Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Spectral Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Compressible Homogeneous Sheared Turbulence

By Mohamed Riahi and Taieb Lili

Submitted: December 8th 2011Reviewed: May 6th 2012Published: September 19th 2012

DOI: 10.5772/48617

Downloaded: 1620

1. Introduction

This chapter is mainly in the area of the use of Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to clarify and to well better increase our understanding of the physics of the compressible turbulent flows. This theory is a computationally viable option for examining linear compressible flow physics in the absence of inertial effects. In this linear limit, the statistical evolution of incompressible homogeneous turbulence can be described completely in terms of closed spectral covariance equations (see Refs. (Hunt, 1990 & Savill, 1987) and references therein). Many papers in literature deal with homogeneous compressible turbulence and RDT solution (Cambon et al., 1993; Coleman & Mansour, 1991; Blaisdell et al., 1993, 1996; Durbin & Zeman, 1992; Jacquin et al., 1993; Livescu & Madnia, 2004; Riahi et al., 2007; Riahi, 2008; Riahi & Lili, 2011; Sarkar, 1995; Simone, 1995; Simone et al., 1997). These studies have yielded very valuable physical insight and closure model suggestions. In all the above works, the fluctuation equations are solved directly to infer turbulence physics. For the case of viscous compressible homogeneous shear flow in the RDT limit no analytical solutions are known. Simone et al. (1997) performed RDT simulations of homogeneous shear flow and showed that the role of the distortion Mach number, Md, on the time variation of the turbulent kinetic energy is consistent with that found in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In this chapter, numerical solutions to the RDT equations for the special case of mean shear is described completely by finding numerical solutions obtained by solving linear double point correlations equations. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme (Riahi & Lili, 2011). Indeed, this numerical method is proved more stable and faster than the previous one which use linear transfer matrix (Riahi et al., 2007 & Riahi, 2008) and allows in particular to obtain accurately the asymptotic behavior of the turbulence parameters (for large values of the non-dimensional times St) characteristic of equilibrium states. To perform this work, RDT code solving linearized equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows is validated by comparing RDT results to those of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of Simone et al. (1997) and Sarkar (1995) for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0 (Riahi & Lili, 2011).

A study of compressibility effects on structure and evolution of a sheared homogeneous turbulent flow is carried out using this theory (RDT). An analysis of the behavior of different terms appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds stress equations permit to well identify compressibility effects which allow us to analyze performance of the compressible model of Fujiwara and Arakawa concerning the pressure-dilatation correlation (Riahi et al., 2007). The evaluation of this model stays in the field of RDT validity (Riahi & Lili, 2011).

Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear can be studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT) for large values of St (St > 10) in particular for large values of the initial gradient Mach number Mg0 describing various regimes of flow. In fact, the study of the behavior of the non-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy q2(t)/q2(0) (withq2=uiui¯) allows to check relevance of an incompressible regime for low values of initial gradient Mach number, of an intermediate regime for moderate values of Mg0 and of a compressible regime for high values of Mg0 (Riahi et al., 2007). The pressure-released regime is related to infinite values of Mg0 (Riahi & Lili, 2011). The gradient Mach number Mg appears naturally when scaling the (linearized) RDT equations for homogeneous compressible turbulence (see equations (A.10), (A.11), (A.12) and (A.13) in appendix (Riahi et al., 2007)). This parameter can be viewed as the ratio of an acoustic time τa=lafor a large eddy to the mean flow time scaleτd=1S: Mg =τaτd=Sla, where l is an integral lengthscale and a is the mean sound speed. The lengthscale of energetic structure is expressed byl=q3ε, where εis the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation. Sarkar (1995) also used Sla(which he referred to as ‘gradient Mach number’ Mg), to quantify compressibility effects for homogeneous shear flow. In the case of shear flow, l is chosen to be the integral lengthscale of the streamwise fluctuating velocity in the shearing direction x2. Another Mach number relevant to homogeneous shear flow and that characterize the effects of compressibility on turbulence is the turbulent Mach number Mt = u/a based on a characteristic fluctuation velocity u and mean sound speed a.

2. RDT equations for compressible homogeneous turbulence

The flow to be considered is a homogeneous, compressible turbulent shear flow where we retain the same RDT equations adopted by Simone (1995), Simone et al. (1997), Riahi et al. (2007) and Riahi (2008). The linearized equations of continuity, momentum and entropy controlling the fluctuating of velocity ui and pressure p lead to general RDT equations:

(p˙γP¯)=ui,i,E1
u˙i+ujUi¯xj=1ρ¯pxi+ν32ujxixj+ν32uixj2,E2

where γis the ratio of specific heats,ρ¯is the mean density and νis the kinematic viscosity.

The dot superscript denotes a substantial derivative along the mean flow trajectories related to mean field velocityUi¯.

Equation (1) is derived from continuity equation

(ρ˙ρ¯)=ui,iE3

associated to isentropic fluctuations hypothesiss˙=0which is translated by

(p˙P¯)=γ(ρ˙ρ¯)E4

and leads to equation (1). So, the isentropic hypothesis s˙=0simplifies governing equations by keeping the variables ui and p and eliminatingρ. We can obviously discard the hypothesis s˙=0by writing the (exact) energy equation. The linearized derived equation within the framework of RDT can be written as pressure fluctuation equation which contains some viscous terms (Livescu et al., 2004; see equation (8)). Such an equation is compatible with equation (2) which contains also viscous terms and represents the linearized equation of momentum. Concerning now the validity of isentropic hypothesiss˙=0, Blaisdell et al. (1993) introduced a polytropic coefficient n defined by,pP¯=nρρ¯n =γcorresponding obviously to isentropic fluctuations. These authors performed direct numerical simulations (DNS) related to homogeneous compressible sheared turbulence with various initial conditions. They calculated temporal variation of an average polytropic coefficientn=(p2¯/P¯2ρ2¯/ρ¯2)12.During the period of the turbulence establishment (for early times), the evolution of n with St depends on initial conditions (and in particular of initial entropy fluctuations). However, for all of their simulations and for large values of St, n tends toward an equilibrium value independent of initial conditions and slightly less thanγ=1.4. Blaisdell et al. (1993) concluded that thermodynamic variables “follow a nearly isentropic process” for large values of St and for compressible sheared turbulence. As a conclusion, we retain that with isentropic fluctuations hypothesis, we can obtained a good prediction of equilibrium states (St)for compressible homogeneous sheared turbulence.

After these remarks, we consider the Fourier transform (denoted here by the symbol " ^ ") of various terms in equations (1) and (2) which leads to the following equations expressed in the spectral space and in the case of turbulent shear flow:

p^˙γP¯=u^i,i,E5
u^˙i+λiju^j+ν3kikju^j+ν3k2u^i=Ikip^ρ¯,E6

where λijis the mean velocity gradient defined by:

λij=Sδi1δj2E7

and I2 = - 1.

In the Fourier space, velocity field is decomposed on solenoidal and dilatational contributions by adopting a local reference mark of Craya (Cambon et al., 1993):

u^i(k,t)=φ^1(k,t)ei1(k)+φ^2(k,t)ei2(k)+φ^3(k,t)ei3(k),E8

where φ^1(k,t)and φ^2(k,t)are the solenoidal contributions and φ^3(k,t)is the dilatational contribution.

By separating solenoidal and dilatational contributions, we introduce the spectrums of doubles correlations:

Φij(k,t)=12[φ^i(k,t)φ^j(k,t)+φ^i(k,t)φ^j(k,t)]i,j=1..4,E9

whereφ^4(k,t)is related to the pressure and takes the following form:

φ^4(k,t)=Ip^ρ¯aE10

We then write evolution equations of these doubles correlations:

dΦ11dt=2νk2Φ112Sk3kΦ12+2Sk2k3kk'Φ13,E11
dΦ12dt=(2νk2+Sk1k2k2)Φ12Sk1k'Φ13Sk3kΦ22+Sk2k3kk'Φ23,E12
dΦ13dt=2Sk1k'k2Φ12(73νk2+Sk1k2k2)Φ13akΦ14Sk3kΦ23+Sk2k3kk'Φ33,E13
dΦ14dt=akΦ13νk2Φ14Sk3kΦ24+Sk2k3kk'Φ34,E14
dΦ22dt=(2νk2+2Sk1k2k2)Φ222Sk1k'Φ23,E15
dΦ23dt=2Sk1k'k2Φ2273νk2Φ23akΦ24Sk1k'Φ33,E16
dΦ24dt=akΦ23+(νk2+Sk1k2k2)Φ24Sk1k'Φ34,E17
dΦ33dt=4Sk1k'k2Φ232(43νk2+Sk1k2k2)Φ332akΦ34,E18
dΦ34dt=2Sk1k'k2Φ24+akΦ33(43νk2+Sk1k2k2)Φ34akΦ44,E19
dΦ44dt=2akΦ34,E20

where k'=k12+k32and k1,k2,k3are the components of the wave vectork.

Numerical integration of these equations ((11)-(20)) is carried out using a simple second-order accurate scheme:

f(t+Δt)=f(t)+Δt f(t)+ Δt2f(t)/2,E21

where the derivatives f’(t) and f’’(t) are expressed exactly from evolution equations (11)-(20) and Δt is the time-step size.

3. RDTcode validation

3.1. Introduction

In this section, results are presented and used to verify the validity of the RDT code. For this, tests of this code have been performed by comparing RDT results with those of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of Simone et al. (1997) for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0 which describe different regimes of the flow (see below). Comparisons concern the turbulent kinetic energy q2(t)/q2(0) [Figs. 1, 2], the non-dimensional production term 2PSq2=2b12[Figs. 3, 4] and the turbulent kinetic energy growth rate Λ=1Sq2dq2dt[Figs. 5, 6]. In the same way, comparisons deal with the solenoidal and the dilatational b12 anisotropy tensor components [Figs. 7, 8] (Riahi & Lili, 2011). We note that b12=u1u2¯q2is the relevant component of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor. Tavoularis & Corrsin (1981) have shown that in the incompressible homogeneous shear flow b12tends toward an equilibrium value which is independent of initial conditions.

Concerning the existence of the evolution zones where shocks develop, we neither observe any anomaly in physic parameters (no problem of realisability), nor any instability in the calculation course. In addition, it is important to specify that our code was not conceived to take explicitly into account the existence of shocks. However, we think that in the applications presented, the flow is not probably contaminated by the appearance of shocks.

3.2. Initial parameters

Intrinsic parameters that characterize the flow include the initial turbulent Mach number Mt0 =q0a(recall that 12q02is the initial turbulent kinetic energy and ais the mean speed of sound), the initial gradient Mach number Mg0 = Mt0 Sq02ε0(S is the constant mean shear andε0the initial total rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation) and the initial turbulent Reynolds numberRet0=q04νε0. The ratio of the gradient Mach number to the turbulent Mach number r=Sq02ε0characterizes the rapidity of the shear.

Table 1 lists ten simulations cases labelled A1, A2 … A10 corresponding to different values of the initial gradient Mach number Mg0. In these simulations, Mg0 increases respectively in cases A1 (Mg0 = 2.7) to A10 (Mg0 = 66.7) by keeping the same initial value of the turbulent Mach number Mt0 and the turbulent Reynolds number Ret0.

In these cases, the initial turbulent kinetic energy spectrum is similar to that used by Simone (1995),

E(K,t0)=K4exp(-2K2κpic2),E22

where κpic denotes the wave number corresponding to the peak of the power spectrum and K is the initial wave number.

CaseMt0Mg0r0Ret0
A10.252.710.7296
A20.25416296
A30.258.333.1296
A40.251248296
A50.2516.566.2296
A60.252496.1296
A70.2532128.1296
A80.2542.7170.8296
A90.2553.4213.5296
A100.2566.7266.9296

Table 1.

Initial parameters.

3.3. Results and discussion

All Figures 1-8 validate RDT approach and numerical code for low values of the non-dimensional times St (until 3.5). Indeed, comparisons carried out between our RDT results (Riahi & Lili, 2011) and DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) show that the linear analysis predicted correctly – as well qualitatively as quantitatively – the behavior of turbulence in particular for small values of St.

Figure 1.

Histories of the turbulent kinetic energy for pure-shear flow: (a) DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) and (b) our RDT results. Initial gradient Mach number Mg0 ranges from 2.7 to 67 for both DNS and RDT; arrows show trend with increasing Mg0.

Figure 2.

Evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (a) case A2 (Mg0 = 4), (b) case A4 (Mg0 = 12) and (c) case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7). ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Simone et al. (1997).

Figure 3.

Histories of the non-dimensional production term -2b12 for pure-shear flow: (a) DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) and (b) our RDT results. Initial gradient Mach number Mg0 ranges from 2.7 to 67 for both DNS and RDT; arrows show trend with increasing Mg0.

Figure 4.

Evolution of the non-dimensional production term (a) case A2 (Mg0 = 4), (b) case A4 (Mg0 = 12) and (c) case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7). ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Simone et al. (1997).

Figure 5.

Histories of the temporal energy growth rate for pure-shear flow: (a) DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) and (b) our RDT results. Initial gradient Mach number Mg0 ranges from 2.7 to 67 for both DNS and RDT; arrows show trend with increasing Mg0.

Figure 6.

Evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy growth rate (a) case A2 (Mg0 = 4), (b) case A4 (Mg0 = 12) and (c) case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7). ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Simone et al. (1997).

Figure 7.

Histories of the solenoidal b12 component anisotropy tensor for pure-shear: (a) DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) and (b) our RDT results. Initial gradient Mach number Mg0 ranges from 2.7 to 67 for both DNS and RDT; arrows show trend with increasing Mg0.

Figure 8.

Histories of the dilatational b12 component anisotropy tensor for pure-shear flow: (a) DNS results of Simone et al. (1997) and (b) our RDT results. Initial gradient Mach number Mg0 ranges from 2.7 to 67 for both DNS and RDT; arrows show trend with increasing Mg0.

In the compressible regime (Mt0 = 0.25 and Mg0 = 66.7), RDT and DNS equilibrium values of the non-dimensional production -2b12 of Simone et al. (1997) are very close [Fig. 4(c)]. As one can remark from this figure that for large values of St (St > 10), there is a small difference between RDT and DNS results of Simone et al. (1997). Thus, in this compressible regime, RDT predicts correctly equilibrium behavior of the turbulence (asymptotic behavior(St)) relatively to the non-dimensional production -2b12 (strongly compressible regime Mg0 = 66.7 >> 1 and r0>> 1) which is a rapid distortion regime compatible with the framework of RDT. The intermediate regime (case A4, Mg0 = 12) and especially the incompressible regime, for which non-linear effects are preponderant, are poorly estimated by RDT for large values of St. Moreover, Simone et al. (1997) indicate, as general conclusion that compressibility effects on homogeneous sheared turbulence, concerning particularly b12 and the non-dimensional production, which are generally associated with non linear phenomena, can be explained in terms of RDT. So, non linear and dissipative effects (through the non linear cascade) are not significant for predicting equilibrium states for strongly compressible regime (Simone et al., 1997). Consequently, we can justify the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

In Figures 9-11, we present evolutions of b12 (which is linked to production), b11 and b22 components anisotropy tensor in the incompressible (Mg0 = 2.2) and intermediate regimes (Mg0 = 13.2). In the incompressible regime, as illustrated in Figures 9(a), 10(a), 11(a), we confirm that RDT validity is limited for small values of St; considerable differences appear between RDT and DNS results of Sarkar (1995) beyond. With RDT, it is not possible to predict evolution of sheared turbulence for large values of St. Consequently, we can’t predict, by means of RDT, equilibrium states of sheared turbulence in the incompressible regime. We note that in the intermediate regime [Figs. 9(b), 10(b), 11(b)], the behavior of DNS results of Sarkar (1995) concerning b12, b11 and b22 seems to be compatible with RDT results for large values of St. In the intermediate zone of St (between small and large values of St) differences are appreciable.

Figure 9.

Evolution of the non-dimensional production term with (a): Mg0 = 2.2 and (b): Mg0 = 13.2. ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Sarkar (1995).

Figure 10.

Evolution of b11 component anisotropy tensor with (a): Mg0 = 2.2 and (b): Mg0 = 13.2. ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Sarkar (1995).

Figure 11.

Evolution of b22 component anisotropy tensor with (a): Mg0 = 2.2 and (b): Mg0 = 13.2. ━ : RDT results, o : DNS results of Sarkar (1995).

In conclusion, RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St < 3.5). RDT is also valid for large values of St (St > 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to critically study equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

4. Various regimes of flow

The various curves of Figure 1(b) permit to determine different regimes of the flow (Riahi & Lili, 2011). This figure shows that there is an increase in the turbulent kinetic energy when Mg0 increases for various cases considered A1,…,A10. In addition, when initial gradient Mach number increases, we observe a break of slope which is accentuated when the value of Mg0 becomes more significant. It appears from this figure that the turbulent kinetic energy varies quasi-linearly in cases A1 and A2, where Mg0 takes respectively values 2.7 and 4. These two values of Mg0 correspond to the incompressible regime. A weak amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy shows that cases A4 (Mg0 = 12) and A10 (Mg0 = 66.7) correspond to the intermediate regime. From Mg0 = 16.5, the regime becomes compressible. Indeed, cases A5,…, A10 show a significant amplification of the total kinetic energy more and more marked when the initial gradient Mach number Mg0 increases.

These different regimes permit to better understanding compressibility effects on structure of homogeneous sheared turbulence and to analyze the causes of turbulence structure modification generated by compressibility.

Several explanations were proposed these last years to analyze causes of the stabilising effect of compressibility which are still not cleared up.

5. Compressibility effects on structure of homogeneous sheared turbulence

5.1. Introduction

The study of compressibility effects on the turbulent homogeneous shear flow behavior made these last years the objective of several researches as mentioned in the works of Blaisdell et al. (1993 & 1996) and Sarkar et al. (1991 & 1992). DNS developed by Sarkar (1995) show that the temporal growth rate of the turbulent kinetic energy is extensively influenced by compressibility. Simone et al. (1997) identified the new coupling term in the quasi-isentropic RDT equations, which was responsible for long-term stabilization, comparing incompressible and compressible RDT. They concluded that the modification of the compressible turbulence structure is due to linear processes.

The prediction of compressible turbulent flows by rapid distortion theory provides useful results which can be used to clarify the physics of the compressible turbulent flows and to study compressibility effects on structure of homogeneous sheared turbulence. This study is important for the analysis of various physical mechanisms which characteristic the turbulence. Thus, physical comprehension of compressibility effects on turbulence leads it possible to better predict compressible turbulent flows and to improve existing turbulence models. The Helmoltz decomposition of the velocity field in solenoidal and dilatational parts reveals two additional terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget. Several studies of the behavior of the different terms present in this budget and the Reynolds stress equations show the role of the explicit compressible terms. From Simone et al. (1997) and Sarkar (1995), for the case in which the rate of shear is much larger than the rate of non-linear interactions of the turbulence, amplification of turbulent kinetic energy by the mean shear caused by compressibility is due to the implicit pressure-strain correlations effects and to the anisotropy of the Reynolds stress tensor. These authors also recommend to take into account correctly the explicit dilatational terms such as the pressure-dilatation correlation and the dilatational dissipation. In contrast, the role of explicit terms was over-estimated by Zeman (1990) and Sarkar et al. (1991). These last authors show that both those terms have a dissipative contribution in shear flow, leading to the reduced growth of the turbulent kinetic energy.

The study of the budget behaviors of the turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds stress anisotropy by RDT enables to better understand and explain compressibility effects on structure and evolution of a sheared homogeneous turbulence.

5.2. The turbulent kinetic energy equation

In the case of homogeneous turbulence, the turbulent kinetic energy is written (Simone, 1995) as:

ddt(q22)=Pεsεd+Πd,E23

in which P=Su1u2¯is the rate of production by the mean flow and Πd=pui,i¯the pressure-dilatation correlation. εs=ν ωiωi¯ and εd=43ν ui,iui,i¯are respectively the solenoidal and the dilatational parts of the turbulent dissipation rate given that ωiis the fluctuating vorticity andui,idenotes the fluctuating divergence of velocity. εsrepresents the turbulent dissipation arising from the traditional energy cascade which is solenoidal,εdrepresents the turbulent dissipation arising from dilatational regimes. Note that the last two terms on the right-hand side in equation (22) do not appear when the flow is incompressible. The explicit/energetic approach is embodied in the modeling of εdand Πddone by Zeman (1990), Sarkar et al. (1991) and others.

5.3. Results

Figures 12(a), (b), (c) show the budget of the turbulent kinetic energy for three values of initial gradient Mach number (respectively 1, 12 and 66.7) which describe the various regimes of the flow (Riahi & Lili, 2011). It will be shown from Figures 12(b), (c) that the production P and the pressure-dilatation Πdintervene significantly in this budget. In the compressible regime [Fig. 12(c)], the production is dominating and the pressure-dilatation Πdremains with relatively low values (practically null until St = 1). Figure 12(a) shows the results for Mg0 = 1 and Mt0 = 0.1 (case A0). In this case, it is still the production which is dominating. The explicitly compressible terms which are the dilatational dissipation rate εdand the pressure-dilatation Πdare not negligible in spite of the small value of the initial gradient Mach number Mg0. Consequently, we can affirm that ‘‘the incompressible behavior’’ cannot be obtained in the borderline case of low values of Mg0; that’s why we preferred to give the results for Mg0 = 1 and not for Mg0 = 2.7 and 4 with an aim of better approaching the ‘‘incompressible limit’’.

Figure 12.

The turbulent kinetic energy budget (a) case A0 (Mg0 = 1), (b) case A4 (Mg0 = 12) and (c) case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7). ── :ddt(q22)=P−εs−εd+Πd, ╴‧‧ ╴: rate of the turbulent production(P), : rate of the solenoidal dissipation(− εs), - - - : rate of the dilatational dissipation(− εd), - - : pressure-dilatation correlation term(Πd).

In conclusion, compressibility affects more the turbulent production term which represents the dominating parameter in the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In the compressible regime, the production becomes preponderant. This property is already observed in the analysis of the budget of the Reynolds stress equations related to u12¯and u1u2¯(Riahi et al., 2007).

In Figures 13(a), (b), (c), (d) are represented the different components of the anisotropy tensorbij. These figures show obviously a remarkable property concerning the anisotropy. In fact, it appears clearly that the anisotropy increases with Mg0 i.e. with compressibility and that it is responsible of the behavior of u12¯which becomes dominating compared to u22¯and u32¯in the compressible case (Mg0 = 66.7). As an indication, u12¯u22¯=12.62and u12¯u32¯=13.11for St = 3.5.

Figure 13.

Components evolution of the anisotropy tensor (a) b11, (b) b12, (c) b22 and (d) b33. ╴‧ ╴: case A0 (Mg0 = 1), ━ ‧ ‧: case A4 (Mg0 = 12), ━: case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7).

6. Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence

RDT is also used to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime (Riahi & Lili, 2011) in particular for large values of St (St > 10) and Mg0. Evolution of the relevant component of Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor b12 is presented in Figure 14 for different values of the initial gradient Mach number Mg0 (66.7, 200, 500 and 1000). Numerical results show that, for large values of St, b12 is independent of the initial turbulent Mach number Mt0 as shown in Figure 14(a) (Mt0 = 0.25) and in Figure 14(b) (Mt0 = 0.6). As one can remark also from these results that b12 reaches its stationary value all the more quickly as Mg0 is large (Mg0 = 1000). At this stage, we study equilibrium states corresponding to Mg0 = 1000, value which we assimilate to Mg0 arbitrarily large (Mg0 infinity). We present now some properties relative to these equilibrium states corresponding to pressure-released regime. The case corresponding to pressure-released limit has been discussed by Cambon et al. (1993), Simone et al. (1997) and Livescu et al. (2004). We begin by presenting equilibrium values of Reynolds stress anisotropy components: (b11)= 0.66, (b22)=(b33)= - 0.33 and (b12)= 0. These values confirm the independence of the anisotropy tensor with Mt0 in the pressure-released regime; calculation gives effectively these values for Mt0 = 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Pressure-released state corresponds thus to a particular state of one-component turbulence in the direction of the shear (x1 direction):(u12¯)=q2, (u22¯)=0and(u32¯)=0.

Another interesting property of the pressure-released regime is the quadratic increase of u12¯as shown in Figure 15 related to Mg0 = 106 and Mt0 = 0.25 (Riahi & Lili, 2011). This property has been established by Livescu et al. (2004) as analytical RDT solution in the pressure-released limit.

Figure 14.

Evolution of the relevant component of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor b12 for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0 with (a): Mt0 = 0.25 and (b): Mt0 = 0.6.

Figure 15.

Quadratic evolution ofu12¯.

Table 2 lists equilibrium values of the normalized dissipation rate due to dilatation(εdεs+εd), the normalized pressure-dilatation correlation (pd¯Sq2)and the normalized pressure variance (p2¯ρ¯2q4)for various values of initial turbulent Mach number Mt0 (Riahi & Lili, 2011). From this table, we deduce the dependence of all these parameters with Mt0.

Figure 16 shows variation of the equilibrium normalized pressure variance (p2¯ρ¯2q4)with various initial turbulent Mach number (Mt0 = 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 (Mt0 = 0.6 is relatively high

initial turbulent Mach number)) (Riahi & Lili, 2011). From this figure, it can be seen that this parameter can be written as (p2¯ρ¯2q4)=(Mt0)αwhere α = 5.8.

Mt0
Equilibrium parameters
0.250.40.50.6
(εdεs+εd)0.04100.02770.02300.0197
(pd¯Sq2)0.0003870.0003110.0002800.000257
(p2¯ρ¯2q4)0.009370.002780.001560.000973

Table 2.

Equilibrium values of the normalized dissipation rate due to dilatation, the normalized pressure-dilatation and the normalized pressure variance for various initial turbulent Mach number Mt0.

Figure 16.

Variation of the equilibrium normalized pressure variance with various initial turbulent Mach number (Mt0 = 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6).

7. Turbulence model to be tested

7.1. Introduction

RDT is an efficient and accurate method for testing linear turbulence models. The Fujiwara and Arakawa model (1995) has been proposed in literature for pressure-dilatation correlation studying compressible turbulence. In order to verify its capacity to describe the homogeneous compressible flow, since it was established to this objective, three cases of the initial gradient Mach number (Mg0 = 1, 12 and 66.7) are considered. The evaluation of this model, in the different regimes of flow, stays in the field of RDT validity (Riahi & Lili, 2011). Its detailed linear form is provided below.

7.2. Fujiwara and Arakawa model

The model suggested by Fujiwara and Arakawa (1995) for the pressure-dilatation correlation takes into account the compressible part (dilatational) of the kinetic energy (qd2). Linear part of this model has the following form:

Πd=C1ρ¯q2bijqd2q2Uixj,E24

whereC1=0.3and εis the turbulent dissipation rate. bijis the Reynolds anisotropy tensor.

7.3. Results

Comparison between RDT and Fujiwara and Arakawa (1995) model results concerning the pressure-dilatation correlation term Πdare represented in Figures 17(a), (b), (c). As one can remark from these results, that the contribution of Πdobtained by this model is negligible. Except in the case of the intermediate regime (Mg0 = 12), the Fujiwara and Arakawa model does not represent an appreciable discrepancies with the RDT results.

Figure 17.

Evolution of the pressure dilatation correlation term Πd (a) case A0 (Mg0 = 1), (b) case A4 (Mg0 = 12) and (c) case A10 (Mg0 = 66.7). ━ : RDT results, ╴╴╴ : Fujiwara and Arakawa model.

8. Conclusion

Rapid distortion theory (RDT) is a computationally viable option for examining linear compressible flow physics in the absence of inertial effects. Evolution of compressible homogeneous turbulence has been described completely by finding numerical solutions obtained by solving linear double correlations spectra evolution. Numerical integration of these equations has been carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. This numerical method has proved more stable and faster and allows in particular to obtain accurately the asymptotic behavior of the turbulence parameters (for large values of St) characteristic of equilibrium states. In this chapter, RDT code developed by authors solves linearized equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows (Riahi & Lili, 2011). It has been validated by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of Simone et al. (1997) and Sarkar (1995) for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0 which is the key parameter controlling the level of compressibility. The study of the behavior of the non-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy q2(t)/q2(0) permit to determine various regimes of flow. This study allows to check relevance of an incompressible regime for low values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0, of an intermediate regime for moderate values of Mg0 and of a compressible regime for high values of Mg0. Agreement between RDT and DNS of Simone et al. (1997) and Sarkar (1995) is obtained for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St < 3.5). This agreement gives new insight into compressibility effects and reveals the extent to which linear processes are responsible for modifying the structure of compressible turbulence. The behavior analysis of the various terms presented in the turbulent kinetic energy budget shows that compressibility affects more the turbulent production which becomes preponderant in the compressible regime. This property is already observed in the analysis of the budget of the Reynolds stress equations related to u12¯andu1u2¯. Another important property reveals that anisotropy increases with compressibility.

Agreement of RDT with DNS (Simone et al., 1997) found for large values of St (St > 10) in particular for large values of Mg0 which allows to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime. Evolution of the relevant component of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor b12, for different values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0 (66.7, 200, 500 and 1000) and for large values of St, shows that b12 is independent of the initial turbulent Mach number Mt0 (which is a parameter characterizing the effects of compressibility). In addition, b12 becomes stationary all the more quickly as Mg0 is large (Mg0 = 1000). Considering equilibrium states associated to this value of Mg0 as representative of equilibrium states related to infinite Mg0 (pressure-released regime), equilibrium values of the Reynolds stress anisotropy components (b11)and (b22)are independent of the initial turbulent Mach number Mt0. In contrast, equilibrium values of the normalized dissipation rate due to dilatation, the normalized pressure-dilatation correlation and the normalized pressure variance are dependent of Mt0. Variation of the equilibrium normalized pressure variance with various initial turbulent Mach number (Mt0 = 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) can be written as (p2¯ρ¯2q4)=(Mt0)αwhere α = 5.8.

In conclusion, after a critical analysis, we were able to justify that RDT permits to well identify compressibility effects in order to develop models taking them into account satisfactorily. The analysis of rapid distortion theory showed that it is possible to better understand the compressible turbulent flows. In addition, RDT is valid to predict asymptotic equilibrium states for compressible homogeneous sheared turbulence for large values of initial gradient Mach number (pressure-released regime). RDT is an efficient method for testing linear contribution of turbulence models.

Abbreviations

RDT Rapid Distortion Theory

DNS Direct Numerical Simulation

Nomenclature

Mg, Mg0gradient Mach number, initial gradient Mach number
Mt, Mt0turbulent Mach number, initial turbulent Mach number
Smagnitude of the mean velocity gradient
uivelocity fluctuation
ppressure fluctuation
ρ¯mean density
νkinematic viscosity
λijmean velocity gradient
amean sound speed
Δttime-step size
q2/2turbulent kinetic energy
bij=uiuj¯q2δij3anisotropy tensor
ε0initial total (solenoidal and dilatational) dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy
Ret0initial turbulent Reynolds number
r0initial rapidity of the shear
γratio of specific heats

© 2012 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mohamed Riahi and Taieb Lili (September 19th 2012). Spectral Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Compressible Homogeneous Sheared Turbulence, Numerical Simulation - From Theory to Industry, Mykhaylo Andriychuk, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/48617. Available from:

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