Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Exploratory Research

By Pranas Žukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitienė

Submitted: August 17th 2017Reviewed: August 21st 2017Published: April 18th 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70631

Downloaded: 220

Abstract

The exploratory research examined the reliability of the research instrument and suitability for further research. When organizing the testing of the instrument, 159 employees of one organization were interviewed, when the necessary sample size is 155 employees with 95% probability and 5% variance. The obtained high values of Cronbach’s alpha and Spearman-Brown coefficient indicate that the items of the scales of the management culture and social responsibility included in the instrument are closely interrelated. In addition, it was found that most correlation relationships of criteria of the management culture and social responsibility are also closely related, which shows the reliability of the instrument. On the one hand, the exploratory research revealed the specific problems of management culture and corporate social responsibility, and on the other hand, it showed that there is a reliable, direct, and strong relationship between the management culture and corporate social responsibility, and the designed instrument can be used for further research.

Keywords

  • exploratory research
  • research instrument
  • corporate social responsibility
  • management culture
  • behavior of socially responsible organization
  • behavior of socially responsible employee

1. Introduction

Relevance of the research. In the previous chapters of this book we have formulated the principles of measurement of the level of development of the management culture in order to implement corporate social responsibility and proposed the instrument to measure it. There are some procedures that are used to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire items in order to obtain high-quality reliable knowledge about the analyzed phenomenon. A number of studies in research journals are designed to determine reliability and validity of the existing questionnaires, for example, by adapting them in the new cultural environments, etc. However, when a new questionnaire has been created, there is a difficult task not only to test how it works in practice, but also to substantiate its reliability and the possibility to use it in the future. One of the ways is an exploratory research, which can be regarded as a compulsory step, during which the questionnaire items formulated at the time of scientific literature analysis and insights, which the scales and subscales consist from, are tested. This option takes more time, increases the cost of the research; however, it is valuable in several ways. First, valuable primary knowledge on the object of research is obtained; second, it can be used to determine the reliability of methodological and psychometric characteristics, weaknesses of the questionnaire. Factor analysis serves this purpose in quantitative studies, in particular, where the data are complex and unclear [1]. Factor analysis is a multidimensional statistical method, which has been widely used for a long time in psychology and other areas of social sciences [1, 2, 3, 4], etc., is convenient and popular when using SPSS software package. When carrying out the factor analysis, the researchers have to make a lot of choices; each of which can have a significant impact on the results of the research [5]. According to the authors, they must decide on an appropriate sample size to achieve accurate parameter estimates and adequate power, a factor model and estimation method, a method for determining the number of factors and evaluating model fit, and a rotation criterion.

The problem of the research is raised by the question: what psychometric criteria confirm validity and reliability of the instrument for determining the level of the development of management culture in order to implement corporate social responsibility, and how the relationships of the management culture and corporate social responsibility are revealed when using it.

Object of the research: validity and reliability of the instrument for determining the level of the development of management culture in order to implement corporate social responsibility.

Purpose of the research: having formulated the instrument for determining management culture development level in order to implement corporate social responsibility, check the suitability of the Lithuanian version for further research.

To achieve the aim the following research objectives are set: (1) to set the methodological and psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire; (2) to analyze sociodemographic indicators of the respondents who participated in the research; (3) to set the management culture development level in the researched organization; (4) to set the organization‘s readiness to seek the status of corporate social responsibility; (5) to evaluate management culture integrity in order to implement corporate social responsibility.

The research and data-processing methods. In order to achieve the aim, the quantitative research method was selected—written survey. The data were processed by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program (version 21).

2. The research sample

One regional municipality was chosen for the research. Two hundred fifty-three office workers worked in the country’s regional municipality during the research period. One hundred fifty-nine respondents agreed to participate in the research. The research sample was calculated on the basis of Paniotto’s formula [6]:

n=1Δ2+1NE1

where n is the sample size, is the sample error size (=0.05), and N is the general size of the whole.

n=1Δ2+1N=10.052+1253=155E2

Calculating all the employees in an organization—the necessary sample size is 155 employees, when the probability is 95%, and the error is 5%. In essence, such sample is sufficient to be able to draw conclusions about the questionnaire methodological quality characteristics.

3. The research organization

The nature of the survey and the terms were agreed with the municipality head. By mutual agreement, it was decided to give a maximum of ten working days for the survey. There were two possible options for completing the questionnaire, and the paper version of the questionnaire was selected; the online questionnaire for this research case was refused on the grounds that the organization met a strict requirement to use the Internet only for official tasks. All 159 questionnaires completed by the respondents were recognized valid. All the respondents participating in the survey voluntarily gave very precise information, not a single questionnaire was damaged due to incorrect or careless filling.

4. The reliability and determination of methodological and psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire

After the exploratory study, the questionnaire reliability was tested first of all. The factor dispersion was explained— a factor, affecting the result, cannot be lower than 10%. If the explained factor dispersion is less than 10%, it is necessary to look for the statement that reduces dispersion. If 159 respondents are involved in the survey, i.e., 100%, and the explained factor dispersion—10%, this would mean that only 10% of respondents are in favor of this factor. On the scales of management culture and social responsibility the lowest explained dispersion is 58.72% (the scale of managerial processes organization culture), while the highest—66.85% (the scale of behavior of a socially responsible employee). Maximal Cronbach alpha, 1. According to Nunnally [7], DeVellis [8], Nunnally and Bernstein [9], Cronbach’s alpha values are classified in accordance with the strength of the statistical connection as follows: minimally acceptable—0.65, acceptable—0.70, and optimal—0.80. Churchill and Peter [10] state that the unacceptable value is below 0.60. However, this indicator must be interpreted carefully, as its value depends not only on the strength of correlations between the variables, but also on the number of items on the scale [11]. Values lower than 0.60 are acceptable when the scale consists only of a few items [12, 13] or the newly designed instruments [7] in [14]. According to George and Mallery [15], the coefficient of variation acceptable in the theory of testing is 0.5 ≤ α <1 the value of Cronbach’s alpha is lower than 0.5, it shows that the scale/subscale of the questionnaire is not reliable, as the subscale contains the items, which do not meet the main suitability (validity) conditions. However, there are some reservations, i.e., if the constructs are of the psychological nature, even lower values may be acceptable [16] in [17].

New high Cronbach alpha values suggest that the statements on management culture and social responsibility scales included in the instrument are closely interrelated. However, the Cronbach alpha coefficient value size can vary according to the length of the scale—the more individual statements are on the scale, the higher it may be. So, when the scale has more than five individual test steps, it is difficult to determine the real value and additional measure of the scale internal reliability required which is more sensitive to measurements. As a result, next to Cronbach alpha coefficient there are presented the Spearman-Brown coefficient values, which, as adopted in the theory of tests, are usually lower than Cronbach alpha coefficient values. The resulting Cronbach alpha values indicate that the statements of management culture and social responsibility scales are related (minimum Cronbach alpha value is 0.75) (Table 1).

PartsScalesNExplained dispersion %Cronbach alphaSpearman-Brown
Management cultureManagement staff culture2866.680.900.88
Managerial processes organization culture2458.720.750.69
Management working conditions’ culture2763.790.860.62
Documentation system culture2559.700.870.80
Social responsibilityBehavior of a socially responsible organization3162.780.920.79
Behavior of a socially responsible employee4266.850.950.84

Table 1.

Methodological quality characteristics of management culture and social responsibility scales.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Correlation coefficient modal value indicates the intensity of correlation connection. The maximal correlation coefficient can be −1 or +1 (depending on the statements’ encoding). The closer to 1, the stronger the relationship, i.e., correlation connection is more reliable. In the case of this research, the statements on the behavior of a socially responsible employee scale were coded negatively.

Correlation criteria relations show the mutual connectivity of signs: when correlation coefficient (r, strength of the relation) is 0.9 or more, the connection is very strong; when correlation coefficient is 0.1– 0.2, the connection is very weak. Reliability, i.e., interconnection of signs, is grounded by the indicator when its size is 0.000 (Table 2).

ScalesBehavior of a socially responsible organizationBehavior of a socially responsible employee
Managerial staff culture0.560**−0.517**
00
159159
Managerial processes organization culture0.546**−0.341**
00
159159
Management working conditions’ culture0.637**−0.518**
00
159159
Documentation system culture0.566**−0.231**
00.003
159159

Table 2.

Correlation connections of management culture and social responsibility scales.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Most of the management culture and social responsibility correlation relations are closely linked, with the exception of the documentation system culture with respect to behavior of socially responsible employee that show relatively weak (−0.231), but statistically significant relationship (0.003). The strongest correlation (0.637) is stated between the scales of management working conditions culture in the organization and behavior of socially responsible organization. It must be stated that the questionnaire scales are interrelated by an inverse average strong and strong, statistically reliable, connection. Once the questionnaire methodological and psychometric characteristics reliability was established, it is stated that the questionnaire can be applied for determination of management culture development level in order for corporate social responsibility.

5. Sociodemographic indicators

The survey results show respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics according to gender, age, education, position, working experience. In terms of gender, the respondents’ distribution is very uneven, i.e., 72.3% of females and 27.7% of males, so this sociodemographic result will not be the basis for the analytical results sections. In terms of age, the distribution of the respondents indicates that the working people in an organization fall into the age category from 30 years up to the retirement age, and this makes 88% of all employees (30–39 years, 20.8%; 40–49 years, 31.4%; 50 years and up to retirement age 35.8%). Overall rate of younger age and retirement age of employees is 12%. Distribution of the respondents, according to education, confirms that people working in government institutions have higher education - 87.4% (university, 74.2%; higher nonuniversity, 13.2%). This indicator is determined by the Civil Service Law [18], according to which civil servants are obliged to have higher education. Only 12.6% employees, who assigned themselves to ordinary employees, have completed college or vocational training. According to the nature of the position, three levels of managers participated in the survey: the lower-level managers, 4.4%; middle-level managers, 12.6%; and the highest-level manager, 4.4%. The municipal administration staff is divided into two groups: the civil servants and employees working under the employment contract. Almost half of the surveyed employees, not occupying any management position, are civil servants (41.51%), and the rest are ordinary municipal workers (36.5%). Thus, according to the above-discussed surveyed workers age, it is natural that their working experience in the target organization may also be relevant (in the case if they are loyal to the organization). 70.4% of respondents have the working experience from 8 to 20 years of service in the organization, from 4 to 7 years—16.3%. The rest have just started to work and/or have up to 3 years of working experience in the target organization.

As can be seen, the majority of respondents have higher education, are middle-aged and more mature employees having big working experience in a self-governing organization. In other words, the people who accumulated a lot of work experience and who have sufficient knowledge of the organization.

6. Determination of management culture development level

Management culture development level determination results are presented according to four scales: managerial staff culture, management processes organization culture, culture of management working conditions, and the documentation system culture (Table 3).

Subscales levelManagement staff general cultureManagement science knowledgeManagers’ personal and professional characteristicsThe level of the ability to manage
Management staff culture
Low*18.72134.124.5
Average**22.840.120.324.1
High***58.538.945.651.4
Management processes organization culture
Subscales levelOptimal managerial processes regulationRational organization of management workModern computerization of managerial processesCulture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls
Low15.815.73115.7
Average22.631.625.922.7
High61.652.743.161.6
Management working conditions’ culture
Subscales levelWorking environment (interior, lighting, temperature, cleanness, etc.)Organizing working placesWork and rest regime, relaxation optionsWork security, sociopsychological microclimate
Low24.520.320.318.7
Average6.612.412.426.4
High68.967.367.354.9
Documentation system culture
Subscales levelCulture of official registration of documentationOptimal document search and access systemRational use of modern information technologiesRational storage system of archival documents
Low59.91711.9
Average8.617.919.931.1
High86.472.263.157

Table 3.

Management culture development level: exploratory research case.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: *Low level of respondents’ approval; **Average level of respondents’ approval; ***High level of respondents’ approval

When analyzing management staff culture, according to the highest positions, it is obvious that the biggest gap in the target organization is management science knowledge, which makes 38.9%. The analysis of the lowest positions in each of the four subscales showed that the lowest scores were distributed from 18.7 to 34.1%. Extremely low scores were given to managers’ personal and professional characteristics (34.1%). Therefore, the content of these subscales is presented in more detail.

In order to determine the level of management science knowledge, the respondents assessed such aspects as the managers’ higher management education, the interest of the managers in managerial science innovations and their intensive application in practice, organization of refresher courses for managers and participation in them. The analysis of individual test steps demonstrated an extremely acute problem of management education—only 38.4% of respondents confirmed that managers have the required education. Thus, the majority of managers, although they meet the requirements for a civil servant, may lack or lack higher management education basis. The more so, a little more than half of the respondents confirmed that in the organization one does not need education in management to become a manager (50.3%). This issue is highlighted in two ways: on a wider scale, optimizing the overall competitive requirements because the compulsory management work experience for the applicants does not necessarily reflect the absorption of management science and on a local scale, improving professional skills. It should also be mentioned that this option is not fully exploited— just only over one-third confirmed the opportunity to go to managers’ education courses in the organization. The problem is related with other management work aspects, such as the general management culture and managerial style. The interval of positive assessment of general culture statements is from 47.2% (managers’ values, guide to subordinates) up to 72.3% (observance of language culture).

The subscale of managers’ personal and professional characteristics was assessed by staff reaction to the decisions of managers, the objectivity and fairness of decisions made by managers, the correctness of provided comments, respect for the individual in official orders, competition among subordinates and managers, and competition among organization leaders. Some of the most sensitive issues are leadership, confidence in the decisions of managers, and objectivity. The qualities of managers were evaluated positively only by about half of the surveyed employees. The following significant problem areas emerged: the managers’ personal and professional characteristics, the level of general culture, threat of current internal conflict between the managing chain and subordinates, the risk of resistance to management practices, increasing dissatisfaction and decreasing loyalty. These risks are highlighted by management science knowledge gaps that are associated with other management culture reflecting areas.

The analysis of the organization culture of managerial processes according to the highest positions disclosed that modernization and computerization of management processes are valued the lowest (43.1%), according to the lowest positions the same category received the most approval, i.e., 31%, which shows that the level of computerization in the organization is average, and the system is underdeveloped. Rationality of management work organization, optimal managerial processes regulation, culture of visitors’ acceptance, conducting meetings, phone calls are top rated (from 52.7 to 61.6%). Both positive and negative evaluations according to these parameters were distributed more or less evenly, which indicates some kind of a tendency. In this context, missed opportunities are confirmed by the shortcomings of management work organization system. Just a little less than a half of the management staff are satisfied with work organization and the realization of the existing potential. The subscale of modern managerial processes computerization presents indicators, by revealing the electronic management system functionality, management system planning, analysis and operational integrity, maximal exploitation of a computerized managerial processes system, its simplicity and usefulness as well as sufficient/insufficient supply of computer hardware and software. The researched organization has a computerized data management system, but low evaluation indicates limited exploitation of technical possibilities. For example, only 47.2% of respondents approved the functioning of electronic control system, which leads to the assumption that the system does not cover all units of the organization. The presumption is strengthened by the approval of the statement that the system is used to the maximum (32.7%), while almost half of the respondents doubt the functionality and usefulness of the system (41.6%). Nearly a third of the respondents indicated that the organization lacks computer hardware and software. In addition, the current system does not allow adequate planning and organization of work. The essential mission of a public sector organization is to meet the needs of the public, in other words, the orientation to the public interest. The results of the research suggest that the management culture is not sufficiently mobilized so that this target would correspond to the activities of employees. The analysis of the results according to individual statements showed that one third of the responses (33.3%) to claims from outside are considered an unpleasant obligation. Only 52.2% of the respondents stated that the organization is open to the public. The fact that the organization focuses on customer needs, was approved by 55.3% of respondents.

The analysis of the culture of management working conditions revealed a significant gap between the lowest and highest assessments. According to the highest positions, the worst assessments were given to work security and sociopsychological microclimate of the organization (54.9%). That is, only a little more than a half of the respondents are satisfied with the conditions. Labor safety issue in the researched organization, according to respondents’ answers, is more formal. Sociopsychological climate in the organization is affected by formal approach to such factors: labor safety, sexual harassment prevention, lack of tolerance for alternative views (for example, political and religious). The efforts of the organization in relation to these aspects were signified only by a little more than half of the respondents.

The analysis of the lowest positions showed that nearly a quarter of respondents are dissatisfied with the working environment, when at the same time 68.9% claim that the working environment is very good. Municipality employees do not all have good conditions with respect to interior, lighting, temperature, cleanliness, etc. One-fifth of the respondents highlighted such issues as technical workplace organization and the management’s efforts to provide the necessary working tools. The same number of respondents gives a negative evaluation to management’s approach to work and leisure balance conditions. Only one-sixth of the respondents agreed with the statement that the organization provides employees with physical activity. This means that if there is a focus on that, it reaches only a small part of the employees.

The analysis of documentation system culture according to the highest positions revealed that only 57% of employees report a high level of rational archival storage system, which includes the issues of clear documentation storage system, electronic archiving information systems and the people in the organization responsible for transfer of documents to the archive for storage. Almost half of the respondents (40.3%) confirmed the problem of effective availability of archival documents, which is particularly associated with the archive information system inefficiencies and/or availability (22.6% confirmed the availability opportunity). Though there are individuals responsible for the transfer of documents to the archive, only slightly more than a half (54.1%) of the organization’s employees participating in the research confirmed that the archive documents are not lost, and this may be associated with the problems of work organization and use of information systems efficiency.

The analysis of the lowest positions demonstrated the rational use of modern information technology received 17%. This subscale reveals information technology matching the needs of employees, adequate access to external information databases, access to electronic data management system to all departments and employees to whom such access is essential to the quality of work performance. Information technologies are not used to the maximum, but a little more than two-thirds of respondents confirmed the availability of access to external databases (69.8%). This means that there is still untapped potential to save the time of execution of work processes, more efficient integration of human and technical resources to better meet the needs of society.

7. Social responsibility determination

Social responsibility determination results are presented in two categories: behavior of socially responsible organization and behavior of socially responsible employee. The evaluation of behavior of socially responsible organization subscales (Table 4) including the product/service provision, commitment to maintain the balance of natural, biological processes in the development of civilization context, coherence in relations with employees and socium, generally accepted socio-cultural values and the gap between them, and the values recognized from organization’s behavior are reflected. In that respect, there appeared a significant gap which can be detailed at the level of individual statements, highlighting the most problematic areas.

Subscales and level of corporate social responsibility
Subscales levelResponsibility in relations with societyEnvironment protection responsibilityResponsibility in relations with employeesResponsibility, ensuring public interest
Behavior of a socially responsible organization
Low*7.918.529.612
Average**31.644.131.127.6
High***60.537.439.360.4
Behavior of a socially responsible employee
Subscales levelIntentions to leave workUncertainty and lack of information at workGeneral physical and psychological condition of the employeeThe employee‘s opinion about the organizationCorruption, nepotism, favoritismSocial responsibility criticism: staff attitude
Low71.755.265.437.330.651.8
Average15.5141212.724.132.9
High12.830.822.65045.315.3

Table 4.

Corporate social responsibility: the case of exploratory research.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: *Low level of respondents approval; **Average level of respondents approval; ***High level of respondents’ approval

When assessing the statement about the existence of the product/service quality control system in the workplace, it becomes clear that the majority of the respondents deny the existence of such a system or are unaware of its existence, indicating a lack of strong development of the system (68.6%). The control system allows the realization of activities according to the relative quality parameters which consist of the agreed criteria applied for a public or private organization. Assessment in the context of social responsibility standards appointed for public sector organization, means that the performance quality of many assigned functions is not effectively controlled. This is partly compensated in relationships with customers by focusing not only on legislation but also on generally accepted principles of morality (82.4% of supporting assessments).

Social responsibility assessment by individual test steps indicates certain management culture dimensions. Slightly more than a third of respondents (39.3%) rated social responsibility with respect to employees positively. The only test step, stating observance of legislation protecting the employees’ rights not formally, but in reality, received more than half of the respondents approval (52.2%). Treatment of employees as the most important asset of the organization, reward fairness, cooperation with the professional organization of workers, the ability to challenge management decisions, equal rights, collective agreements with respect to positive aspects of the evaluation were distributed in the range between 28.3 and 44.1%.

A significant lack of responsibility in relations with the public was signified—it received a positive assessment of only 60.4%. The lowest positive estimate was given for efforts directed against corruption (37.7%) and principles of honest activities (47.2%). Collaboration with external organizations is top rated (47.2%). Relationship with corruption is relevant in the way that the organization is heavily influenced by illegal political influence, which, as can be assumed, is connected with the organizations management culture.

Almost half of the respondents (45.3%) confirmed the factors of corruption, nepotism, and favoritism. Analyzing by individual test steps, it is becoming clear that political changes have a significant impact on the organization’s work. The estimates of a rising turmoil, staff turnover, the decisions of the organization range from 68.6 to 74.8%. Nepotism and favoritism as the managerial anomaly in part reflects the management culture. To identify the phenomenon seven individual test steps were used the estimates of which, confirming the high level, distributed in the range of 12.6—46.6% (for example, the possibility to get employment in the organization being possible only due to the connections with important people was approved by 42.1% of respondents). A bit more than a half of the surveyed employees—55.2% do not feel certainty and lack information. Between the fifth and third of the respondents feel constant stress, tension, and fatigue. It can be assumed that the relationships within the organization can affect employee feedback in the external environment. Positive responses about the organization are given by 69.2—79.9% of the respondents. However, such estimates may be affected by fear, too. For example, fear that the information may be communicated to managers was indicated by 46.6% of the respondents and only 64.1% of the respondents would offer the people of the closest environment to work in their organization.

To ensure workers' attitude to the researched organization’s social responsibility and general approach to practice of corporate social responsibility activities the test steps were coded negatively, that is why in this case the low level indicates that 71.7% of employees do not intend to leave work, 55.2% of employees do not feel the uncertainty and lack of information at work, 65.4% of employees feel physically and psychologically well at work, etc.

More than a fifth of the respondents assessed the behavior of socially responsible organization in terms of transparency negatively (27%). Only 45.9% of respondents strongly believe that social responsibility standards implementation in the organizations is real and not the public “skullduggery.” A similar assessment was also given to test a step, formulated as a negative stereotype, reflecting approach to corporate social responsibility as a matter of fashion or prestige, the opposition to which is only 1.2 percentage point higher—such difference is not statistically significant. While behavior of socially responsible organization is closely related to employee loyalty, only 25.2% of organization employees who participated in the survey confirm this connection. Assessing individual respondents' experience, it could mean that the concept of social responsibility is not actively developed in the organization.

8. Comparison of management culture and social responsibility

Having established the level of management culture and social responsibility development, there was transition to the second phase, during which a more detailed analysis was performed. For greater accuracy, division was conducted in five levels (percent): very low respondents’ approval level (≤ x < 20), low respondents’ approval level (20 ≤ x < 40), the average respondents’ approval level (40 ≤ x < 60), high respondents’ approval level (60 ≤ x < 80), very high respondents’ approval level (80 ≤ x ≤ 100). It is considered that the closer the assessment comes to 100%, the higher the management culture development level is.

So, having counted the means of the responses, a high level of development of the management culture (equivalent to 69.9%.) was determined. The scales assessment (management staff culture, organization of managerial processes, and management working conditions) showed no statistically significant differences (the lowest estimate—management staff culture— 65.9%, the highest—documentation system culture—74.4%). Statistically significant differences were not found when assessing by subscales, too, with the exception of work and rest regime (48%) and culture of document registration (80%).

An average level of social responsibility was established (percent), 58.7. The differences by category were collated—organization (67.5) and employees (50.1). Assessing by subscales, the most problematic areas are highlighted: corruption, nepotism, favoritism, which can be seen as a managerial abnormality (includes illegal political influence, too), physical, psychological well-being, uncertainty, lack of information, and desire to leave the job due to the current working conditions. The subscale, conditionally called the social responsibility criticism, was included in order to compare and check the answers of the respondents by the previous test steps. The respondents’ approach to social responsibility, which implies the personal experience of the staff (49.7), shows a “more sensitive” and critical social responsibility assessment within the boundaries of the mid-level range.

The existing reliable, direct, and strong relationship was established between the management culture and corporate social responsibility. This means that the stronger the management culture, the stronger social responsibility is. The drawbacks captured in the researched organization indicate that the organization not only lacks computer hardware and software, which does not allow optimal work organization, planning, lack of functional possibilities, but also the existing resources are underused. The possibility of using the information system is inconvenient in order to access the documents created in the organization and stored in the archives. It is doubtful whether the modernization of management information system, in order to improve the organization’s activities and use of the intellectual capital of employees, would give the expected effect without determining management problems related to the management science knowledge and professional qualities. The formal approach to physical and sociopsychological safety of employees in the organization was highlighted. Programs promoting tolerance and preventing harassment should be implemented, but there is a risk that these activities may not be sufficiently effective, as shown by at least two aspects: first, the limited practical realization of legislation regulating these aspects; second, the fact that the management’s attention is unevenly distributed to all employees. Acting as one more example strengthening the conclusion, could be the recorded significant imbalance among the emphasis on the working environment, physical activity, recreation conditions, and the fact about the availability of these activities to all members of the organization. Such areas of concern of management culture and social responsibility, as the orientation toward the public interest and the society (customer) needs priority were highlighted. Highly critical assessment by respondents enables the organization to improve its activities, by fulfilling the conditions for the development of management culture and related potency of human capital, which is reflected from the survey results perceived high moral values, application possibilities. The absence of significant differences between the researched organization’s social responsibility assessment and opinions about social responsibility in other national organizations may be dictated by personal experience.

The behavior of socially responsible organization appears as a systematic element of management culture, so in this context the perceived management culture development should have a positive impact on social responsibility, too. If apparently accepted assessment of management processes is sufficiently positive, with the exception of work and rest conditions, it is the social responsibility factors that present management culture problems in a more sensitive way. For example, fairly high estimates of management culture are encouraged to be critically assessed by established values of social responsibility and management abnormalities (corruption, nepotism, and favoritism), so it is obvious that the management culture should be seen in an integrated way with social responsibility.

The researched organization is not prepared to implement corporate social responsibility in their activities. This conclusion was conditioned by preliminary statements formulated by empirical research results. There is lack of systematic approach for development of the researched organization, the approach that could encompass managerial actions realizing management culture and social responsibility practice. The employees’ position creates a favorable situation for implementing such a program.

The main conclusion of the exploratory research: the questionnaire suitability for further research was approved.

© 2018 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided the original is properly cited.

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Pranas Žukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitienė (April 18th 2018). Exploratory Research, Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility, Pranas ?ukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitien?, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70631. Available from:

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