My expectation must be reaching social and economic welfare and development” (33).

“Will we be equal; I think this is the most important issue” (23).

6. Conclusion and recommendations

In light of the obtained findings, conclusions are summarized and recommendations are made as follows:

As a result of the data analysis, expectations of the youth are grouped under four headings namely athletic and cultural; public relations and support services; environmental protection, control, and safety; and human resources and education. In this context, youth stated their leading expectations as being able to use MGA, increase in sports activities and higher material support to these activities; developing alternatives for announcing municipal activities, more attention being given to environmental cleaning and introducing dissuasive penalties, building bicycle roads, creating a unit within the municipality through which they could bring to life their projects and wishes, foundation of a family counseling center and providing services toward meeting the knowledge and skill needs of families and young people.

Young people define themselves as unemployed, unhappy, frustrated people far from desired level of success. For these reasons, they see themselves backward compared to other countries in terms of education, working, and material income, and believe that they have no future in this country.

It has been found out that youth recommend education, sports, and environmental projects to be performed in cooperation with local government; they also stated that they needed educative and cultural activities.

When leisure activities are examined, it becomes evident that youth mostly deal with sports activities, spend time with their friends, and give support to social responsibility projects.

In terms of experienced problems, it was found out that they suffered from lack of communication and interest with their families, and marginalization and prejudices with their friends.

It has been found out that the youth is not ready in several areas such as harmony, tourism, economy, health, education, religion, and trade if Kapalı Maraş was opened. In terms of readiness of the youth toward solution it was found out that the youth was not ready due to lack of awareness, fears, past experiences, and psychological traumas; in this context, expectations of the youth toward solution were listed as protection of equality, social and economic development, protection of language, religion and ethnic structure, and clarity in guarantees and security.

In order that a state and society can show progress, the youth has to be subjected to a contemporary education based on scientific foundations so that all factors required can become functional. For this reason, it is thought that educational management and school administrators should take the lead in important roles. In addition, it is recommended that state, in cooperation with several public bodies including local governments, has to find commissions on voluntary basis toward youth and give the young people some roles in these commissions so as to prevent discrimination and marginalization and enforce the sense of belonging. At the same time, it is suggested that clubs should be formed within MGA for effective evaluation of leisure time and making contribution to the development of the young people under the leadership of experts. In this context, it is essential that a “Free School” youth education program is created and put into practice within MGA where young people can develop in social, economic, political, physical, educative, professional, psychological, cognitive, and emotional aspects. It is also necessary that a unit should be created which will respond to marginalization, professional direction, communication problems, and sense of belonging needs of the youth, and counselors and other relevant experts should be employed in this unit.

In this context, it is recommended that in addition to their principal roles, local governments should lead services for keeping the youth out of bad habits, preparing them for the future and ensuring their healthy development in the name of social growth, integration and carrying the society to the future.

Overall, the aim is to provide a future which is sustainable for the young people. Also, there is a need to train young citizens for a healthy society. Therefore, new generations should be encouraged to develop themselves and being well educated. For that, the new generation must be provided equal educational opportunities. In addition to that, national mechanisms, local governments, and school managements are expected to collaborate together. In this context, the education system of common values, ideals, principles, and beliefs must be built upon. The most important factor of creating these components is to build a common culture. In this context, teachers, education administrators, and school administrators who are united under a common culture need to cooperate for common components in order to develop the suitable school environment for students. Also, they must unite under the same consensus with local government in order to produce solutions to the problems of young people and to prepare them for tomorrow’s roles, to keep away them from bad habits including drugs, and to develop their personalities with the aim of creating a sustainable society for new generation in the society.

© 2017 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nicel Masaoğulları, Müzeyyen Alasya, Sibel Dinçyürek, Yeliz Akıntuğ, F. Burçin Hocaoğlu and İpek Alkan (December 20th 2017). The Vital Readiness Level of the Youth: Psychology and Education Management Approaches, Open and Equal Access for Learning in School Management, Fahriye Altınay, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71090. Available from:

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