InTechOpen uses cookies to offer you the best online experience. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Privacy Policy.

Medicine » Infectious Diseases » "Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis", book edited by Humberto Foyaca Sibat, ISBN 978-953-51-0956-3, Published: January 30, 2013 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

Chapter 5

Control of Taenia Solium Transmission of Taeniosis and Cysticercosis in Endemic Countries: The Roles of Continental Networks of Specialists and of Local Health Authorities

By Agnès Fleury, Edda Sciutto, Aline S. de Aluja, Carlos Larralde, Sonia Agudelo, Gisela Maria Garcia, Jaime Fandiño, Randy Guerra, Cáris Nunes, Samuel Carvalho de Aragão, Marcello Sato, Ronaldo Abraham, Arturo Carpio, Franklin Santillan, Maria Milagros Cortez A., Glenda Rojas, Elizabeth Ferrer, Cruz Manuel Aguilar, Juan Carlos Durán, Teresa Garate and R. Michael E. Parkhouse
DOI: 10.5772/51286

Article top

Control of Taenia Solium Transmission of Taeniosis and Cysticercosis in Endemic Countries: The Roles of Continental Networks of Specialists and of Local Health Authorities

Agnès Fleury1, Edda Sciutto2, Carlos Larralde2, Aline S. de Aluja3, Sonia Agudelo4, Maria Garcia Gisela 4, Jaime Fandiño5, Randy Guerra5, Cáris Nunes6, Samuel Carvalho de Aragão6, Marcello Sato7, Ronaldo Abraham8, Arturo Carpio9, Franklin Santillan10, Maria Milagros Cortez A.11, Glenda Rojas 11, Elizabeth Ferrer11, Cruz Manuel Aguilar12, Juan Carlos Durán13, Teresa Garate14 and R. Michael E. Parkhouse15

1. Introduction

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is still an endemic disease in most of the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the important progress made in the development of effective tools for its prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Although the infection disappeared in many European countries during the nineteenth century, in some Eastern European countries control was not achieved until the beginning of the twentieth century, mainly due to the improvement of their political, social and economic status. Alarming recent reports show the persistence of the endemia in Africa [1-3] (Table 1), as well as in the Americas [25] (Table 2) and in Asia (Table 3). None of the endemic countries has been able to eradicate Taenia solium´s Taeniosis/Cysticercosis (T/C). Similarly, the frequency of human cases of NCC is increasing in some industrialized countries, such as the United States, Canada and Spain, due mostly to migrant workers, although some autochthonous cases have also occurred [92-97].

In this paper, we will try to understand the reasons behind such failures and propose strategies that can improve the control of the T/C.

2. Actual tools for diagnosis and treatment

It is clear that there are efficient tools for diagnosis and treatment, although investigations must surely go on and progress will be made.

CountryReferenceType of studySubject includedDiagnosis based onSeroprevalence CysticercosisPrevalence NCC
Burkina Faso[4]Population- based763Ag-ELISA10,3%; 1.4%; 0%
Burundi[6]Case-control324 PWE
648 controls
Ab-ELISA59.6 % PWE 31,5% controls
[8]Case-control303 PWE
606 Controls
Ab/Ag -ELISAAb 58,7% ; Ag 38,3 PWE
Ab 31, 4% Ag 20 % controls
[9, 10]Population-based168Ab-ELISA1,2%
Cameroon[12]Population- based137 Butchers
198 Controls
Ag-ELISAButchers 3,6%
Controls: 4,5%
[13]Population- based504 PWEAb/Ag ELISA1,2% Ag 44,6% Ab
[14]Population- based4993Ag-ELISA
CT scan
0,4% 1,0 % 3,0%59.1% of sero+
[15]Population- based93 PWE
Ab-ELISA18,3% PWE 14,8% Controls
Democratic Republic of Congo[16]Population-based943Ag-ELISA21.6%
Madagascar[17]Population-based4375Ab-ELISA EITB7-21%
[18]US Peace Corps73EITB8,2%
Mozambique[19]Urban children269Abs20,8%
CT scan
11,9%23,3% of sero+
South Africa[21]PWE (Hospital)92CT scan37%
Tanzania[22, 23]Hospital-based212 PWECT scan16.5%

Table 1.

Prevalence (sero prevalence) of human neurocysticercosis in Africa. Only 2002-2012 articles were considered.

Improvement of neuroimaging techniques permits a sensitive and accurate diagnosis of NCC in the great majority of cases, the problem being its limited accessibility to the principal rural population. Immunodiagnosis based on serum antibody detection is an efficient marker of contact with the parasite, permitting the identification of endemic areas in which control and preventive measures must be intensified. Detection of parasite antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid permits a confident diagnosis of severe neurocysticercosis forms, allowing opportune and adequate treatment and reducing the morbidity [98]. Regarding NCC treatment, two cestocidal drugs (Praziquantel and Albendazole) have been used for at least 30 years. Although different studies evaluating their efficacy have shown that these drugs are not efficient in all patients, they also revealed that they eliminate the parasites and diminish the symptomatology significantly more than placebo [99-101]. As a consequence, investigation in this area must continue.

CountryReferenceType of studySubject includedDiagnosis based onSeroprevalence Cysticercosis (%)Prevalence NCC
Bolivia[26]Population-based10124 (124 PWE)EITB
27.4% PWE
Brazil[27]Blood donors1133Ab-ELISA5.6
[30]Population-based110 PWEEITB,
8.2 (EITB)
3.6 (ELISA)
[31]Hospital-based5 105 259Admission0.01%
[32]Population-based354Ab-ELISA, EITB11.3
[34]Population-basedDeaths Sao Paulo stateDeath certificate0.55/1000,000**
[37]Hospital- based6500Autopsies0.80
Colombia[38]Hospital basedPsychiatric patients with neurological signs (98)
Primary psychiatric patients (153)
Controls (246)
EITBGroup 1: 5.1
Group 2: 2.6
Group 3: 2
[39]Population-based399Ab- ELISA52.9
[40]Patients with neurological symptoms1890 sera
989 CSF
52 sera + CSF
[44]PWE111Ab- ELISA17,1
[48]Population-based2415 (24 PWE)CT scan33% PWE
[49]Population-based800Ag-ELISA, EITB2.25
[50]Hospital-based194 PWE
CT scan/MRI19.6*
Haiti[51]Medical visits216EITB2.8
Honduras[52]Population-based6473 (151 PWE)EITB
CT scan
37 (PWE)
[53]Population-based5609 (33 PWE)EITB
CT scan
13.9 (PWE)
Mexico[54]Population-based154CT scan9.1
[55]Population-based649CT scan9.1
[56]Psychiatric patients105Ab-ELISA
7.6 (ELISA)
0.9 (EITB)
[57]PWE (late-onset)455CT scan21.1
[58]All NC patients diagnosed at INNN in 20044706CT scan/ MRI2.5
8.0 (ELISA)
14.8 (EITB)
[62]Population-based903EITB (825)
CTscan (150)
14.650 (of sero+)
[65]Population-based817 (8 PWE)EITB
50 (PWE)
[66]Population-based368Ab-ELISA, EITB3.3
Venezuela[67]Population-based68Ag/Ab ELISAAg: 64.7, Ab: 79
[68]Population-based (3)
1254Ag/Ab ELISAAg: 9.1; 6.1; 5.7
Ab: 36.5;36.5; 4
[69]Hospital-based158 psychiatric patients
127 controls
EITBPatients:18.3 Controls:1.6
EITB: Electro immune transfer blot; PWE: people with epilepsy. Ag: Circulating antigens of T. solium metacestodes, Ab: Antibodies anti-cysticercal. * Only patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were included. ** Cases of cysticercosis in general were reported

Table 2.

Prevalence (sero prevalence) of human neurocysticercosis in Latin America. Only 2002-2012 articles were considered.

CountryReferenceType of StudySubject includedDiagnosis Based onseroprevalencePrevalence
[72]Hospital study1026 PWECT-scan34.6%
[76]Population-based141 PWECT-scan24.8%
[77]Population-based1064 (sera)Ab / Ag-ELISA
15.9% (Ac) / 4.5% (Ag)
[78]Neurological patients103Ac-ELISA33 (32%)
[79]Population-based1442 controls
91 suspected cases of NCC 100 healthy students
Indirect haemagglutination (IHA)6.1% controls
21.97% suspected cases 0% healthy students
[80]Blood donors216Ab-ELISA / Ag-Co-agglutination14 (6.48 %)
Indonésia[81]Population-based (1539 people)1120 cases of burns, 293 PWE (Papua) /
74 PWE, 746 controls (Bali)
Ab-ELISA67% PWE, 65% SCN (Papua) 13.5% PWE 12.5% controls (Bali)
[82]Population-based17 PWE
32 SCN
47 control
62.5% SCN
25.5% control
Korea[85]Population-based74,448Ab-ELISA8.3% (1993) 2.2% (2006)
Nepal[87]Hospital study300 PWEMRI47%
Viet Nam[90]Population-based210Ag-ELISA5.7%
(303 mountain, 175 coast
229 urban)
Ag-ELISA, CT scan5.3% (mountain) 0.6% (coast) 0% (urban)
PWE: people with epilepsy / SCN: subcutaneous nodules

Table 3.

Prevalence (seroprevalence) of human neurocysticercosis in Asiaonly 2002-2012 articles were considered.

Regarding porcine cysticercosis, diagnosis based on tongue inspection has been conventionally used, but does not detect all affected pigs. Serology permits, although not with ideal sensibility and specificity, identification of the areas where the life-cycle of the parasite persists. Echography (ultrasound) has recently been introduced as a sensitive (95%) and specific (97%) method of diagnosis (Kappa coefficient of 90%) [102]. Treatment of cysticercotic pigs with oxfendazole has shown a good efficiency [103].

Diagnosis of the adult form of T. solium is perhaps the topic where more efforts must be made. Although a species-specific coproantigen ELISA was developed, reaching very good performance [104], further studies are required to evaluate it in field conditions. And this is not so easy, as prevalence of taeniosis seems to be much lower than that of cysticercosis, a fact understandable as one tapeworm carrier can infect hundreds of people and thousands of pigs. Treatment of taeniosis with niclosamide or praziquantel has shown to be very efficient [105].

In conclusion, although efforts must continue in some areas, today we have tools that allow the detection of endemic areas and the effective diagnosis and treatment of patients in most circumstances. This situation, adding to the existence of specific tools for prevention (vaccine), allows the design of extensive and effective preventive and control programs.

3. Strategies to eradicate the disease

Cysticercosis is considered a neglected “tools-ready disease” according to WHO [106] and as a potentially eradicable disease since 1993 [107].This is feasible because there are no animal reservoirs besides humans and pigs, the only source of T. solium infection for pigs being humans (the definitive host), interrupting the parasite´s life cycle seems an easy task by intervention strategies acting upon different stages of the parasite´s development.

Different strategies have been proposed and tested, generally experimental and at small scale, to eradicate the (T/C) complex, the most notable being:

  1. Massive cestocidal treatment to humans in order to reduce the number of tapeworm carriers [108-110].

  2. Health education programs aiming to promote the understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the parasite and to improve hygienic behavior, pig-management and sanitary conditions which fosters transmission [111-113].

  3. Treatment of infected pigs [103, 114-116].

  4. Vaccination of rural pigs: different vaccines have been tested in field conditions and have demonstrated their efficacy in preventing swine cysticercosis [117-120].

  5. Combinations of different strategies: pig vaccination and treatment [121], massive human cestocidal treatment associated with pig vaccination and treatment [122,123].

Almost all these strategies have shown some degree of efficacy, this fact contrasting with the persistence of the parasite in all the endemic countries in the 1950’s. It should be noted that, to our knowledge, programs promoting letrinization of rural communities and construction of pig housing have not been tested (probably due to economic and logistic costs) although it seems to be a very efficient strategy for many parasitic and infectious disease transmitted by faeces.

4. What must be done?

This is a truly kafkian situation: we are in the presence of a parasite that causes a potentially severe human disease, as well as important economic losses; paradoxically, it is clear that the disease is potentially eradicable and, in fact, scientists and health authorities know how to eradicate it and have strategies to reach this goal. Despite all these resources, and their demonstrated effectiveness, the signs of a decrease of the transmission rate in the endemic countries are inconclusive or doubtful and, worse yet, in some non-endemic countries, an increase in the number of neurocysticercosis cases is occurring.

Faced with this perspective, it becomes evident that we will not attain the eradication of T. solium without:

4.1. The intervention of the national and international health authorities in control programs

International initiatives have been concerned with the problem of cysticercosis for many years and several meetings were organised, the most important being: WHO Technical Consultation (Geneva, 1983), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Informal Consultation on Taeniasis/Cysticercosis (Porto Allegre, 1990), International Task Force for Disease Eradication (ITFDE, Atlanta, 1993), PAHO/WHO Informal Consultation on the Taeniasis/Cysticercosis Complex (Brasilia, 1995), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Seminar on Emergent Helminth Zoonoses, (Pozna, 2000), Fifty-Fifth World Health Assembly, (Geneva, 2002), ITFDE II (Atlanta, 2003), WHO Expert Consultation on Foodborne Trematode Infections (Ventiane, 2009). In most of them, strategies for prevention and control of T/C were analyzed and recommendations were made. Since 2008, the WHO has included T/C in its Global Plan to combat Neglected Tropical diseases [124].

Regarding national health authorities, not much has been done. In very few countries, specific norms have been recommended. Such is the case of Latin America where only Mexico has an official norm for the vigilance, the prevention and the control of T/C in the first level of attention which was published in 1994 (modified in 2004) [125]. The Mexican norm includes the implementation of education and information programs, the identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers, the referral of subjects with suspected of NCC to a second level of attention, the confiscation of infected pigs, and the obligation to notify the diagnosed cases of NCC, taeniosis and swine cysticercosis to the corresponding authorities. The effort must be applauded, and has surely contributed to the awareness of the general population and of the medical personnel about the problem. Unfortunately, still, 15 years after its promulgation, cases of swine and human cysticercosis are still being diagnosed and not notified in Mexico. Probably, this is due to the fact that this norm did not reach the rural zones where the life-cycle of T. solium is still active and notification is not equally honored by all professionals (or because there are no health facilities in these areas).

It is important to promote the confiscation of infected pigs, but who is going to pay the owners, and who will go to the endemic communities (for example >2500 municipalities in Mexico) and make the diagnosis in more than six million rural pigs that get renewed every year? Clearly, pig owners must be included in a control program, for the obvious reason that they are the most interested in not having infected pigs.

It is highly relevant to promote the notification of infected individuals, but who will make this notification? Hospitals with an efficient epidemiologic department are scarce and medical doctors in public institutions are generally over loaded by the clinical workload. The comparison of the official statistics and the statistics published from only one hospital center can demonstrate the problem: in 2004, in the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, located in Mexico City, an institution that treats only patients lacking social security, 120 new cases of NCC were diagnosed [58], while in the official statistics, in this same year, approximately 400 new NCC cases were reported throughout Mexico [126]. It is very improbable that a sole institution accounts for a quarter of all the Mexican NCC cases, and probably this is due to a significant under-reporting of cases. Faced with this undesirable practice, what actions can the governments take? It is probably necessary: 1) to maintain a continuing health education program available to the population and the medical personnel, insisting on their obligation to notify the cases and promoting the establishment of epidemiological departments and surveillance system in all the hospitals, 2) to actively lobby for the implementation of a National Control Program that could be started as a priority in the areas from where most cases are referred. In relation to this point, the critical question is, who can organize a preventive program? The scientists probably not, as the logistics of such programs require an established structure supported by a recognized local authority. Since 2009, in Mexico, an extensive pilot control program is under way, in certain areas of the poorest states, based on health and sanitary education and associated with vaccination of pigs. Local authorities are part of the efforts, helping with the identification of the endemic areas, by furnishing sera collected from the pigs, and by funding the program. The results so far are encouraging. People in the remote areas accept suggestions for improvement in their pig raising methods and for their personal hygiene, including the indispensable installation of latrines [127]. What has become clear is that programs must be of long duration, at least 5 years. It is of little use to visit communities, give talks, vaccinate pigs and leave. People in theses “forgotten” areas need long-lasting help, advice and supervision. Therefore, without the active participation of the governments, failure of any control program is predictable because scientists cannot apply it at large enough scales and sufficient time. Finally, the presence of cysticercosis is an objective indicator of unacceptable conditions in a rural community, and their improvement will not only contribute to the eradication of cysticercosis, but will also bring collateral benefits, such as the control of other soil transmitted diseases and increased public awareness of respect for adequate simple public health measures.

4.2. Implementation of regional networks

As T. solium does not respect frontiers, it is necessary to organize multidisciplinary regional networks of specialists that must be the interlocutors of the local government and international organizations, and that must participate in the decision of where the preventive measures must be applied, and what type of measures are the most adequate regarding the individual characteristics of the country affected. Such efforts are currently established:

  • In Asia, the Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and other important zoonoses (RNAS+) was created in 2006 (extension of the RNA created in 2000) and since this date has published several papers and has maintained discussions on preventive measures to be applied to effectively combat zoonoses.

  • In Africa: the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA) was established in 2002 to promote communication, collaboration and coordination of integrated research and control activities to combat cysticercosis.

  • In Europe, The European Cysticercosis Working Group, inaugurated in 2008 and receiving organizational support from the World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark and the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and aimed at finding ways to achieve a more effective, concerted approach to combat cysticercosis in Europe, as well as in the main cysticercosis-endemic areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America [128].

  • In Latin America, since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has made several epidemiological, diagnostic and control studies in this country [129] and recently a new Ibero-Latinamerican network was created to promote the investigation and the implementation of preventive measures in the entire continent.

At the moment, although some objectives have been reached, their scope is still limited. To improve the situation, it is necessary: 1) to expand exchanges between the different networks; 2) to open ways of communication between these networks and the national and international authorities.

In conclusion, to reach the control of T.solium infections it is very important to open new ways of communication between the scientists, grouped in networks, and with the international and the national health authorities. Agreements must be made in which the role and responsibilities of each of them are clearly defined. If one of these conditions fails, we are afraid that in 50 years, today’s T/C epidemiological situation will persist.


The authors acknowledge the CYTED program (Ibero-American Programme for Science, Technology and Development) that has founded partially the network.


1 - A Pondja, L Neves, J Mlangwa, S Afonso, J Fafetine, A. L Willingham, rd, Thamsborg SM, Johansen MV. Prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique.PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2010e594 EOF
2 - E Assana, F Amadou, E Thys, M. W Lightowlers, A. P Zoli, P Dorny, S Geerts, Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon.J Helminthol. 20108444416
3 - N Praet, K Kanobana, C Kabwe, V Maketa, P Lukanu, P Lutumba, K Polman, P Matondo, N Speybroeck, P Dorny, J Sumbu, Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010
4 - H Carabin, A Millogo, N Praet, S Hounton, Z Tarnagda, R Ganaba, P Dorny, P Nitiéma, L. D Cowan, Evaluation du Fardeau Economique de la Cysticercose Au Burkina Faso (EFECAB)- Seroprevalence to the antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis among residents of three villages in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009e555.
5 - P Nitiéma, H Carabin, S Hounton, N Praet, L. D Cowan, R Ganaba, C Kompaoré, Z Tarnagda, P Dorny, A Millogo, Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villagesActa Neurol Scand. 2012Jan 31. doi:j.16000404x.
6 - G Nsengiyumva, M Druet-cabanac, B Ramanankandrasana, B Bouteille, L Nsizabira, P. M Preux, Cysticercosis as a major risk factor for epilepsy in Burundi, east AfricaEpilepsia20034479505
7 - M Diagana, G Nsengiyumva, M Tuillas, M Druet-cabanac, B Bouteille, P. M Preux, P Tapie, Electroencephalograms (EEG) in 250 patients with epilepsy in a cysticercosis endemic area in Burundi. Neurophysiol Clin. 2005351110
8 - A Prado-jean, K Kanobana, M Druet-cabanac, G Nsengyiumva, P Dorny, P. M Preux, S Geerts, Combined use of an antigen and antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cysticercosis as tools in an epidemiological study of epilepsy in BurundiTrop Med Int Health. 2007127895901
9 - A Nkouawa, Y Sako, S Itoh, A Kouojip-mabou, C. N Nganou, Y Saijo, J Knapp, H Yamasaki, M Nakao, K Nakaya, R Moyou-somo, A Ito, Serologica studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010e732.
10 - A Nkouawa, Y Sako, R Moyou-somo, A Ito, Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011426136574
11 - O Neal, S. E Townes, J. M Wilkins, P. P Noh, J. C Lee, D Rodriguez, S Garcia, H. H Stauffer, WM. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United StatesEmerg Infect Dis. 20121834318
12 - L Vondou, A. P Zoli, Nguekam, Pouedet S, Assana E, Kamga Tokam AC, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S. Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in the Menoua division (West Cameroon). Parasite. 2002932714
13 - A. P Zoli, Nguekam, Shey-Njila O, Nsame Nforninwe D, Speybroeck N, Ito A, Sato MO, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in CameroonTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 20039766836
14 - J. P Nguekam, A. P Zoli, P. O Zogo, A. C Kamga, N Speybroeck, P Dorny, J Brandt, B Losson, S Geerts, A seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis in West CameroonTrop Med Int Health. 2003821449
15 - L Dongmo, M Druet-cabanac, S. R Moyou, D. R Zebaze, A. K Njamnshi, V Sini, N Mapoure, T. J Echouffo, W. C Djeumen, P. M Ndumbe, Cysticercosis and epilepsy: a case-control study in Mbam Valley, Cameroon. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 20049721058
16 - K Kanobana, N Praet, C Kabwe, P Dorny, P Lukanu, J Madinga, P Mitashi, M Verwijs, P Lutumba, K Polman, High prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village community of Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo. Int J Parasitol. 2011411010158
17 - A Andriantsimahavandy, V. E Ravaoalimalala, P Rajaonarison, P Ravoniarimbinina, M Rakotondrazaka, N Raharilaza, D Rakotoarivelo, M Ratsitorahina, L. P Rabarijaona, C. E Ramarokoto, P Leutscher, R Migliani, The current epidemiological situation of cysticercosis in Madagascar. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar200346 EOF51 EOF
18 - P Leutscher, A Andriantsimahavandy, Cysticercosis in Peace Corps volunteers in Madagascar.N Engl J Med. 200435033112
19 - E. V Noormahomed, J. G Pividal, S Azzouz, C Mascaró, M Delgado-rodríguez, A Osuna, Seroprevalence of anti-cysticercus antibodies among the children living in the urban environs of Maputo, Mozambique.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003971315
20 - A Secka, F Grimm, T Marcotty, D Geysen, A. M Niang, V Ngale, L Boutche, E Van Marck, S Geerts, Old focus of cysticercosis in a senegalese village revisited after half a centuryActa Trop. 2011
21 - H Foyaca-sibat, L. D Cowan, H Carabin, I Targonska, M. A Anwary, G Serrano-ocana, R. C Krecek, A. L Willingham, rd. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009e562.
22 - A. S Winkler, J Blocher, H Auer, T Gotwald, W Matuja, E Schmutzhard, Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in rural Tanzania-An imaging studyEpilepsia200950598793
23 - J Blocher, E Schmutzhard, P. P Wilkins, P. N Gupton, M Schaffert, H Auer, T Gotwald, W Matuja, A. S Winkler, A cross-sectional study of people with epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Tanzania: clinical characteristics and diagnostic approaches.PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011e1185 EOF
24 - K. E Mwape, I. K Phiri, N Praet, J. B Muma, G Zulu, Van den Bossche P, de Deken R, Speybroeck N, Dorny P, Gabriël S. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-A community based study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012e1594.
25 - J Morales, J. J Martínez, M Rosetti, A Fleury, V Maza, M Hernandez, N Villalobos, G Fragoso, A. S De Aluja, C Larralde, E Sciutto, Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of MexicoPLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008e284.
26 - A Nicoletti, A Bartoloni, V Sofia, F Bartalesi, J. R Chavez, R Osinaga, F Paradisi, J. L Dumas, V. C Tsang, A Reggio, A. J Hall, Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in rural Bolivia: a population-based surveyEpilepsia2005467112732
27 - Silveira-Lacerda Ede PMachado ER, Arantes SC, Costa-Cruz JM. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil,1995Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2002;44422931
28 - I Gomes, M Veiga, E. K Embirucu, R Rabelo, B Mota, A Meza-lucas, R Tapia-romero, B. L Carrillo-becerril, I Alcantara-anguiano, D Correa, A Melo, Taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence in a small village from Northeastern BrazilArq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002A):21923
29 - E. C Mendes, da Silva SS, Fonseca EA, de Souza HR, de Carvalho RW. Human neurocysticercosis in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2005634105862
30 - F. I Freitas, A Meza-lucas, C. B Lima, W Costa, A Melo, Cysticercosis research in epileptic patients dwelling in towns of the western Cariri in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2005A):65660
31 - M. C Façanha, Cysticercosis’ admissions in public health hospitals: Ceará State distribuition. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 20063954847
32 - H. B Oliveira, R. M Rodrigues, I. S Barcelos, L. P Silva, J. M Costa-cruz, Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil.Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 20064814952
33 - L. E Prestes-carneiro, Freitas Sde B, Zago SC, Miguel NA, Primo OB, Iha AH, Espíndola NM, Vaz AJ. Taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in individuals of a peasants’ settlement (Teodoro Sampaio, Pontal of Paranapanema, SP, Brazil)Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 200610111520
34 - A. H Santo, Cysticercosis-related mortality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985-2004: a study using multiple causes of death. Cad Saude Publica. 20072312291727
35 - A. C Faleiros, R Lino-junior, V Lima, C Cavellani, R. R Correa, M Llaguno, M Reis, V Teixeira, Epidemiological analysis of patients coinfected with Chagas disease and cysticercosis. Biomedica. 200929112732
36 - A. L Grazziotin, M. C Fontalvo, M. B Santos, F Monego, A. L Grazziotin, V. H Kolinski, R. H Bordignon, A. W Biondo, A Antoniuk, Epidemiologic pattern of patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by computed tomography in Curitiba, Brazil.Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 201068226972
37 - S. M De Almeida, L. F Torres, Neurocysticercosis--retrospective study of autopsy reports, a 17-year experience.J Community Health. 2011365698702
38 - F Sanzón, A. M Osorio, J. P Morales, R Isaza, E Cardona, L. C Moncayo, G. E Villota, O. T Zapata, C. A Palacio, M. P Arbeláez, B. I Restrepo, Serological screening for cysticercosis in mentally altered individualsTrop Med Int Health. 2002765328
39 - F Torres, R Vásquez, F Gonzales, D Vergara, E Alvarado, J Giraldo, G Medina, T Zamora, Cisticercosis en el departamento de Cauca. Revista de la Asociación Colombiana de Ciencias Biológicas. Ibagué (Colombia). 2004
40 - Y Montero, R Rojas, Estudio retrospectivo de la seroprevalencia de neurocisticercosis en Colombia. Dentro del Periodo de enero de 1995 a diciembre de 2005. Programa de Vigilancia por el Laboratorio. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Tesis de pregrado Bacteriología Pontifica Universidad Javeriana. Colombia. 2005
41 - O Caldera, E Acuna, E Guzman, J Giraldo, H Yanine, Prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a las fracciones polipeptídicas 53 y 92 kDa del metacéstodo de Taenia solium en habitantes del corregimiento Sabanas de Pedro, Sucre. Biomédica. 2005
42 - P Agudelo-flórez, B Restrepo, G Palacio, Knowledge and practices concerning taeniasis-cysticercosis in Colombian pig-breeders. Rev. salud pública. Colombia. 2009112191199
43 - L Vásquez, P Agudelo-florez, J Giraldo, D Vergara, D Samper, D Nieto-s, O Ramos, L Bonilla, V Campo, Prevalencia de cisticercosis humana en el área rural de mercaderes, cauca. Revista de la Asociación Colombiana de Ciencias Biológicas. 2010
44 - J Vergara, M Ortega, L Vásquez, J Casas, J Giraldo, Cisticercosis humana en pacientes con diagnóstico de epilepsia en un centro de salud de Popayán, Cauca Introducción. Biomédica 2011
45 - J Giraldo, C Franco, L Vásquez, Detección de anticuerpos anti-cisticerco en pacientes que asistieron a consulta médica durante el período 20092010a la Liga contra la Epilepsia, Capítulo Cauca. Biomédica. 2011
46 - A Flórez, S Pastrán, N Vargas, Y Enríquez, A Pena, A Benavides, A Villarreal, C Rincón, I Garzón, L Munoz, L Guasmayan, C Valencia, S Parra, N Hernández, Seroprevalencia de la cisticercosis en 23 departamentos de Colombia, 2010. Biomédica. 20113132932
47 - R Rodríguez-hidalgo, W Benítez-ortiz, P Dorny, S Geerts, D Geysen, J Ron-román, F Proano-pérez, M. A Chávez-larrea, M Barrionuevo-samaniego, M Celi-erazo, L Vizcaíno-ordónez, J Brandt, Taeniosis-cysticercosis in man and animals in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador. Vet Parasitol. 2003
48 - Del Brutto OHSantibáñez R, Idrovo L, Rodrìguez S, Díaz-Calderón E, Navas C, Gilman RH, Cuesta F, Mosquera A, Gonzalez AE, Tsang VC, García HH. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Atahualpa: a door-to-door survey in rural coastal Ecuador. Epilepsia. 20054645837
49 - R Rodriguez-hidalgo, W Benitez-ortiz, N Praet, L. R Saa, J Vercruysse, J Brandt, P Dorny, Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006101777982
50 - Del Brutto OHDel Brutto VJ. Reduced percentage of neurocysticercosis cases among patients with late-onset epilepsy in the new millenniumClin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012Apr 11.
51 - C. P Raccurt, P Agnamey, J Boncy, J. H Henrys, A Totet, Seroprevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Haiti.J Helminthol. 20098321136
52 - M. T Medina, R. M Durón, L Martínez, J. R Osorio, A. L Estrada, C Zúniga, D Cartagena, J. S Collins, K. R Holden, Prevalence, incidence, and etiology of epilepsies in rural Honduras: the Salamá Study.Epilepsia200546112431
53 - M. T Medina, R. L Aguilar-estrada, A Alvarez, R. M Durón, L Martínez, S Dubón, A. L Estrada, C Zúniga, D Cartagena, A Thompson, E Ramirez, L Banegas, J. R Osorio, A. V Delgado-escueta, J. S Collins, K. R Holden, Reduction in rate of epilepsy from neurocysticercosis by community interventions: the Salamá, Honduras study.Epilepsia2011526117785
54 - A Fleury, T Gómez, I Alvarez, D Meza, M Huerta, A Chavarria, High prevalence of calcified silent neurocysticercosis in a rural village of Mexico. Neuroepidemiology 200322139145
55 - A Fleury, J Morales, R. J Bobes, M Dumas, O Yánez, J Pina, An Epidemiological study of familial neurocysticercosis in an endemic Mexican community. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2006100551558
56 - C Alvarado-esquivel, M. A Arreola-valenzuela, A Rodríguez-briones, O. P Alanís-quinones, S Estrada-martínez, C Luevanos-becerra, Seroprevalence of selected viral, bacterial and parasitic infections among inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital of Mexico. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 200850161164
57 - R Suástegui, J Gutiérrez, R Ramos, S Bouchan, H Navarrete, J Ruiz, Clinical characteristics of the late-onset epilepsy in Mexico to the beginning of the new millennium: 455 cases. Rev Invest Clin 200961354363
58 - A Fleury, Moreno García J, Valdez Aguerrebere P, de SayveDurán M, Becerril Rodríguez P, Larralde C, Sciutto E. Neurocysticercosis, a persisting health problem in MexicoPLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010e805.
59 - F Bucardo, A Meza-lucas, F Espinoza, R. C García-jerónimo, R García-rodea, D Correa, The seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among epileptic patients in León, Nicaragua, as evaluated by ELISA and western blotting.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005Jan;991415
60 - H. H García, R. H Gilman, A. E Gonzalez, M Verastegui, S Rodriguez, C Gavidia, V. C Tsang, N Falcon, A. G Lescano, L. H Moulton, T Bernal, Tovar M; Cysticercosis Working Group in Perú. Hyperendemic human and porcine Taenia solium infection in Perú. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 200368326875
61 - P. L Moro, L Lopera, N Bonifacio, R. H Gilman, B Silva, M Verastegui, A Gonzales, H. H Garcia, Cabrera L; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Taenia solium infection in a rural community in the Peruvian Andes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 20039743739
62 - S. M Montano, M. V Villaran, L Ylquimiche, J. J Figueroa, S Rodriguez, C. T Bautista, A. E Gonzalez, V. C Tsang, R. H Gilman, Garcia HH; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurocysticercosis: association between seizures, serology, and brain CT in rural Peru. Neurology. 200565222933
63 - B. N Huisa, L. A Menacho, S Rodriguez, J. A Bustos, R. H Gilman, V. C Tsang, A. E Gonzalez, García HH; Cysticercosis Working Group in Perú. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in housemaids working in affluent neighborhoods in Lima, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005733496500
64 - A. G Lescano, H. H Garcia, R. H Gilman, C. M Gavidia, V. C Tsang, S Rodriguez, L. H Moulton, M. V Villaran, S. M Montano, Gonzalez AE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Taenia solium cysticercosis hotspots surrounding tapeworm carriers: clustering on human seroprevalence but not on seizures. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009e371.
65 - M. V Villarán, S. M Montano, G Gonzalvez, L. M Moyano, J. C Chero, S Rodriguez, A. E Gonzalez, W Pan, V. C Tsang, R. H Gilman, Garcia HH; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis: an incidence study in a Peruvian rural population. Neuroepidemiology. 20093312531
66 - A Cordero, E Miranda, G Segovia, V Cantoral, I Huarcaya, Taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Peru 2008. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 20102745628
67 - E Ferrer, M. M Cortez, H Perez, M De La Rosa, B. A De Noya, D Avila, I Harrison, L. J Foster-cuevas, M Parkhouse, R. M Cabrera, A. Serological evidence for recent exposure to Taenia solium in Venezuelan Amerindians. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 20026621704
68 - E Ferrer, Z Cabrera, G Rojas, M Lares, A Vera, B. A De Noya, I Fernandez, H. U Romero, L. J Harrison, R. M Parkhouse, M. M Cortez, Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in VenezuelaTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 20039755226
69 - N. W Meza, N. E Rossi, T. N Galeazzi, N. M Sánchez, F. I Colmenares, O. D Medina, N. L Uzcategui, N Alfonzo, C Arango, H Urdaneta, Cysticercosis in chronic psychiatric inpatients from a Venezuelan community.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 20057335049
70 - J. Y Chung, K. S Eom, Y Yang, X Li, Z Feng, H. J Rim, S. Y Cho, Y Kong, A seroepidemiological survey of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Nabo, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, ChinaKorean J Parasitol. 20054341359
71 - K. N Prasad, S Chawla, D Jain, C. M Pandey, L Pal, S Pradhan, R. K Gupta, Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in rural north IndiaTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 20029655156
72 - G Singh, P Singh, I Singh, A Rani, S Kaushal, G Avasthi, Epidemiologic classification of seizures associated with neurocysticercosis: observations from a sample of seizure disorders in neurologic care in IndiaActa Neurol Scand. 2006113423340
73 - V Prabhakaran, M. V Raghava, V Rajshekhar, J Muliyil, A Oommen, Seroprevalence of Taenia solium antibodies in Vellore district, south IndiaTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008102324650
74 - S. H Vora, D. D Motghare, A. M Ferreira, M. S Kulkarni, F. S Vaz, Prevalence of human cysticercosis and taeniasis in rural Goa, India.J Commun Dis. 200840214750
75 - K. N Prasad, A Verma, S Srivastava, R. K Gupta, C. M Pandey, V. K Paliwal, An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern IndiaTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 201110595316
76 - D Goel, J. S Dhanai, A Agarwal, V Mehlotra, V Saxena, Neurocysticercosis and its impact on crude prevalence rate of epilepsy in an Indian community.Neurol India. 20115913740
77 - T Jayaraman, V Prabhakaran, P Babu, M. V Raghava, V Rajshekhar, P Dorny, J Muliyil, A Oommen, Relative seroprevalence of cysticercus antigens and antibodies and antibodies to Taenia ova in a population sample in south India suggests immunity against neurocysticercosisTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 201110531539
78 - A Kumar, S. A Khan, S Khan, S Das, Anurag, Negi KS. A study of neurocysticercosis in the foothills of the HimalayasInt J Infect Dis. 20061017982
79 - S. C Parija, P. S Sahu, A serological study of human cysticercosis in Pondicherry, South India.J Commun Dis. 20033542839
80 - S. C Parija, N Balamurungan, P. S Sahu, S. P Subbaiah, Cysticercus antibodies and antigens in serum from blood donors from Pondicherry, IndiaRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 200547422730
81 - S. S Margono, R Subahar, A Hamid, T Wandra, S. S Sudewi, P Sutisna, A Ito, Cysticercosis in Indonesia: epidemiological aspects. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001Suppl 27984
82 - T Wandra, A Ito, H Yamasaki, T Suroso, S. S Margono, Taenia solium Cysticercosis, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003978845
83 - T Suroso, S. S Margono, T Wandra, A Ito, Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in IndonesiaParasitol Int. 2006Suppl:S1615
84 - T Wandra, P Sutisna, N. S Dharmawan, S. S Margono, R Sudewi, T Suroso, P. S Craig, A Ito, High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006100434653
85 - M. K Lee, S. J Hong, H. R Kim, Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in KoreaJ Korean Med Sci. 201025912726
86 - Noor Azian MYHakim SL, Sumiati A, Norhafizah M. Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in a rural village of Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 20063715861
87 - K. C Rajbhandari, Epilepsy in Nepal. Can J Neurol Sci. 200431225760
88 - JM Xu, , LP Acosta, , M Hou, , DL Manalo, , M Jiz, , B Jarilla, , AO Pablo, , RM Ovleda, , G Langdon, , McGarvey, ,Kurtis JD, Friedman JF, Wu HW. Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in children and young adults living in a helminth endemic community in leyte, the Philippines. J Trop Med. 2010;2010:603174
89 - M. T Anantaphruti, M Okamoto, T Yoonuan, S Saguankiat, T Kusolsuk, M Sato, M. O Sato, Y Sako, J Waikagul, A Ito, Molecular and serological survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Parasitol Int. 201059332630
90 - A Erhart, P Dorny, N Van De, H. V Vien, D. C Thach, N. D Toan, Cong le D, Geerts S, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Brandt J. Taenia solium cysticercosis in a village in northern Viet Nam: seroprevalence study using an ELISA for detecting circulating antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 20029632702
91 - R Somers, P Dorny, V. K Nguyen, T. C Dang, B Goddeeris, P. S Craig, J Vercruysse, Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health. 20061116572
92 - A Esquivel, F Diaz-otero, S Gimenez-roldan, Growing frequency of neurocysticercosis in Madrid (Spain).Neurologia. 200520311620
93 - O Neal, S Noh, J Wilkins, P Keene, W Lambert, W Anderson, J Compton, J Luman, Townes J. Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 201117610306
94 - F Sorvillo, P Wilkins, S Shafir, M Eberhard, Public health implications of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 201117116
95 - Del Brutto OHNeurocysticercosis among international travelers to disease-endemic areas. J Travel Med. 2012a1921127
96 - Del Brutto OHNeurocysticercosis in Western Europe: a re-emerging disease? Acta Neurol Belg. 2012bApr 18.
97 - Del Brutto OHA review of cases of human cysticercosis in Canada. Can J Neurol Sci. 2012c39331922
98 - A Fleury, M Hernández, M Avila, G Cárdenas, R. J Bobes, M Huerta, G Fragoso, L Uribe-campero, L. J Harrison, R. M Parkhouse, E Sciutto, Detection of HP10 antigen in serum for diagnosis and follow-up of subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 20077899704
99 - H. H Garcia, E. J Pretell, R. H Gilman, S. M Martinez, L. H Moulton, Del Brutto OH, Herrera G, Evans CA, Gonzalez AE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. N Engl J Med. 2004350324958
100 - Del Brutto ORoos K, Coffey C, Garcia HH. Meta-analysis: Cysticidal drugs for neurocysticercosis: albendazole and praziquantel. Ann Intern Med. 200614514351
101 - A Carpio, E. A Kelvin, E Bagiella, D Leslie, P Leon, H Andrews, Hauser WA; Ecuadorian Neurocysticercosis Group. The effects of albendazole treatment on neurocysticercosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 200879910505
102 - S. C Herrera-garcía, A. S De Aluja, Méndez Aguilar RE. El uso de la ultrasonografía para el diagnóstico de la cisticercosis porcina. Vet Mex. 2007381125133
103 - A Pondja, L Neves, J Mlangwa, S Afonso, J Fafetine, A. L Willingham, rd, Thamsborg SM, Johansen MV. Use of oxfendazole to control porcine cysticercosis in a high-endemic area of mozambique. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012e1651.
104 - M. C Guezala, S Rodriguez, H Zamora, H. H Garcia, A. E Gonzalez, A Tembo, J. C Allan, P. S Craig, Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 20098134337
105 - Z. S Pawlowski, Role of chemotherapy of taeniasis in prevention of neurocysticercosis. Parasitol Int. 2006Suppl:S1059
106 - WHOGlobal Plan to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases 20082015World Health Organization 2007
107 - Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease EradicationMMWR Recomm Rep. 199342138
108 - M Cruz, A Davis, H Dixon, Z. S Pawlowski, J Proano, Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador. Bull World Health Organ. 19896744017
109 - J. C Allan, M Velasquez-tohom, C Fletes, R Torres-alvarez, G Lopez-virula, P Yurrita, Soto de Alfaro H, Rivera A, Garcia-Noval J. Mass chemotherapy for intestinal Taenia solium infection: effect on prevalence in humans and pigs. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 19979155958
110 - E Sarti, P. M Schantz, G Avila, J Ambrosio, R Medina-santillán, A Flisser, Mass treatment against human taeniasis for the control of cysticercosis: a population-based intervention study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000941859
111 - N. M Keilbach, A. S De Aluja, G. E Sarti, Programme to control Taeniasis-cysticercosis (T.solium): Experiences in a Mexican village. Acta Leidensia, 19895721819
112 - E Sarti, A Flisser, P. M Schantz, M Gleizer, M Loya, A Plancarte, G Avila, J Allan, P Craig, M Bronfman, P Wijeyaratne, Development and evaluation of a health education intervention against Taenia solium in a rural community in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 199756212732
113 - HA Ngowi, , H Carabin, , AA Kassuku, , Mlozi, ,Mlangwa JE, Willingham AL 3rd.A health-education intervention trial to reduce porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Prev Vet Med. 2008;85(1-2):52-67.
114 - A. E Gonzales, H. H Garcia, R. H Gilman, C. M Gavidia, V. C Tsang, T Bernal, N Falcon, M Romero, M. T Lopez-urbina, Effective, single-dose treatment or porcine cysticercosis with oxfendazole. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 19965443914
115 - A. E Gonzalez, C Gavidia, N Falcon, T Bernal, M Verastegui, H. H Garcia, R. H Gilman, Tsang VC; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Protection of pigs with cysticercosis from further infections after treatment with oxfendazole. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001651158
116 - C. S Sikasunge, M. V Johansen, A. L Willingham, rd, Leifsson PS, Phiri IK. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: viability of cysticerci and persistency of antibodies and cysticercal antigens after treatment with oxfendazole. Vet Parasitol. 2008
117 - J. L Molinari, D Rodríguez, P Tato, R Soto, F Arechavaleta, S Solano, Field trial for reducing porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mexico by systematic vaccination of pigs. Vet Parasitol. 1997
118 - M Huerta, A. S De Aluja, G Fragoso, A Toledo, N Villalobos, M Hernández, G Gevorkian, G Acero, A Díaz, I Alvarez, R Avila, C Beltrán, G Garcia, J. J Martinez, C Larralde, E Sciutto, Synthetic peptide vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis: successful vaccination in a controlled field trial in rural Mexico. Vaccine. 2001
119 - E Sciutto, G Rosas, M Hernández, J Morales, C Cruz-revilla, A Toledo, K Manoutcharian, G Gevorkian, A Blancas, G Acero, B Hernández, J Cervantes, R. J Bobes, F. A Goldbaum, M Huerta, A Diaz-orea, A Fleury, A. S De Aluja, J. L Cabrera-ponce, L Herrera-estrella, G Fragoso, C Larralde, Improvement of the synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis in search of a more effective, inexpensive and manageable vaccine. Vaccine. 2007258136878
120 - J Morales, J. J Martínez, K Manoutcharian, M Hernández, A Fleury, G Gevorkian, G Acero, A Blancas, A Toledo, J Cervantes, V Maza, F Quet, H Bonnabau, A. S De Aluja, G Fragoso, C Larralde, E Sciutto, Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis. Vaccine. 200826232899905
121 - E Assana, C. T Kyngdon, C. G Gauci, S Geerts, P Dorny, R De Deken, G. A Anderson, A. P Zoli, M. W Lightowlers, Elimination of Taenia solium transmission to pigs in a field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine in Cameroon. Int J Parasitol. 20104055159
122 - H. H Garcia, A. E Gonzalez, R. H Gilman, L. H Moulton, M Verastegui, S Rodriguez, C Gavidia, Tsang VC; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Combined human and porcine mass chemotherapy for the control of Taenia solium. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 20067458505
123 - H. H Garcia, A. E Gonzalez, S Rodriguez, G Gonzalvez, F Llanos-zavalaga, V. C Tsang, Gilman RH; Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú. Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 20102745927
124 - R. K Prichard, M. G Basánez, B. A Boatin, J. S Mccarthy, H. H García, G. J Yang, B Sripa, S Lustigman, A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012e1549.
125 - Mexican Health SecretaryModificación a la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-021SSA2-1994, para la prevención y control del complejo taeniosis/cisticercosis en el primer nivel de atención médica. Diario Oficial de la Federación, 2004 12 June 2012)
126 - A Flisser, D Correa, Neurocysticercosis may no longer be a public health problem in Mexico. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010e831
127 - A De Aluja, Morales Soto J, Sciutto E. A Programme to Control Taeniosis-Cysticercosis (Taenia solium) in Mexico, Current Topics in Tropical Medicine, Dr. Alfonso Rodriguez-Morales (Ed.), 978-9-53510-274-8InTech, 2012Available from:
128 - A. L Willingham, rd, Harrison LJ, Fèvre EM, Parkhouse ME; Cysticercosis Working Group in Europe. Inaugural meeting of the Cysticercosis Working Group in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008e2.
129 - H. H Garcia, A. E Gonzalez, S Rodriguez, G Gonzalvez, F Llanos-zavalaga, V. C Tsang, Gilman RH; Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú. Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 20102745927