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Engineering » Vehicle Engineering » "New Generation of Electric Vehicles", book edited by Zoran Stevic, ISBN 978-953-51-0893-1, Published: December 19, 2012 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

# The Contribution and Prospects of the Technical Development on Implementation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

By Zoran Nikolić and Zlatomir Živanovic
DOI: 10.5772/51771

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## Overview

Figure 1. World population estimation and Prediction 1700th – 2300th, in reference [1].

Figure 2. First EV,s were possible to cross up to 100 km, moving with speed below 20 km/h.

Figure 3. Electric vehicles named Jamais Contente, which in 1899. reached previously unimaginable speed of over 100 km/h.

Figure 4. The external appearance of the first EV in early 20th century.

Figure 5. Long-term oil prices, 1861-2008 (orange line adjusted for inflation, blue not adjusted). Due to exchange rate fluctuations, the orange line represents the price experience of U.S. consumers only, in [10].

Figure 6. A typical city car (City Car) with two seats, weighs only 670 kg had a top speed of 28 mph (45 km/h) and radius of movement up to 65 km.

Figure 7. Copper City Electric Car Runabouth power 15 kW made on the basis of cooperation for the use components of Renault R5.

Figure 8. Change the battery voltage during DC recuperative braking in [15, 16].

Figure 9. Tesla Roadster electric car of the firm Tesla Motors.

Figure 10. Diagram of the specific consumption of diesel engine as a function of maximum continuous power, [31, 32].

Figure 11. Experts' forecasts of consumption of hybrid vehicles by 2030. in [38].

Figure 12. Consumption or total primary energy in the world since 1990. to the date and forecast till 2035.

Figure 13. Types of suitable monitoring of energy in the world in the period since 1990. year to date and forecast by 2035.

### Figure 5.

Long-term oil prices, 1861-2008 (orange line adjusted for inflation, blue not adjusted). Due to exchange rate fluctuations, the orange line represents the price experience of U.S. consumers only, in [10].

If long-term history is a guide, those in the upstream segment of the crude oil industry should structure their business to be able to operate with a profit, below 24,58 $per barrel half of the time. The very long-term data and the post World War II data suggest a "normal" price far below the current price. From 1948 through the end of the 1960s, crude oil prices ranged between 2,50$ and 3,00 $. The price oil rose from 2,50$ in 1948 to about 3,00 $in 1957. When viewed in 2010 dollars, a different story emerges with crude oil prices fluctuating between 17$ and 19 $during most of the period. The apparent 20 % price increase in nominal prices just kept up with inflation. From 1958 to 1970, prices were stable near 3,00$ per barrel, but in real terms the price of crude oil declined from 19 $to 14$ per barrel. Not only was price of crude lower when adjusted for inflation, but in 1971 and 1972 the international producer suffered the additional effect of a weaker US dollar.

OPEC was established in 1960 with five founding members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Two of the representatives at the initial meetings previously studied the Texas Railroad Commission's method of controlling price through limitations on production. By the end of 1971, six other nations had joined the group: Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria and Nigeria. From the foundation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries through 1972, member countries experienced steady decline in the purchasing power of a barrel of oil.

Throughout the post war period exporting countries found increased demand for their crude oil but a 30 % decline in the purchasing power of a barrel of oil. In March 1971, the balance of power shifted. That month the Texas Railroad Commission set proration at 100 percent for the first time. This meant that Texas producers were no longer limited in the volume of oil that they could produce from their wells. More important, it meant that the power to control crude oil prices shifted from the United States (Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana) to OPEC. By 1971, there was no spare production capacity in the U.S. and therefore no tool to put an upper limit on prices.

A little more than two years later, OPEC through the unintended consequence of war obtained a glimpse of its power to influence prices. It took over a decade from its formation for OPEC to realize the extent of its ability to influence the world market.

In 1972, the price of crude oil was below 3,50 $per barrel. The Yom Kippur War started with an attack on Israel by Syria and Egypt on October 5, 1973. The United States and many countries in the western world showed support for Israel. In reaction to the support of Israel, several Arab exporting nations joined by Iran imposed an embargo on the countries supporting Israel. While these nations curtailed production by five million barrels per day, other countries were able to increase production by a million barrels. The net loss of four million barrels per day extended through March of 1974. It represented 7 percent of the free world production. By the end of 1974, the nominal price of oil had quadrupled to more than 12,00$.

Any doubt that the ability to influence and in some cases control crude oil prices had passed from the United States to OPEC was removed as a consequence of the Oil Embargo. The extreme sensitivity of prices to supply shortages, became all too apparent when prices increased 400 percent in six short months.

From 1974 to 1978, the world crude oil price was relatively flat ranging from 12,52 $per barrel to 14,57$ per barrel. When adjusted for inflation world oil prices were in a period of moderate decline. During that period OPEC capacity and production was relatively flat near 30 million barrels per day. In contrast, non-OPEC production increased from 25 million barrels per day to 31 million barrels per day.

In 1979 and 1980, events in Iran and Iraq led to another round of crude oil price increases. The Iranian revolution resulted in the loss of 2,0-2,5 million barrels per day of oil production between November 1978 and June 1979. At one point production almost halted.

The Iranian revolution was the proximate cause of the highest price in post-WWII history. However, revolution's impact on prices would have been limited and of relatively short duration had it not been for subsequent events. In fact, shortly after the revolution, Iranian production was up to four million barrels per day.

In September 1980, Iran already weakened by the revolution was invaded by Iraq. By November, the combined production of both countries was only a million barrels per day. It was down 6,5 million barrels per day from a year before. As a consequence, worldwide crude oil production was 10 percent lower than in 1979.

The loss of production from the combined effects of the Iranian revolution and the Iraq-Iran War caused crude oil prices to more than double. The nominal price went from 14 $in 1978 to 35$ per barrel in 1981.

### 3.3. Renaissance of EV

In the seventies began the renaissance of EV. Fixed price of oil, which is less and less available, and the problems associated with its production and transport, leads to renewed interest in electric vehicles. At that time, it seemed that the coal and oil reserves would exhaust quickly, predicted at the beginning of the third millennium, so the world began to think about the "energy conservation". In addition, ongoing technical advances made with high quality and effective solutions of speed regulator for electric motor, lighter batteries and lighter materials for the body.

After 1970. environmental problems and oil crises increased the actuality of electric vehicles. Especially in the United States the interest of the citizens awoke who have acquired a habit to use widely electric vehicles for golf courses, for airports, for parks and fairs. According to some sources, one third of vehicles intended for driving on gravel roads were with electric traction. So there was a need to develop a new industry.

1974 Sebring - Vanguard began producing electric vehicles on the lane. City Car with two-seat, weighs 670 kg, and an electric voltage 48 V, 2,5 kW power only, achieved a maximum speed of 45 km/h. With an improved variant of this operation the maximum speed of 60 km/h was accomplished. The vehicle exceeded up to 75 kW with a single charge of batteries and the cost was about 3.000 US$. Only between the 1974th and 1976. about 2.000 of these vehicles was produced 1974. Copper Development Association Inc. made a prototype electric passenger vehicle. Although it used lead-acid batteries, it could develop a top speed of 55 mph (90 km/h), and could go over 100 mph (161 km/h with one battery charge at a speed of 40 mph (65 km/h). Among the achievements of the General Motors company at the time was the GM 512 vehicle designed for drive in urban areas that are closed for classic cars. These are two types of small passenger vehicles with a carriage-body constructed partly of glass resin, but one is with pure electro propulsion and the other is a hybrid. Basic data on pure electric version are: weight 560 kg, the engine of 6 kW, a maximum speed of 70 km/h. With a 150 kg lead acid batteries could be run without charge from 50 to 70 km. It was supplied even with an air conditioning. The largest exhibition of electric vehicles ever made till then, EV Expo 78, in [11], was held in Philadelphia. Expo displayed more than 60 electric vehicles with prices from 4.000$ to as much as 120.000 $. The first electric vehicle, General Motors, a prototype car with four seats cost 6.000$. It was planned as a second family vehicle.

### Figure 15.

Forecast of global production of liquid fuels by 2035.

According to a statistical review of BP (British Petroleum) [44], in 2.011., figure 14 shows the increase in prices of petroleum products in Rotterdam since 1993. expressed in U.S. dollars per barrel.

Forecast of production of petroleum products in the world by 2.035. year, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in [42], is shown in figure 15. We hope to discover new oil fields, and activate the existing drain current, so that the next 25 years, production of crude oil will mainly keep the existing values. Expected to increase consumption of natural gas and non-conventional liquid fuels. At the same time certain redistribution of the consumption of liquid fuels will be made. Expected increase in consumption of liquid fuels for transport and to a lesser extent for other consumers.

Taking into account today and proven preset fossil fuel reserves can be estimated that up to half of the century the transport sector and transport of energy resources was largely satisfied, but certainly not after the 2050th year, if only with today's fuel reserves appeared a new energy crisis, in [45].

### 5.4. Environmental pollution and global warming

Modern transport has contributed to overall economic progress but also caused problems and environmental pollution, traffic congestion and problems of energy supply - particularly in times of energy crisis.

Air pollution by burning fuel in motor vehicles becomes the most important global issue, especially in urban areas worldwide. Emission of pollutants originating from motor vehicles caused by the level of traffic, possibility of roads and weather conditions. Pollutants from the exhaust system of motor vehicles reach the atmosphere and are dependent composition, and fuel volatility.

In terms of impact on global atmospheric pollution and problems associated with it, the most important effect is the increase in global mean temperature. From the standpoint of global warming the greatest danger represents carbon dioxide, an unavoidable component of the combustion products of petroleum products, in [46].

Human activities in the past two centuries have been based on the large use of hydrocarbons to obtain the necessary energy. Therefore, the amount of "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere has increased and is expected to lead to increase in average global temperature.

In addition to air pollution in violation of the environment and space as a significant natural resource waste oils are participating, as well as uncontrolled release of oil, in [47]. to contaminate surface and groundwater.

In contrast to the natural greenhouse effect, an additional effect caused by human activity contributes to global warming and may have serious consequences for humanity. Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0,6 °C in [48], only during the twentieth century.

In addition, if we can not take any steps toward limiting emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, concentrations of carbon dioxide by 2100. can be expected to reach values ​​between 540 and 970 million particles of the volume. This concentration of carbon dioxide is leading to global temperature increase between 1,4 and 5,8 °C by the end of this century.

### Figure 16.

Forecast comparison of carbon emissions in the period since 2007. until 2035. The OECD countries and other countries.

The temperature rise of this magnitude would also have impacted on the entire Earth's climate, and would be manifested trough the frequent rainfall, more tropical cyclones and natural disasters every year in certain regions, or on the other hand, in other regions such as long periods of drought, which would overall have a very bad effect on agriculture. Entire ecosystems could be severely threatened extinction of species that could not be fast enough to adapt to climate change.

In order to reduce air pollution from vehicles and to make more economical cars in the fight against global warming and reducing dependence on oil in the U.S. are preparing new standards for reducing automobile emissions and reduce consumption of fossil fuels. The intention of the U.S. administration is that these measures by 2016. reduce he emissions from vehicles by 30 %. Under the new standards for passenger vehicles, fuel consumption must be reduced to a level of 35,5 miles/gallon (6,62 l/100 km) in [49]. It is expected that new proposals for new vehicles in the average rise in price by about 1,300 $in 2016. year. It should be noted that the U.S. is the largest automobile market in the world with about 250 million registered vehicles ### 5.5. World production and consumption of electric energy in the World A necessary precondition for economic development and growth of each country and the region is safe and reliable electricity supply. Electricity consumption per capita is highest in the Nordic countries (to a maximum of 24,677 kWh, Iceland) and in North America. Almost half of EU countries have nuclear power plants so that in France and Lithuania almost 75 % of electricity is obtained from nuclear power plants in [50]. The growth and forecast growth of electricity production in the world and the total energy consumption in the period 1990 - 2035, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is shown in Figure 17. Base for observation of this comparison was taken 1990. year. It may be noted that the real growth of electricity consumption in the period since 1990. to 2006. is 59 % and overall energy consumption 36 %. Forecasted growth in electricity consumption by 2025. amounts to 181 % and overall energy consumption 95 %. Production and consumption of electricity for years has a steady growth of around 3.3 % per year. Normal for middle-income countries has a slightly higher growth. Electricity production is obtained mostly by burning solid fuel 40 % and natural gases about 20 %. About 16 % of electricity obtained from hydropower and only slightly less, 15 % from nuclear power plants. Less than 10 % is obtained from petroleum. ### Figure 17. The share of energy in electricity generation in the world since 1971. to 2001, [50] Last few decades, the share of electricity derived from nuclear power plants have increased considerably and from hydro has declined, although the total growth in electricity production obtained from hydropower continued. It is believed that the near future will experience significant increase in production of electricity from nuclear power plants, to a lesser extent from natural gas, and later also from renewable sources. ### 5.6. Efficiency of electric drives Efficiency of electric vehicles was marked several times when lead-acid batteries were used. It can be divided into two parts: the degree of usefulness in the charging and discharging the batteries. Batteries with a charger efficiency of 85 % conditioned that 15 % of the total power dissipated in heat, all for process for charging batteries or refill the tank "of electricity." Charging process is followed by the inevitable losses, so that for certain conditions and the charge current was 82 %. This creates a loss of primary energy by 15,3 %. This implies that already in the charging of batteries about 30 % of the total electrical energy is converted into losses. The process of discharging the battery is quite complex. How discharge current overcome five-hour discharge current and they belong to one-hour mode current to or even lower, there is a significant drop in efficiency. For example. one-hour discharge mode, discharge current is about 3,7 times higher than the five-hour, and a level of efficiency is 0,65. In discharge mode for 0,5 h, discharge current is about 5,5 times higher and the efficiency is only 0,45. In the tested vehicle we had a 45-minute discharge mode in which the utilization rate of 0,56, so that the primary energy from the power grid consumes an additional 30.7%. Practically, this much power is necessary to drive electric cars and overcoming all resistance to traction. Assembly drive motor and voltage regulator exceeds the value of the degree of utilization of 94 % with the direction of growth, regardless of whether the DC or AC powered. For these components not more than 7 % is lost of electricity drawn from the power grid. Transmission along with the transmission gear has high efficiency of about 96 %, so that the components of the electric drive consumes only 1,5 % of primary energy. Taking into account all the losses in transport of the electricity from the power grid to power the drive wheels of the vehicle may be test requirements for electric vehicles Yugo – E, in [51] obtain overall efficiency:  η=ηpa•ηa1•ηa2•ηr•ηem•ηt=0,85•0,82•0,65•0,94•0,96=0,41 (1) ### Figure 18. Diagram of losses and efficiency of electric vehicles. The efficiency of primary energy is much better than machines with conventional drive. Useful power is consumed in four parts and to overcoming of resistance: frictional, wind (aerodynamic), climb and acceleration. Computer data indicates that at a constant speed on flat road of 60 km/h, about 60 % of output used for overcoming the friction force, and about 40 % to overcoming aerodynamic drag. In order to analyze the total energy efficiency level of the energy source to the wheels of the vehicle, it is necessary to bear in mind the following: • The efficiency of exploitation from the mine of natural fuels (fossil fuel or nuclear energy), • Electricity production and • The network transport. Efficiency of electricity production can vary widely. According to European measurements, ranges from 39 % for plants with coal production to 44 % for power plants with natural gas, or the average value of 42 %. Combined cycle power plant with natural gas can reach the level of efficiency over 58 %. If we multiplied the average value of 42 % by the transfer efficiency of 92 %, the sources of efficiency of the reservoir of 38 % is obtained. Battery charger recharges the battery, and transmission losses in the electric motor give the utility of the reservoir of energy to the wheels of 65-80 %. Thus the total utility from the source to the wheels is from 25 to 30 %. Exploitation of natural fuel and transport network are dependent of the type of energy but have an average efficiency of about 92 %. Together with the losses in transport and processing of getting the total level of efficiency from source to reservoir of about 83 %. But the internal combustion engine is only 15-20 % of energy into useful work. Thus the total utility of the source to the wheels is 12 to 17 %. Energy efficiency is extremely important information on the consumption of electricity from power grid to travel kilometer of the road. It is obtained as the ratio of distance traveled per unit of electricity consumed. Measurements have been made in Serbia, in [51, 53]. driving a constant speed along a straight road in the hilly city driving. The results showed that the energy efficiency of a flat open road is about 5,1 km/kWh, while in the hilly city driving about 4,5 miles/kWh. The specific energy consumed, defined as the ratio of electrical energy from the power grid per unit distance traveled, or as the reciprocal of the energy economy, is on a flat open road below 0,2 km/kWh in the hilly city driving around 0,22 km/kWh. ICEEV From source to reservoir83 % 38 % From the reservoir of energy to the wheels15–20 % 65-80 % Total: From the source to the wheels12–17 % 25-30 % ### Table 5. The current level of utility vehicles with ICE and the EV, in [52]. ## 6. Problems and Prospects "energy reservoir" Development and implementation of future EV largely depend on the technical characteristics of the components of the drive. It is difficult to change established habits of drivers in the world, with the expectation from a motor vehicle to transport them quickly from one location to another. The main disadvantage of EV is in the battery pack and that they still can not accumulate more than 200 Wh/kg energy. If compared to liquid fuels about 12.000 Wh/kg, this very fact means that the tank cars with conventional internal combustion engine, which weighs about 40 kg can store approximately 480 kWh of energy in modern Li ion battery heavy around 300 kg only about 60 kWh electricity. Promising system Li-air batteries with 1.700 Wh/kg will be able to fully provide the comparative characteristics of the EV and to thereby make the transition to a completely pure EV. It is interesting to note that the investigation of an aluminum-air battery has started several decades ago because of the high energy potential, because of the opportunities for quick replacement of worn out mechanical anode and the economy, in [54]. It was worked on the development of aluminum-air battery with the anode of aluminum which is alloyed with small amounts of alloying components and a neutral aqueous solution of sodium chloride NaCl as the electrolyte in [55]. The prototype battery achieved 34/39 W/kg specific power and specific energy of 170-190 Wh/kg, the optimal current density between 50 and 100 mA/cm2, which at the present level of development of chemical power sources is a battery of exceptional quality. The lack of battery life is relatively high cost of components which are used for alloying aluminum anode. The energy density of gasoline is 13.000 Wh/kg, which is shown as "a theoretical energy density" (Figure 19). The average utilization rate of passenger cars with IC engine, from the fuel tank to the wheels, is about 13 % in US, so that "useful energy density" of gasoline for vehicles use is around 1.700 Wh/kg. It is shown as "practical" energy density of gasoline. The efficiencie of autonomous electric propulsion system (battery-wheels) is about 85 %. Significantly improvement of current Li-ion energy density of batteries is about 10 times, which today is between 100 and 200 Wh/kg (at the cellular level), could make that electric propulsion system be equated with a gasoline powered, at least, to specific useful energy. However, there is no expectation that the existing batteries, as Li-ion, have ever come close to the target of 1,700 Wh/kg. Oxidation of 1 kg of lithium metal, releases about 11.680 Wh/kg, which is slightly lower than gasoline. This is shown as a theoretical energy density of lithium-air batteries. However, it is expected that the real energy density of Li-ion batteries will be much smaller. The existing metal-air batteries, such as Zn-air, usually have a practical energy density of about 40-50 % of its theoretical energy density. However, it is safe to assume, that even fully developed Li-air cells will not achieve such a great relationship, because lithium is very lightweight, and therefore, the mass of the battery casing and electrolytes will have a much bigger impact. #### Figure 19. Energy density of different types of batteries and gasoline in [56]. Fortunately, the energy density of 1700 Wh/kg for a fully charged battery pack fits only 14.5 % of the theoretical energy content of lithium metal. It is realistic to expect, achieve mint of such energy density, at the cellular level, considering the intense and long team’s development in [54]. Energy density of complete batteries is only a half of density, realizedat the cellular level. It is interesting to mention, that the significant results in development this type of battery are achieved in the laboratories of the Institute of Electrochemistry ICTM and the Institute of Technical Sciences SASA, where they were working on development of aluminum-air battery with the aluminium anode alloyed with small amounts of alloying components and the neutral aqueous solution NaCl, as the electrolyte in [57]. The prototype of such batteries, had achieved a power density of 34/39 W/kg, and energy density of 170-190 Wh/kg, by optimal current density between 50 and 100 mA/cm2. Volumetric energy (in Wh/l) in the storage batteries is an important feature of the design considerations also. This requirement is the best expressed by condition that there is a maximum capacity of 300 dm3 (family car) for battery pack and auxiliary systems. A driving range of 500 miles (800 km) requires that the reservoir of energy, store energy of 125 kWh (with power consumption of 250 Wh/km), so that the volume of 300 dm3 is limiting specific gravity of the battery pack, including space for air circulation, must not be less than 0,5 kg/dm3. Power density: While Li-air systems imply an extremely high energy density, their power density (measured in W/kg of batteries weight) is relatively low. The prototype of Li-air cells achieves current density, in average 1mA/cm2, which is insufficient and is expecting significantly increase of the current density for at least 10 times. One way to achieve the required power density is the creation of a hybrid electric drive system, where a small, high power battery, for example, on the basis of Li-ion technology, would provide the power in short periods of high demand, such as it is acceleration. Supercapacitors could be used instead of these batteries. Duration: The current Li-air cells show a possibility of full charge cycles, only about 50, with less capacity loss. Future research efforts must be directed towards improving the accumulated capacity in multiple discharges. In addition, the total number of charge cycles and discharge do not mean to be very large, due to the high energy capacity of Li-ion cells. For example, a battery, designed for duration of 250.000 km, and projected to cross the EV radius of movement of 800 km, should be charged only 300 times (Full cycle equivalent) in [58]. It is necessary to keep in mind that a lot of air will go through the battery during operation, and even a short-term accumulation of moisture, can be harmful to duration. Safety: EV batteries will be, especially in the beginning of the application, complying with extremely high safety standards, even more strictly than at gasoline car. Price: Design requirements of high-capacity battery for the drive EV are quite strict, but they are quite well defined. They will serve as guidelines for the scientific research, conducted on the Li-air battery system. Batteries for EV power have been just carrying out the transition from nickel metal hydride to Li-ion batteries, after years of researching and developing. Transition to the Li-ion batteries should be viewed in terms of a similar development cycle. It is known that, the price of each product, decreases with increasing mass production. It is expecting that the EV prices will decline, because of falling down prices of Li-air batteries, including the price of EV. However, support to introduction of new vehicles in traffic would be systematically addressed. Battery typesEnergy density Wh/kg/ Wh/litar Specific power W/kg Number of rechar. cycles Energy efficiency Self disch. for 24 hours Duration years Price US$/kWh
PbO40/60-7518050082 %1 %2,5-4100-150
NiCd50/50-1501501.35072,5 %5 %
NiMH70/140-300250-10001.35070,0 %2 %5-7300-500
Li-ion125/27018001.00090,0 %1 %5-10"/"/1000
Li-ion polymer200/300"/3000---
NaNiCl
(Zebra)
125/300-1.00092,5 %0 %

#### Table 6.

Characteristics of different types of batteries.

Accommodation of batteries as a power source, for vehicles with electric drive, is a big problem also depending on technological solution of batteries. As it can be seen, in table 6 in [59], lead-acid batteries have a low energy, per unit mass and volume and a relatively small number of charge cycles. In contrast, modern Li-ion batteries and NaNiCl, have significant energy capacity, with a larger number of charges and are of a stable voltage. However, the latter ones are sensitive to warming and may have an energy loss up to 7,2 %.

Battery duration should be, always, taken into account, when their price is consideration. The duration depends on several factors, such as how often the vehicle is in use and how many times the batteries have been filled up. In table 6, there are data on duration expectancy of certain batteries types and price per unit of energy.

## 7. Conclusion

It can be concluded that the future and the past belong to the EV. Nevertheless, new sources of liquid fuels are still to be found, their exploitation is more expensive and there is less of it in the world. In addition, it is necessary to preserve oil as a resource to other industry where you can not find an alternative. On the other hand, electricity is usually sufficient. If in the meantime renewable energy booms, the possibility of its cheap production will open. This means that, in addition to the environmental, economic and conditions for wider use of electric vehicles will gain.

Almost all the problems related to the production of EV technology are sufficiently well resolved, with high efficiency. The biggest problem is the electrical energy storage. Fuel cells, electrochemical sources, supercapacitors, or new sources that could be made sufficiently compact and inexpensive, would allow in the near future, the transition from vehicles that use liquid fuels to electric vehicles.

It is likely that the transition from internal combustion vehicles to EV won’t be quick. Still these ones are inferior and can not meet potential customers in all circumstances. Battery development has made great progress but still not enough. In addition, if the battery problem will be solved, there are still many problems that need to be better addressed. Some of these problems will resolve themselves, as prices fall with the increased production, but others, supporting the introduction of new vehicle traffic will be much harder to resolve spontaneously.

So far EV‘s are more expensive than existing and have certain restrictions of applications you still can not replace the existing vehicles of most vehicle owners in the world. In order to create habits of the driver for the purchase and use of EV, economically strong countries are introducing incentive funds for the EV and HV, which gives definite results. First, there are certain financial incentives for the purchase of the vehicle. In addition, the purchase of EV are not paying taxes, in the cities parking is free for them, vehicles do not pay a toll and in the cities they can move in traffic bands reserved for public transport vehicles. The most important thing is to develop a refilling station for batteries which often offer free recharge EV.EV should not be that expensive investment, especially in large-scale production. So far, the most expensive and also less than perfect for use in EV its battery. Therefore, the most intensive scientific research carried out exactly in this area.

In a situation of permanent oil price increases and increased air pollution, especially in cities, two solutions to the problem occurred.

In accordance with the statements of U.S. President, U.S. moved in the direction of energy efficiency and savings in transportation of petroleum products. This means that it is headed in the direction of HV use with the aim to reduce consumption of the average U.S. vehicle to 6,62 l/100km. Although the U.S. made the extremely popular EV Tesla Roadstar, more U.S. government supports all major car manufacturers to start producing HV.

At the same time as the major importers of oil turned to the study and making Plug in EV or pure EV. First who did it is Germany ahead of the EU, but also China and other countries.

## 8. Nomenclature

AC-Alternating current

BP-British Petroleum

DC-Direct current

EU-European Union

EV-Electric Vehicle

HV-Hybrid vehicle

Li-air-Lithium- air

Li-ion-Lithium- ion

OIC-AInternational Organization of Motor Vehicle

OPEC-Organization of Petroleum Exporting States

PHV-Plug-in Hybrid

IC-Internal combustion engine

UN-United Nations

ZEV-Zero Emissions Vehicle

## Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science Republic of Serbia through projects TR 35041, TR 35042 and TR 35036

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