Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Determining the Level of Management Culture Development

By Pranas Žukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitienė

Submitted: August 17th 2017Reviewed: August 21st 2017Published: April 18th 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70636

Downloaded: 215

Abstract

This part presents the detailed results obtained while determining the level of development of the management culture and presenting the respondents’ evaluations not only in respect of subscales but also in relation to individual items. It has highlighted significant limitations in managerial competence, as well as the differences in declaration of values and the application of the values in practice, especially in relationships with subordinates, with the emphasis on leadership, interpersonal relationships, communication, sharing of knowledge and responsibility. Competition of managerial staff could be positive while striving for the goals of the organization, but when it is focused on the subjective aspirations, it reduces cooperation and confidence of the employees and disturbs the functionality of the management processes. In addition, uncertainty in regulation of processes due to which the opportunities provided by information technology are underused has been revealed.

Keywords

  • management culture
  • the level of management culture development
  • leadership
  • competence
  • ethics
  • values

1. Introduction

Relevance of the research and the level of problem exploration: in the previous parts of this monograph, the diagnostic instrument covering the part of the management culture and consisting of four dimensions: the culture of managerial staff [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]; the culture of organization of the management processes [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]; the culture of working conditions [19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26]; the culture of documentation system [27, 28, 29] was presented. These dimensions include a wide field of management activities and value imperatives, which require to transcend the methods of traditional decisions in relationships with subordinates and to create new interactions with the employees as stakeholders. The employees are the persons who most closely interact with the management staff; therefore, it would be difficult to deny the significance of their evaluations/reactions. By denying employees’ reactions and evaluations, there is the risk of becoming entangled in the subjective discussions of the virtual nature, which deplete the emotions, but do not lead to a rational result. Objective knowledge obtained by statistical methods in the evaluation of both the level of management culture development and the revealed in-depth problems can serve as the material for the management change.

Problem of the research: the problem of the research is raised by the question, how would it be possible to evaluate the level of management culture development after surveying employees of companies and carrying out the statistical analysis?

Object of the research: determining the level of management culture development.

Purpose of the research: after performing statistical analysis of variables to evaluate and compare the level of management culture development in the analysed groups of companies.

Objectives of the research: (1) to evaluate the culture of managerial staff; (2) to evaluate the culture of organization of the management processes; (3) to evaluate the culture of working conditions; (4) to evaluate the culture of the documentation system; (5) to compare the management culture in various groups of companies.

Methods of the research: the results of this part of the quantitative research are analysed on the level of scales, subscales and individual statements, presenting the results of different undertakings and introducing the overall situation. Individual statements which make the subscales are evaluated by percentages, while the respondents’ contributions were divided into three groups, i.e. negative, neutral and positive evaluation of the current situation determining the level of management culture development in the analysed groups of companies. Statistical significance (reliability) p and t-test statistical significance t have also been calculated.

2. Assessment of management culture

Management culture situation in both groups of companies is valued according to the subscales of management staff general culture level, management science knowledge, managers’ personal and professional characteristics, the level of the ability to manage, optimal managerial processes regulation, modernity of managerial processes, culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls, working environment level, level of organizing working places, work and rest regime, relaxation options, work security and sociopsychological microclimate, rational storage system of archival documents, use of modern information technologies, document search and access system and culture of official registration of documentation. Some subscales are closely related but they identify distinct management culture aspects. Besides, as it will be seen when analysing social responsibility, they are closely connected with the recent statements; however, they allow the analysis of the phenomenon in different sections. This part shows detailed results by presenting respondents’ assessments not only with respect to subscales but also with respect to individual statements.

2.1. Assessment of management staff culture

General managerial staff culture represents the organizations managers’ moral, ethical categories, etiquette and common principles of behaviour with co-workers and customers. In addition, a statement indicating ethical leadership ability is included, which is important for the transmission of the values of the organization to subordinates not only via regulations and documents but also by personal example, based on development of trust and cooperation culture.

Table 1 shows that all statements of the analysed management staff general culture subscale are reliable, but only those evaluating the managers’ ethical norms by individual test steps, respect for subordinates and values of managers, which can be termed as ethical leadership are statistically significant. Most of the statements were considered satisfactory, although more exclusive was language culture according to the answers of the respondents of both groups of companies. However, when comparing separately the assessments of employees of both groups of companies, a number of differences should be mentioned.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Management staff general cultureThe managers in my job are guided by high moral criteria58.956.157.51.1990.231
Managers strictly observe the ethical standards45.056.951.0−4.9720.000
Managers have high internal culture54.450.252.31.7390.082
Managers respect the culture of the language requirements61.859.360.61.0560.291
Managers strictly observe the requirements of etiquette57.755.556.60.9510.342
Managers demonstrate respect for subordinates58.451.655.02.8260.005
Managers’ value—guide to subordinates55.935.145.58.8000.000

Table 1.

Management staff general culture: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

For example, more than half of the second group of employees claim that managers are guided by high moral criteria, but only one-third confirms that the values of managers are a guide to subordinates. Partly these differences could be explained by problems of communication between managers and subordinates. In this respect, the answers of the respondents of the first group are distributed more evenly, while general management staff culture is not high in both groups. This problem is underlined by management sophistication, knowledge of management science, the results of which are detailed in Table 2.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Management science knowledge levelAll managers in my job have higher managerial education55.118.036.517.1300.000
Managers are interested in managerial education innovations53.144.949.03.4080.001
Managers intensively apply the managerial science innovations in practice55.441.748.65.7130.000
In my workplace, one can become a manager without managerial education51.033.942.57.2790.000
In my workplace, there are regularly organized training courses for managers51.624.237.912.1110.000

Table 2.

Management science knowledge: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Statements of management science knowledge subscale were coded positively, trying to deny the emotional incentives for potential confrontation between management staff and subordinates. The received results are statistically significant. In assessing the answers according to individual test steps, the following trends were revealed: management science knowledge of the first group of companies is assessed more positively, unlike the second. Considering the fact that the subordinate staff may not have enough objective knowledge about the education of the management staff, the reactions expressed in completing the questionnaire, direct the attention to the fact that the relationship of the second group of employees with the managers’ actions is more stressful. Moreover, such a result (statistically) could be affected by the company managers’ self-critical approach to management knowledge (given above), and responses to the statements, which deal with the personal and professional characteristics of the managers (Table 3).

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Managers‘ personal and professional characteristicsMy manager is a leader who helps me unfold at work52.648.150.41.8370.066
I never have doubts about the manager’s solutions53.550.051.71.4310.153
Managers are objective and fair55.941.648.76.0020.000
Managers present comments related to work correctly56.261.859.0−2.3490.019
Work orders are assigned respectfully55.761.958.8−2.6310.009
Managers have unhealthy competition with subordinates70.849.860.3−9.1300.000
Managers have unhealthy competition with heads of other units at our organization73.873.673.7−0.0900.928

Table 3.

Managers’ personal and professional characteristics: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Thus, the previously recorded respondents’ reactions could be conditioned by poor objectivity of the managers in the context of the second group. Despite the fact that intensity in competition with subordinates stands out, in both cases, it is high enough, and unhealthy competition among heads of subdivisions, accepted by the respondents, reveals the relevant problem of management ethics of both groups of companies. Though in the subscale of managers’ personal and professional qualities assessing by the statement that the manager helps unfold at work, statistically significant differences were not found, it is worth paying attention to research results presented in Table 4, where leadership and manager’s support to the employee are represented, particularly in the case of the second group.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
The level of the ability to manageTasks and orders are submitted accurately56.461.859.1−2.2570.024
Tasks and assignments are in line with staff competences57.854.256.01.4930.136
In my workplace, the managers seek to be not only formal but also informal leaders53.134.944.07.7260.000
In my workplace, the managers by setting their own example inspire employees to achieve better results55.049.952.42.1210.034
Managers create working, creative environment56.354.055.10.9730.330
If not the support of the manager, my results were not so good57.338.647.97.8780.000
In my workplace, we all work by the principle of a united team59.358.458.90.3520.725
In my workplace, the managers always assume responsibility for the results, whatever they are48.651.750.2−1.2860.199
With the help of the manager, I discovered the abilities of which I had no idea57.737.547.68.5610.000

Table 4.

The level of the ability to manage: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The answers of the employees of the second group of companies complement the problem spectrum of the management culture—lack of a leadership quality. Although the difference is statistically significant, the problem is acute for the first group of companies, that is, there is the lack of leaders who could inspire the employees by personal example and help unfold in the professional area. In both groups of companies, teamwork problems are revealed, as well as lack of managers’ responsibility. In particular, the lack of managers’ support is felt in the second group of companies. Judging from the responses, communication style is rather professional, but formal. The fact that the relationship is quite formal, but not concrete enough, may be presumed by analysing the answers of the respondents presented in other subsections of this part.

More detailed management staff general culture assessments are revealed by analysing the situation by individual test steps, dividing them into three notional groups: negative, neutral and positive assessments. Employees’ assessments according to the subscales of ‘Management staff culture’ scale are more positive than negative, but positive indicators in the general context are minimal. In addition, a considerable number of respondents are revealed who chose the neutral rating (that is, they had no clear decision).

Assessments by this subscale (Table 5) reflect the assessments of managerial staff behaviour accepted in mutual relations of the staff and managers, which show a slight positive shift from the conditional average. At the same time, a significant group of respondents is revealed that is retained in the interim, not fully decided, assessment version (from 39.9 to 51.4%). Analysing the other subscales of this scale, we will see that the indicator which does not express this position remains significant enough to continue. In this case, far-reaching conclusions cannot be made, but attention should be paid to the trends that are shown by the criterion of managers’ values as a guide to subordinates.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Management staff general culture’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
1.The managers in my job are guided by high moral criteria171711.930.557.63.5740.8925%
2.Managers strictly observe the ethical standards171718.231.250.63.4240.9728%
3.Managers have high internal culture171718.828.752.53.4541.0129%
4.Managers respect the culture of the language requirements171715.024.460.63.5940.9627%
5.Managers strictly observe the requirements of etiquette171714.528.856.73.5540.9627%
6.Managers demonstrate respect for subordinates171721.523.255.23.4541.0530%
7.Managers’ value—guide to subordinates171716.137.846.13.3930.9528%

Table 5.

Management staff general culture: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

It should be noted that with the decrease of percentage of negative and positive evaluations, the number of those who evaluate neutrally is increasing, that is, the number of respondents who are undecided in accordance with individual steps of the test and/or the number of respondents who do not have information (Table 6). However, attention is drawn to the fact that it is possible to become the manager without special managerial education (43% support this statement). Essentially, it corresponds to general trends in the Lithuanian companies, which devalue the necessity of special education working with people. For instance, the research by Česynienė and Stankevičienė [30] showed that only 16.9% of personnel subdivisions managers and professionals had a specialized, that is, personnel management education, 4.5% had psychological education and 31.2% had managerial education. In another research conducted a little earlier, it was noted that the managers themselves recognize the weakness in their professional knowledge, and the subordinates assessed their managers’ professionalism worse than managers themselves [31], which indicates a residual current problem. Not all ordinary employees can have detailed information about the education of their manager, but such processes as management staff training are more noticeable (38.7% of respondents agreed that such training takes place). In addition, it has already been noted above that management knowledge was critically assessed by the managerial staff representatives.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Management science knowledge’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
8.All managers in my job have university managerial education171710.951.437.73.3730.8826%
9.Managers are interested in managerial education innovations171710.740.149.33.5030.9226%
10.Managers intensively apply the managerial science innovations in practice171611.139.949.03.4830.8725%
11.In my workplace, one can become a manager
without managerial education
171715.941.143.03.3530.9428%
12.In my workplace, there are regularly organized training courses for managers171715.445.938.73.3330.9328%

Table 6.

Management science knowledge: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Assessments of management science knowledge aspects may indicate that sharing the information within the organizations (internal communication) is complicated. Since the management staff does not have or may not have sufficient managerial education, active learning and development do not happen, which affects the quality of management. In addition, the negative attitude of employees to managers’ education can have an impact on doubt and distrust on the correctness of decisions that occur during working processes, as well as decisions concerning the implementation of corporate social responsibility.

Unfavourable background in this context is also being created by management staff’s personal and objective characteristics, assessments of which according to single test steps are only just higher that the average.

The above-discussed problem of confidence in the decision of the managers is confirmed by the direct statement assessments (only 51.8% of respondents never doubt about the rightness of the managers’ decisions) (Table 7). Low estimate of confidence in the decisions of managers is closely related to the objectivity and fairness of the decisions of managers (49.2% assessed positively) and lack of leadership emerged. Only slightly more than half of the respondents confirmed that the manager is a leader who helps to unfold at work. This suggests unused leadership potential to work with people and interrelates with the above-highlighted managerial staff training and development problem. More than a third of the respondents noted that relations with subordinates are based on unhealthy competition, rather than cooperation. Lack of cooperation is felt in relations among different heads of subdivisions—a little more than a quarter of respondents say that these relations are based on competition.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Managers‘ personal and professional characteristics’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
13.My manager is a leader who helps me unfold at work171724.325.250.53.3541.0632%
14.I never have doubts about the manager’s solutions171724.623.651.83.3741.0832%
15.Managers are objective and fair171624.526.349.23.3541.0832%
16.Managers present comments related to work correctly171717.323.958.83.5440.9828%
17.Work orders are assigned respectfully171717.823.658.63.5241.0229%
18.Managers have unhealthy competition with subordinates171725.335.639.13.1731.0533%
19.Managers have unhealthy competition with heads of other units at our organization171728.745.026.32.9531.0335%

Table 7.

Managers’ personal and professional characteristics: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The latter test steps perform a control evaluation function, too—similar estimates of related statements (e.g. the manager’s support trying to achieve results and discovered personal abilities with the help of the manager—the assessments in favour of statements are 48.5 and 48.2%, respectively) confirm once again that respondents participated in the survey responsibly (Table 8). However, the problem of leadership, cooperation, creative teamwork organization, relations between managers and subordinates development is revealed by all the measured parameters. In addition, the significant fact is that only just over half of the respondents approved the statements in the context of ability to manage that the tasks and assignments are placed accurately (58.9% assessed positively), and the tasks and assignments are in line with the competence of employees (56.1%). The ability to lead and involve employees into the processes of implementation of corporate social responsibility is a key challenge to management personnel, which, according to the results of the research, could be prevented only by lack of competence. Basically, this again reflects the overall Lithuanian organization managers’ problematic trends of lack of managerial competence, confirmed in other studies (e.g. [32, 33, 34]).

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘The level of the ability to manage’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
20.Tasks and orders are submitted accurately171717.124.058.93.5240.9727%
21.Tasks and assignments are in line with staff competences171617.426.556.13.4941.0029%
22.In my workplace, the managers seek to be not only formal but also informal leaders171713.542.044.63.3930.8926%
23.In my workplace, the managers by setting their own example inspire employees to achieve better results171720.127.352.63.4441.0230%
24.Managers create working, creative environment171718.526.355.23.4941.0229%
25.If not the support of the manager, my results were not so good171725.625.948.53.2941.1334%
26.In my workplace, we all work by the principle of a united team171719.921.258.93.5041.0229%
27.In my workplace, the managers always assume responsibility for the results, whatever they are171719.630.350.13.3840.9929%
28.With the help of the manager, I discovered the abilities of which I had no idea171723.828.048.23.3341.0632%

Table 8.

The level of the ability to manage: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Summarizing the negative, neutral and positive assessments on the scale ‘Management staff culture’, it should be noted that the general average estimate of positively coded indicators is 51.5%, which represents a slight dominance of positive ratings. Estimates of the median (M) distributed from 2.95 to 3.59, the dominant mode (Mo) is equal to 4. The overall coefficient of variation is 29%.

More generalized management culture research results could be elaborated by estimates of statements submitted by individual test steps. Management staff culture assessment in the case of both groups of companies is presented in Table 9.

Management staff cultureFirst groupSecond groupGeneraltp
All managers in my job have university managerial education55.1%18.0%36.5%17.1300.000
In my workplace, there are regularly organized training courses for managers51.6%24.2%37.9%12.1110.000
In my workplace one can become a manager without managerial education51.0%33.9%42.5%7.2790.000
In my workplace, the managers seek to be not only formal but also informal leaders53.1%34.9%44.0%7.7260.000
Managers’ value—guide to subordinates55.9%35.1%45.5%8.8000.000
With the help of the manager, I discovered the abilities of which I had no idea57.7%37.5%47.6%8.5610.000
If not the support of the manager, my results were not so good57.3%38.6%47.9%7.8780.000
Managers intensively apply the managerial science innovations in practice55.4%41.7%48.6%5.7130.000
Managers are objective and fair55.9%41.6%48.7%6.0020.000
Managers are interested in managerial education innovations53.1%44.9%49.0%3.4080.001
In my workplace, the managers always assume responsibility for the results, whatever they are48.6%51.7%50.2%−1.2860.199
My manager is a leader who helps me unfold at work52.6%48.1%50.4%1.8370.066
Managers strictly observe the ethical standards45.0%56.9%51.0%−4.9720.000
I never have doubts about the manager’s solutions53.5%50.0%51.7%1.4310.153
Managers have high internal culture54.4%50.2%52.3%1.7390.082
In my workplace, the managers by setting their own example inspire employees to achieve better results55.0%49.9%52.4%2.1210.034
Managers demonstrate respect for subordinates58.4%51.6%55.0%2.8260.005
Managers create working, creative environment56.3%54.0%55.1%0.9730.330
Tasks and assignments are in line with staff competences57.8%54.2%56.0%1.4930.136
Managers strictly observe the requirements of etiquette57.7%55.5%56.6%0.9510.342
The managers in my job are guided by high moral criteria58.9%56.1%57.5%1.1990.231
Work orders are assigned respectfully55.7%61.9%58.8%−2.6310.009
In my workplace, we all work by the principle of a united team59.3%58.4%58.9%0.3520.725
Managers present comments related to work correctly56.2%61.8%59.0%−2.3490.019
Tasks and orders are submitted accurately56.4%61.8%59.1%−2.2570.024
Managers have unhealthy competition with subordinates70.8%49.8%60.3%−9.1300.000
Managers respect the culture of the language requirements61.8%59.3%60.6%1.0560.291
Managers have unhealthy competition with heads of other units at our organization73.8%73.6%73.7%−0.0900.928

Table 9.

Management staff culture at the level of individual statements.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The estimates indicate that the heads of organizations provide more attention not to general but to department priorities, in competition with other departments and subordinates. In the case of the first group, the potential of employees is assessed more, which is promoted by management posture. Although in this group of companies, the focus on basic education when employing management personnel is not given prominence, both internal managers orientation in finding new solutions and overall competence development policy are expressed more vividly. However, personal leadership is not compatible with the teamwork, as well as common moral posture of management staff, which remains the weaker link.

Table 9 reveals the employees’ approval percent of both groups of companies when assessing management staff culture at the level of individual statements. In both groups of companies, an unhealthy internal management staff competition was revealed (statement approval—a little more than 73%). Approval percentage is very high, but this feature of management culture of the two groups of companies is perhaps the only and the most vivid resemblance. In addition, both groups of companies face the problem of leadership of managers, which is slightly more visible in the second group of companies. The problem of individual culture is characteristic and distinct to both groups of companies, which is revealed in relations with subordinates (situation with respect to behaviour ethics, respect for subordinates—a little better in the second group of companies).

Differences of some estimates are obvious and especially distinct. For example, in the first group, the management staff not only competes among each other, but there is a huge unhealthy competition with ordinary employees. In other words, in an environment where efforts are made to establish personal advantage, it is hardly possible to have teamwork and focus, focusing on company goals (by the way, approval of realization of the teamwork principle in both groups of companies is less than 60%). On the other hand, it can be assumed that internal competition could be influenced by the fact that the first group of companies valued management staff education more, although the general approval rate shows that insufficient attention is paid to both the education and training of managers.

It is significant that even in cases where the percentage expressions of estimates of statements in both groups of companies are similar, in many cases, they do not exceed 58%. That is, almost half of the respondents note one or another problem of management culture. Of course, the distribution of such percentage was influenced by the fact that groups of companies are composed of several companies where management staff and management culture may be different. But in any case, significant percentage expressions force companies to look for reasons inside.

For example, the estimates of statements referring to management culture in the first group of companies are distributed in the range of 51 and 73.8%, while this range in the second group of companies is much higher—from 18 to 73.6%. This reflects not only extensive but also diverse spectrum of problems of management staff culture and therefore requires a more complex, broader management staff-training programme, where the focus should be first given to the most sensitive aspects, such as the organization’s managerial approach to overall management education, management staff development changes, education of leaders.

2.2. Assessment of culture of managerial processes’ organization

Managerial staff and the general culture determine the ability to organize work processes rationally. Not only standards and regulations are used for that, but also integrated information technology, the capacity of the optimal use of which can both improve and hinder the work of companies. An important factor is the management staff interaction quality, responsibility limits and personnel accountability for the decisions, the ability to maintain close relations with subordinates, their support, sharing of working information and so on.

The problem of regulation of managerial processes is relevant in both groups of companies (Table 10). Though about two-thirds of respondents from both groups of companies stated that managerial processes are defined in company documents, management personnel functions are not clearly regulated and specified. This problem is exceptionally distinct in the second group of companies that is why it is natural that more than half of the respondents have questions on the managers’ solutions. As there is a lack of definiteness of management positions and functions, their decisions may be assessed controversially, that is, there is a relevant problem of tasks assignment, response and performance. As mentioned earlier, there are communication gaps between managers and subordinates.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Optimal managerial processes regulationIn my workplace, managerial processes are defined in documents63.666.565.0−1.2760.202
All organization managers accurately know their functions and responsibilities49.766.157.9−6.9520.000
All responsibilities of all managers are strictly exposed in instructions, rules, regulations43.462.052.7−7.8650.000
In my workplace, the managers do not exceed the available power52.037.744.96.0050.000
Management staff functions are strictly regulated54.034.144.08.4140.000
Employees have no questions for managers solutions48.641.345.03.0450.002
In my workplace, in terms of managers, ‘the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing’45.423.834.69.6000.000

Table 10.

Optimal managerial processes regulation: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The spectrum of problems of managerial processes regulation is different in both groups of companies, and the received research results show that the differences are statistically significant. In the first group of companies, the absence of definiteness of managers’ functions and concretization of activities is felt. Thus, it can be stated that not only all managerial processes are poorly regulated, but also they lack the concretization, which complicates the managerial processes themselves.

The rationality of management work organization (Table 11) is closely associated with the regulation of the processes discussed above. The problems highlighted move into management processes. Only about half of the respondents in both groups of companies indicate they are aware that management is certified following the ISO standards. Rationality problems become even more pronounced in the first group of companies in accordance with all individual test steps, and the differences comparing with the second group are statistically significant. The management staff lacks the information, the possibility to resolve the arising issues in person, without applying to managers. The problem of work organization is confirmed, which is revealed by the management staff to subordinates, which negatively affects the companies’ and their managers’ reputation and the organization’s microclimate.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Rational organization of management workIn my workplace, managerial work is certified by ISO standards49.553.751.6−1.7450.081
Emerging issues can be resolved with direct superior, without going to higher ones54.778.766.7−10.8140.000
The required information and other resources to managers are provided timely49.241.145.13.3780.001
Managerial staff do not complain about their job organization45.826.736.28.3490.000
Managers say that they could do more if they had opportunities45.931.538.76.1320.000

Table 11.

Rational organization of management work: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Many problems of process organization could be solved by using a computer and software equipment, but this possibility, as is apparent from the results given below, is underused (Table 12).

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Modern computerization level of managerial processesIn my workplace, electronic managerial system functions51.255.653.4−1.8310.067
The managerial system enables integrated planning, analysis and operation of activities48.650.149.4−0.6210.534
The computerized managerial processes system is simple, functional and useful50.260.055.1−4.1190.000
The computerized managerial processes system is used to the maximum50.537.343.95.5120.000
In my organization, there is lack of computers and software42.215.829.012.4720.000

Table 12.

Modern computerization of managerial processes: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Almost half of the employees of both groups of companies confirm that the electronic control system operates, but the possibility provided by technologies to integrated planning, analysis and performance of activities are not sufficiently exploited, it is not enough. This is particularly showed by the answers of the first group of companies’ respondents according to individual test steps. Lack of computer equipment is the least focused on in the second group of companies. It is true that the available technologies are not fully used, and the computerized system of managerial processes is not sufficiently simple, functional and useful in practice. After processing the test data, it was revealed that the level of computerization of managerial processes in both groups of companies differs statistically significantly.

The internal and external communication cultures (Table 13) in both groups of companies are very different, and in many cases, these differences are statistically significant. On the other hand, the acceptance percentage for positively formulated statements is not high, indicating unsolved communication problems (both internally and with the outside). The second group of companies is more open to the public, or, in other words, to external stakeholders, which is especially true for the corporate social responsibility status. In addition, while comparing with already discussed statements in the subscales, the organizational problems continue to remain distinct, for example, in terms of organizing and conducting meetings, timeliness and completeness of presentation of answers to the questions from outside.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone callsMeetings are efficient, the staff does not complain for wasting time52.533.042.78.2750.000
Interaction with customers live and using means of communication is respectful60.864.362.5−1.4760.140
Interaction with partners is especially business-like45.444.044.70.5820.561
Our organization follows the principle ‘Customer is always right’49.454.752.1−2.2030.028
Answers to inquiries from outside are provided promptly and in detail55.849.952.82.4420.015
Answers to the claims from the outside are considered as unpleasant obligation45.423.934.79.5380.000
My workplace is open to the public, it does not hide unpleasant facts, incidents50.532.441.47.7150.000

Table 13.

Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Comparing the statements discussed until now with those that diagnose the working environment conditions, there is a tendency that in the second group of companies, much more attention is given to external conditions than to the quality of the internal processes organization.

The estimates of optimal managerial process regulation, rational organization of management work, modern computerization of managerial processes, etc. subscales with respect to negative, neutral and positive assessments are presented in Tables 1417.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Optimal managerial processes regulation’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
29In my workplace, managerial processes are defined in documents17178.926.264.93.7140.8824%
30All organization managers accurately know their functions and responsibilities171714.028.657.43.5540.9527%
31All responsibilities of all managers are strictly exposed in instructions, rules and regulations171716.231.652.13.5040.9928%
32In my workplace, the managers do not exceed the available power171719.235.545.33.3531.0230%
33Managerial staff/middle unit professionals’ functions are strictly regulated171612.842.644.63.4130.9227%
34Employees have no questions for managers solutions171727.327.545.23.2841.0733%
35In my workplace, in terms of managers, ‘the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing’171730.534.235.33.0931.0935%

Table 14.

Optimal managerial processes regulation: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The estimates of individual test steps representing managerial processes definiteness in documents were the highest—64.9% of respondents gave positive assessment, and only 8.9%—negative (Table 14). However, as in this case, the same as assessing the regulation of positions in instructions, regulations and so on (positive estimate of the statement that grounds this situation—only 52.1%) shows that regulation is inadequate. And the high percentage of neutral assessments signals that employees may lack knowledge of the internal system of processes organization, management staff functions and powers.

Consequently, misgivings are possible as to whether the managerial staff exceeds their powers (only less than half of the respondents believe that the powers are not exceeded). This fact only underlines the need for greater openness in internal communication processes, enhancing confidence in managers and their decisions. Due to the lack of trust and cooperation innovation, including corporate social responsibility standards implementation, this may receive both direct and indirect resistance and indifference of subordinates.

In this context of regulation of processes, attention should be drawn to the fact (Table 15) that the middle-level management staff publicly expresses the grievances of higher rank managers on the grounds that the results of management activities because of the latter responsibility are not as good as they could be, and at the same time highlights the fact that in the latter episode of research, the metaphorical phrase ‘the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing’ expressing lack of coordination of activities attracted almost one-third of the respondents’ approval (35.3%). All this, firstly, signals the lack of managerial processes regulation, and secondly, the lack of coordination of mutual actions, which is affected by uncertainty of process regulation in internal documents. Therefore, it can be said that this factor of existing management culture would complicate the installation process of corporate social responsibility standards.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Rational organization of management work’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
36In my workplace, managerial work is certified by ISO standards171712.436.151.53.5431.0028%
37Emerging issues can be resolved with direct superior, without going to higher ones171714.719.465.93.6741.0328%
38The required information and other resources to managers/middle unit professionals are provided timely171717.537.145.43.3530.9729%
39Managerial staff/middle unit professionals do not complain about their job organization171719.144.136.83.2130.9128%
40Managers/middle unit professionals say that they could do more if they had opportunities171118.242.739.13.2630.9730%

Table 15.

Rational organization of management work: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The research results represent a significant assertive vertical managerial structure (e.g. only 65.9% of the respondents identified the opportunity to resolve the issues arising in work processes independently, without regard to managers occupying higher positions) and unused middle-level managerial staff potential. Especially, this level staff is not satisfied with the received information and other resources.

Management can be certified or not certified, so the distributions of the estimates of the statement presented by the respondents (especially with regard to a neutral assessment forming a significant part of the overall context—36.1%) in any case signal about internal communication problems. One-third of the respondents noted that the management staff/middle-level specialists express dissatisfaction with the organization of work. Managers’/middle-level management dissatisfaction of work organization system has some negative aspects.

By formulating the statement ‘Managers/middle level specialists say that they could do more if they had the opportunity’, the aim was to assess how this dissatisfaction with the organization of work is expressed (and if generally is expressed at all) by middle-level staff. Public and negative managerial staff representatives’ reactions affect the overall microclimate of the organization, assessments of management activities. In other words, both direct and indirect effects of broader managerial work rationality/irrationality are revealed.

While information technology and software in recent years has been rapidly getting cheaper and becoming more easily available for companies, their use in the managerial processes of companies still remain complicated (Table 16).

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Modern computerization level of managerial processes’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
41In my workplace, electronic managerial system functions171114.332.453.23.5040.9828%
42The managerial system enables integrated planning, analysis and operation of activities171116.334.449.33.4040.9729%
43The computerized managerial processes system is simple, functional and useful171114.530.754.83.5140.9928%
44The computerized managerial processes system is used to the maximum171117.738.044.33.3330.9829%
45In my organization, there is lack of computers and software171131.339.029.72.9931.0435%

Table 16.

Modern computerization level of managerial processes: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The respondents’ answers suggest that the existing equipment and its use in the managerial processes of the organization are not adequate constants. Although a relatively small equipment shortage is indicated (29.7%), there is lack of simplicity and functionality of implemented equipment (favourable assessment—only 54.8%), which shows that by meeting the material supply of hardware and software, there is lack of attention because of its purposefulness and functionality. Therefore, it can be said that the use of existing equipment is complicated and creates preconditions for irrational costs. Only 44.3% of respondents indicated that the available information equipment is used to maximum, drawing attention to the fact that only 49.3% of respondents confirmed the feasibility for integrated planning, analysis and performing of activities.

The estimates presented in Table 17 indicate that the time allowed for internal meetings is exploited irrationally (only 43.3% of the respondents do not complain about in vain spent time). In addition, the aforementioned problems of internal communication organization may be related to communication with stakeholders outside the organizations, which indicates general, systematic problems of organization. Furthermore, there remains relevant problem of communication culture with external stakeholders both in formal dimension (see the statements reflecting communication nature) and in building trust with stakeholders. For example, although the communication culture is valued significantly higher, openness (see the statement ‘My workplace is open to the public, does not hide unpleasant facts, incidents’) is low (only 42% of positive assessments). This context reveals the associated critical sides of internal processes and relationships with external stakeholders.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
46Meetings are efficient, the staff does not complain for wasting time171122.734.043.33.2731.0632%
47Interaction with customers live and using means of communication is respectful17179.528.162.43.7040.9024%
48Interaction with partners is especially business-like171715.040.244.83.3730.9127%
49Our organization follows the principle ‘Customer is always right’171718.229.951.93.4240.9628%
50Answers to inquiries from outside are provided promptly and in detail171713.733.353.03.4940.9327%
51Answers to the claims from the outside are considered as unpleasant obligation171721.942.735.43.1730.9731%
52My workplace is open to the public, it does not hide unpleasant facts, incidents171718.839.242.03.2830.9729%

Table 17.

Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

General means of estimates on the scale ‘Managerial processes organization culture’ range from 2.99 (hardware and software deficiency) to 3.71 (managerial processes’ definition in documents), and the highest mode is 4. It is significant that a third of respondents rated the indicators neutrally, that is, they had no opinion or were not precisely decided. This may be a warning about the problems of dissemination of internal information.

Assessment of managerial processes organization culture in the case of the two groups of companies is visualized in Table 18.

Managerial processes organization cultureFirst groupSecond groupGeneraltp
In my organization, there is lack of computers and software42.2%15.8%29.0%12.4720.000
In my workplace, in terms of managers, ‘the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing’45.4%23.8%34.6%9.6000.000
Answers to the claims from the outside are considered as unpleasant obligation45.4%23.9%34.7%9.5380.000
Managerial staff/middle unit professionals do not complain about their job organization45.8%26.7%36.2%8.3490.000
Managers/middle unit professionals say that they could do more if they had opportunities45.9%31.5%38.7%6.1320.000
My workplace is open to the public, it does not hide unpleasant facts, incidents50.5%32.4%41.4%7.7150.000
Meetings are efficient, the staff does not complain for wasting time52.5%33.0%42.7%8.2750.000
The computerized managerial processes system is used to the maximum50.5%37.3%43.9%5.5120.000
Managerial staff/middle unit professionals’ functions are strictly regulated54.0%34.1%44.0%8.4140.000
Interaction with partners is especially business-like45.4%44.0%44.7%0.5820.561
In my workplace, the managers do not exceed the available power52.0%37.7%44.9%6.0050.000
Employees have no questions for managers solutions48.6%41.3%45.0%3.0450.002
The required information and other resources to managers/middle unit professionals are provided timely49.2%41.1%45.1%3.3780.001
The managerial system enables integrated planning, analysis and operation of activities48.6%50.1%49.4%−0.6210.534
In my workplace, managerial work is certified by ISO standards49.5%53.7%51.6%−1.7450.081
Our organization follows the principle ‘Customer is always right’49.4%54.7%52.1%−2.2030.028
All responsibilities of all managers are strictly exposed in instructions, rules and regulations43.4%62.0%52.7%−7.8650.000
Answers to inquiries from outside are provided promptly and in detail55.8%49.9%52.8%2.4420.015
In my workplace, electronic managerial system functions51.2%55.6%53.4%−1.8310.067
The computerized managerial processes system is simple, functional and useful50.2%60.0%55.1%−4.1190.000
All organization managers accurately know their functions and responsibilities49.7%66.1%57.9%−6.9520.000
Interaction with customers live and using means of communication is respectful60.8%64.3%62.5%−1.4760.140
In my workplace, managerial processes are defined in documents63.6%66.5%65.0%−1.2760.202
Emerging issues can be resolved with direct superior, without going to higher ones54.7%78.7%66.7%−10.8140.000

Table 18.

Managerial processes organization culture at the level of solitary statements.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

At the level of individual statements on the diagnostics of the organization culture of managerial processes, the results show several more distinct trends. In the case of similar standardization of managerial processes and development level of electronic control system (when the differences are not of high statistical significance), the behaviour of management staff and management quality parameters, which are partly revealed by percentage estimates expression, may differ significantly. That is, the functionality of systems used by the organizations differs, as well as the distinctness of personnel functions and responsibilities, and the degree of taking responsibility by the middle staff when solving the issues arising in the management process. In addition, at the communicative level, the qualitative level of relationship with external stakeholders is distinguished. That is, a formally expressed reaction does not necessarily reflect the internal provisions of the personnel.

Table 18 highlights the approval percentage of the two groups of companies in assessing managerial processes organization culture at the level of individual statements. Some significant differences are revealed between the first and the second group of companies. For example, while in the first group of companies the available computer equipment is used to the maximum, the obvious lack of hardware and its functionality is highlighted. Thus, in this group of companies, there may be greater opportunities to use electronic control systems than in the second, where there is no shortage of such equipment, but it is not efficiently used. On the other hand, the management of the first group of companies (comparing with the second) stands out with stricter regulation, the meetings are more business-like, but almost half of the respondents indicate that management staff could do more if they had the opportunity, and present grievances concerning their work organization, miss clearer definitions of duties.

Comparing with the second group of companies, there is a bigger lack of compatibility of managerial staff. In addition, in the second group of companies, there is a highly significant approval to an individual test step indicating that the issues emerging in the working process could be resolved with their direct manager, without applying to higher management. In other words, the system is much more flexible, allowing the solution of questions more operatively. By the way, attention is drawn to the fact that in the first group of companies, the internal competition is generally more visible.

Despite the fact that management’s actions are more coordinated, the managers’ duties are discussed more rigorously, almost three-quarters of the respondents of this group noted that the middle-level specialists are not satisfied with the freedom of their activities, which could lead to accomplishing much more. That is, the initiative of managerial staff is not sufficiently exploited, and organization of meetings and workshops does not satisfy the demand of about two-thirds of respondents for more efficient use of time.

Moreover, higher interaction culture with external customers (unlike in the first group) was revealed (see, respectful communication, responses to claims, etc.). However, judging by other individual test steps, this culture is more demonstrative as more than two-thirds of respondents confirmed the statement that the organization tends to hide unpleasant incidents. In other words, the second group of companies is more concerned about the representativeness of the companies. Although the approval of the respondents is not high, these two groups have similarities according to the criteria such as the possibility of managerial systems for integrated planning, organization of activities, electronic control system, management certification (lack of which both groups of companies experience).

Significantly greater differences between the two groups of companies are revealed in the assessments of management working conditions culture; they indicate significant problems of the first group as well.

2.3. Assessment of management working conditions culture

The physical and psychological state of working conditions shows the prevailing management culture—this is the perception of legislation, by discussing working conditions, knowledge and following regulations, the importance of influence of conditions on working activities. If the physical environment depends more on the investments, the size of which is affected by the economic state of the organization, psycho-sociological climate depends directly on the management personnel culture, individual characteristics, personal culture, social skills and understanding of management work in a direct relationship with the staff and the regulation of interpersonal relations. In addition, while management literature devotes considerable space to work and rest conditions, in practice this aspect is not always properly assessed.

The respondents were more satisfied than dissatisfied with the working conditions culture (Table 19), and the assessment of the approval by individual test steps shows that in many cases, more favourable conditions are created in the second group of companies. Statistically significant differences were revealed by discussing the issues of working space, provision with personal hygiene products, lighting, furniture, ergonomics, cleanliness and order. Many of the respondents are not satisfied with air ventilation and temperature differences; comparing both groups of companies according to employees’ answers, statistically significant differences were not found. The ratio of approval and disapproval of the statements in the first group of companies indicates that a large number of respondents (about half) in most cases assess the organization of the working environment unfavourably, and this means that there are significant deficiencies in connection to this aspect in management culture. In this respect, organizing work places is closely related, as can be seen from the respondents’ reactions to the statements presented in Table 20. Tendencies in both groups of companies are similar.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Working environment (interior, lighting, temperature, cleanness, etc.)In my organization, there is a concern to meet the needs of employees as far as interior is concerned61.062.061.5−0.4260.670
The working environment is clean and tidy52.182.367.2−13.8870.000
The furniture is ergonomic, tools and work equipment—comfortable51.873.862.8−9.6290.000
We do not need to worry that in winter, it will be cold in the workplace, and in summer: too hot59.359.259.20.0400.968
Air ventilation is good, there are no sideline, unpleasant odours54.852.053.41.1560.248
I do not feel uncomfortable in the workplace for lighting56.676.166.3−8.6370.000
There is no noise which would hinder work53.043.948.53.7770.000
The organization arranges for everything, for example, neat work clothes, too54.076.965.5−10.2120.000
I have enough space in my workplace55.978.267.0−10.0310.000

Table 19.

Working environment: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Level of organizing working placesThe organization provides all working tools55.280.968.1−11.7580.000
Working tools allow the job to be done quickly and efficiently56.579.267.8−10.2570.000
Tools, equipment are available easily, there is no need to use extra effort53.875.464.6−9.5630.000
The workplace is organized by assessing technical and individual features of employees54.155.654.8−0.6090.542
Managers take into account the comments of the staff for the required equipment, tools for work55.866.361.0−4.4640.000
Employees sometimes have to take care of the working tools themselves for their money72.330.651.5−18.9880.000

Table 20.

Organizing working places: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

In both groups of companies, the work places are not sufficiently adapted to the individual needs and this is likely to reflect a common approach to such needs—statistically significant differences by these test steps were not identified. The most attention in organizing the working places is given in the second group of companies, for example, compared to the first, more than two-thirds of respondents agree with the statement that employees sometimes have to take care of the working tools themselves for their money. Moreover, it is emphasized that managers are reluctant to take on staff comments on the work equipment, and organization of working places hinders the performance of operational tasks quickly, promptly and efficiently. Both groups of companies, as has been said, are industrial, but the management culture aspects, reflecting the level of working places organization, differ statistically significantly. In addition, significant differences were recorded in connection to work and rest regime, relaxation options subscale—as it is evident from the approval percent, the investments of the second group of companies into the working environment and equipment do not reflect the positive attitude to the staff needs for the rest conditions (Table 21).

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Work and rest regime, relaxation optionsThe workplace funds the employees’ relaxation after working hours51.617.734.715.6040.000
The care is taken for occupational diseases prevention54.229.942.110.4810.000
Physical activity is promoted42.042.742.4−0.2670.790
In the workplace, there is a room for relaxation48.061.854.9−5.7900.000
The workplace takes care not only of employees’, but also of their family’s recreation51.89.130.421.3600.000
Working and recreation conditions are discussed in the collective agreement50.324.437.411.4000.000

Table 21.

Work and rest regime, relaxation options: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

A significant approval of the respondents of the second group of companies to the statement that there is a separate room in the workplace which is designed for rest, confirms already identified fact that the management are more concentrated on the external, material—technical culture. According to this test step, statistically significant percentage differences were determined while comparing with the first group of companies. More than half of the respondents in both groups of companies indicated that physical activity is not encouraged, and percentage differences are not significant. However, in the management culture of the second group of companies, less attention is statistically reliably paid to the human resources work and rest regime and physical recreation. It should be noted that the answers of the respondents of the second group of companies, indicating a lack of attention to family members, show concentration on production targets and some kind of depreciation of stakeholder interests.

Individual test steps were formulated positively and negatively, to get more precise responses, including the control indicators, too. For example, assuming that the general knowledge of the tolerance requirements can affect the answers, there was included a statement about the jokes, which are traditionally considered to be harmless, though they have discriminatory overtones (Table 22). Work security and sociopsychological microclimate (physical and psychological safety) are more favourable in the second group of companies, but the percentage showing the estimate is not that high, so that it could be considered as very positive. Statistically significant differences in the psychological comfort assessment by comparing estimates of two groups of companies were not found, unlike in the groups of statements that relatively could be described as reflecting tolerance and physical safety. Greater focus on management culture according to these parameters is given in the second group of companies, and the respondents’ assessments in the first group of companies imply that the responsibility for the physical and psychological well-being of the employees is not sufficiently emphasized.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Work security, sociopsychological microclimateIn my workplace, work security is taken care of not formally49.326.537.99.9460.000
I signed in the work safety register only after having listened to the instructions and passed an exam55.169.262.2−6.0710.000
At work I feel well, I do not feel any psychological discomfort59.862.961.4−1.3070.191
In my workplace, sexually suggestive remarks and/or behaviour are not tolerated52.442.147.24.2860.000
Respect and tolerance for alternative religious, political views and so on are encouraged55.036.145.57.9760.000
In my organization anecdotes discriminating other nationality people are not tolerated, etc.45.724.134.99.5710.000

Table 22.

Work security and sociopsychological microclimate: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The statements of the subscales on the scale presented below ‘Management working conditions’ culture’ show the level of management culture development and related social responsibility items that are associated with employees as one of the stakeholders with respect to negative, neutral and positive assessment.

In that case, the working place environment organization compliance with the normative sanitary requirements was assessed not that much, as was the employees’ personal approach (Table 23). This is how much the working environment is or is not additional, unnecessary irritant, interfering with the work process. More than half of the respondents positively assess the working environment conditions, such as interior, lighting, temperature regimes, cleanliness and so on. However, the estimates are not equally high, indicating that in different workplaces, the level of comfort is not ensured equally. The estimates of the statements by significant part of the respondents—from 13.2 (interior matching the needs of workers) to 31.8% (noise in the working environment)—pay attention to the fact that in order to raise the management culture level and implement corporate social responsibility, it is necessary to conduct additional assessment of the working environment, providing additional investment.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Working environment level’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
53.In my organization, there is a concern to meet the needs of employees as far as interior is concerned171713.225.361.53.5940.9125%
54.The working environment is clean and tidy171714.419.366.33.6940.9927%
55.The furniture is ergonomic, tools and work equipment: comfortable171721.216.762.13.5741.0830%
56.We do not need to worry that in winter it will be cold in the workplace, and in summer—too hot171723.617.159.23.4841.1834%
57.Air ventilation is good, there are no sideline, unpleasant odours171729.517.053.53.3541.2136%
58.I do not feel uncomfortable in the workplace for lighting171716.118.165.83.6741.0428%
59.There is no noise which would hinder work171731.819.548.73.2541.1937%
60.The organization arranges for everything, for example, neat work clothes, too171719.016.264.83.6241.1030%
61.I have enough space in my workplace171718.015.766.33.6741.0830%

Table 23.

Working environment level: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Assessing the level of organization of the working environment (Table 24), attention should be drawn to the relationship of negative and positive estimates and the assessment of the statement showing how managers take into account the comments of employees (favourable assessment—only 60.7%). Of course, in this case, the organizations’ possibilities to respond to employees’ claims are not assessed, but at the same time, it should be noted that the financial capacity of the groups of companies involved in the research is large enough. Especially, if we compare with the answers of management staff representatives presented in the section of quantitative research results discussion, where the commitment to be socially responsible is emphasized, and financial opportunities are not of great emphasis. That is why it should be assessed by emphasizing problematic aspects of management culture, insufficient feedback between managerial staff and subordinates. This assumption is highlighted by another emerging problematic aspect of management culture.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Level of organizing working places’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
62.The organization provides all working tools171715.417.367.33.6941.0328%
63.Working tools allow the job to be done quickly and efficiently171714.917.967.23.7041.0127%
64.Tools, equipment are available easily, there is no need to use extra effort171715.620.563.93.6441.0027%
65.The workplace is organized assessing technical and individual features of employees171714.630.654.83.5340.9527%
66.Managers take into account the comments of the staff for the required equipment, tools for work171715.823.560.73.5840.9928%
67.Employees sometimes have to take care of the working tools themselves for their money171727.425.447.23.3141.2036%

Table 24.

Level of organizing work places: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The estimates of the statement ‘Employees sometimes have to take care of the working tools themselves for their money’ suggest that some issues of the working equipment provision are dealt with at the expense of employees’ wages. In the context of corporate social responsibility, this could be seen as a negative practice; however, the use and the prevalence of such practice in companies would require additional management culture studies (Table 25).

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Work and rest regime, relaxation options’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
68.The workplace funds the employees’ relaxation after working hours171729.235.135.73.0731.1437%
69.The care is taken for occupational diseases prevention171718.438.842.83.3130.9629%
70.Physical activity is promoted171724.533.242.33.2341.0031%
71.In the workplace, there is a room for relaxation171726.219.354.53.3841.1233%
72.The workplace takes care not only of employees but also of their family’s recreation171741.027.331.72.8721.1941%
73.Working and recreation conditions are discussed in the collective agreement171722.039.838.13.1731.0533%

Table 25.

Work and rest regime, relaxation options: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The group of statements in the subscale ‘Work and rest regime, relaxation options’ is designed to assess overall organizational approach to work and rest conditions. These include some of the specific control circumstances that reflect how management culture is realized in practice. The physical fatigue and emotional fatigue are significant factors characterizing the quality of management, not restricted to only work environment [35, 36], encouraging employees’ motivation and loyalty. However, in this context, the problems of which can be represented by relatively low estimates (from 31.7 to 54.5%), the co-national negotiating context of employees is also relevant. Organizations that have trade unions are rare that is why discussion of the work and rest conditions in collective agreements remains complicated. On the other hand, in the scope of this research, the initiative of management staff is assessed as low, not discussing the benefits provided by initiatives (Table 26).

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Work security, sociopsychological microclimate’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
74.In my workplace, work security is taken care of not formally171523.937.538.63.2031.0232%
75.I signed in the work safety register only after having listened to the instructions and passed an exam171719.918.461.73.5741.0830%
76.At work, I feel well, I do not feel any psychological discomfort171721.017.861.33.5241.1031%
77.In my workplace, sexually suggestive remarks and/or behaviour are not tolerated171716.535.947.53.4130.9929%
78.Respect and tolerance for alternative religious, political views and so on is encouraged171713.940.046.13.4230.9327%
79.In my organization anecdotes discriminating other nationality people are not tolerated, etc.171724.540.035.53.1931.0533%

Table 26.

Work security and sociopsychological microclimate: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

The tendencies of formal approach to the safety of working environment are revealed, which is shown by the approval to the statements that work security is taken care of not formally—only 38.6% and following safety instructions requirements—61.7%. That is, formal requirements are not carried out. In addition, management staff cannot guarantee that all employees in the working environment would feel psychologically safe because almost half of the respondents pointed out the existing intolerance to otherness (46.1%). Anecdotes and other discriminatory remarks were included as a control statement, the percentage of support of which shows, on the one hand, the lack of attention to the informal communication having influence on poor psychosocial climate, on the other hand, it can be seen as a relative respect, not developing, indirect discrimination. Together, all this signals the disadvantages of management staff competence for physical and psychological employees’ safety organization issues. This encourages the return to the above-discussed management staff training and development problem and presupposes one of the actual educational trends.

All statements on the scale of management working conditions culture were coded as positive. The general average of negative assessment was 21.17% and positive assessment was 53.5%. The v of the majority of statements: 4, with the exception of the employees’ rest after working hours, working and rest conditions discussion in the collective agreement, tolerance level, labour security, occupational diseases prevention, where mode is 3. The lowest mode (2) means a concern not only about employees but also the family members’ rest.

Management working conditions culture assessment in the case of both groups of companies is presented in Table 27.

Management working conditions’ cultureFirst groupSecond groupGeneraltp
The workplace takes care not only of employees but also of their family’s recreation51.8%9.1%30.4%21.3600.000
The workplace funds the employees’ relaxation after working hours51.6%17.7%34.7%15.6040.000
In my organization, anecdotes discriminating other nationality people are not tolerated, etc.45.7%24.1%34.9%9.5710.000
Working and recreation conditions are discussed in the collective agreement50.3%24.4%37.4%11.4000.000
In my workplace, work security is taken care of not formally49.3%26.5%37.9%9.9460.000
The care is taken for occupational diseases prevention54.2%29.9%42.1%10.4810.000
Physical activity is promoted42.0%42.7%42.4%−0.2670.790
Respect and tolerance for alternative religious, political views and so on is encouraged55.0%36.1%45.5%7.9760.000
In my workplace, sexually suggestive remarks and/or behaviour are not tolerated52.4%42.1%47.2%4.2860.000
There is no noise which would hinder work53.0%43.9%48.5%3.7770.000
Employees sometimes have to take care of the working tools themselves for their money72.3%30.6%51.5%−18.9880.000
Air ventilation is good, there are no sideline, unpleasant odours54.8%52.0%53.4%1.1560.248
The workplace is organized assessing technical and individual features of employees54.1%55.6%54.8%−0.6090.542
In the workplace, there is a room for relaxation48.0%61.8%54.9%−5.7900.000
We do not need to worry that in winter it will be cold in the workplace, and in summer—too hot59.3%59.2%59.2%0.0400.968
Managers take into account the comments of the staff for the required equipment, tools for work55.8%66.3%61.0%−4.4640.000
At work, I feel well, I do not feel any psychological discomfort59.8%62.9%61.4%−1.3070.191
In my organization, there is a concern to meet the needs of employees as far as interior is concerned61.0%62.0%61.5%−0.4260.670
I signed in the work safety register only after having listened to the instructions and passed an exam55.1%69.2%62.2%−6.0710.000
The furniture is ergonomic, tools and work equipment—comfortable51.8%73.8%62.8%−9.6290.000
Tools, equipment are available easily, there is no need to use extra effort53.8%75.4%64.6%−9.5630.000
The organization arranges for everything, for example, neat work clothes, too54.0%76.9%65.5%−10.2120.000
I do not feel uncomfortable in the workplace for lighting56.6%76.1%66.3%−8.6370.000
I have enough space in my workplace55.9%78.2%67.0%−10.0310.000
The working environment is clean and tidy52.1%82.3%67.2%−13.8870.000
Working tools allow the job to be done quickly and efficiently56.5%79.2%67.8%−10.2570.000
The organization provides all working tools55.2%80.9%68.1%−11.7580.000

Table 27.

Management working conditions’ culture at the level of solitary statements.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

In this group of statements, physiological and psychological characteristics of the working conditions were compared. In the locus of organization of working conditions, differences of physical labour organization conditions comfort were revealed. Although the physical working conditions according to the two groups of companies differ significantly, these differences do not have a significant impact on respondents’ satisfaction with psychological comfort, which in both compared cases is quite low.

Table 27 highlights the approval percentage of the employees of two groups of companies by assessing the management working conditions culture at the level of individual statements. Already the analysis of the culture of organization of managerial processes and the provision with computer equipment showed symptomatically that in the first group of companies, there can be relevant problems of provision with working tools. Only about half of the respondents of this group of companies are satisfied with the provision of working tools, their quality, comfort, accessibility and so on. In addition, almost half of the respondents are not satisfied with the working environment, compliance with employees’ needs. In the second group of companies, the employees’ wishes regarding work equipment are more respected. On the other hand, both groups of companies are alike in the fact that almost half of the respondents are not satisfied with the temperature regime, air ventilation, nearly 40% feel the unfavourable psychosocial climate. Although greater attention and financial resources are given for the physical conditions of employees, recreation, the risk of psychological violence and care for psychological employees’ security, promotion of tolerance is assessed less in the second than in the first group of companies. However, it should be emphasized that these issues are important the first group, too, because about half of the respondents are not satisfied with the achievements in this field.

2.4. Assessment of documentation system culture

Documentation and its control system are significant not only in the ordinary operating processes, but especially important for the implementation of corporate social responsibility standards in the activities of an organization. Though according to the approval percentage, it was revealed that the level of regulation of managerial processes is higher in the second group of companies, culture of official registration of documents in most cases is rated by lower estimates, and percentage difference in most cases is statistically significant (Table 28), similarly to the existing technical base use representing typical single-test steps.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Culture of official registration of documentationThere are approved document preparation, official registration rules57.158.857.9−0.7240.469
There is strict compliance with the requirements of clerical work47.748.448.1−0.2880.773
Document language culture—requirement applied in practice55.042.248.65.3400.000
Employees are constantly introduced to the latest requirements of official registration of documentation51.844.548.23.0150.003
Errors and weaknesses of official registration of documentation and language culture are analysed46.924.635.79.8490.000
The recommendations are given for correction of official registration of documentation and language errors50.420.635.513.4540.000

Table 28.

Culture of the official registration of documentation: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The estimates show that in both groups of companies, there is lack of clear, strict documentation preparation, regulation of registration, as well as clerical requirements. These criteria are important for communication with the outside as well as for internal communication, recording, transmitting and saving data. Percentage estimates differences between the two groups of companies according to these parameters are not statistically significant, but make it clear that the document registration culture and its development are lower in the second group of companies. This shows lack of assistance in providing information about the clerical requirements, documentation registration, solving problems of errors and confirms lack of managerial staff support that appeared when discussing previously identified management culture issues related to the other components.

Although, as already mentioned, the employees of the second group stressed a higher level of technical supply, the available hardware and software are not effectively used (Table 29): the percentage estimates are statistically significant according to all statements of document search and access optimality assessment subscale. In particular, document search systems, work facilitating functions installation problems are highlighted, which raises effective payoff question of investment in technical equipment. According to the estimates of comprehensibility of the document use system, despite statistically significant differences, it can be assumed that in both groups of companies, customers skills are not sufficiently valued what would enable the formulation of training and development programmes. This problem also implies interference of further discussed effective use of information technology in work processes (Tables 30 and 31).

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Optimal document search and access systemThere is rapid search engine system for documents necessary for work55.131.443.210.1680.000
Convenient access to documents is ensured52.838.845.85.8460.000
Document access system is understandable for the average consumer, it does not require special skills50.944.247.62.8050.005
In document search system, there is installed theme classification—codes57.520.639.116.7970.000
There is guaranteed job facilitation function allowing to prepare your documents comfortably, copy the fragments of the necessary documents, etc.56.035.545.78.6800.000

Table 29.

Optimal document search and access system: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Rational use of modern information technologiesMy organization has a reliable electronic data processing system46.040.743.32.2120.027
Reports, analysis, prognoses and so on are prepared using information technologies54.641.347.95.5240.000
Information technologies used in workplaces meet the needs58.951.755.33.0060.003
Available information technologies are exploited maximally56.939.248.07.4170.000
My workplace invests in the latest information technologies55.944.750.34.6620.000
Electronic data management system is available to all departments and employees who need it56.936.246.58.7300.000
In the organization, it is usual to use the electronic signature47.026.636.88.9270.000
Workers have adequate access to external information databases48.123.035.511.1870.000

Table 30.

Rational use of modern information technologies: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

SubscalesStatementsFirst group
N = 911
Second group
N = 806
Generaltp
Rational storage system of archival documentsThere exists a clear document storage system53.236.644.97.0040.000
Archived documents can quickly be found52.526.839.611.2000.000
There is an information system of an electronic archive46.013.929.915.3010.000
The archived documents are never lost49.827.338.69.8040.000
Sometimes finding previously created documents takes a long time46.015.030.514.6250.000
There are responsible people for the transfer of documents to the archive for storage60.634.247.411.2970.000

Table 31.

Rational storage system of archival documents: comparison of approval percent in groups of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Although by all individual test steps, the percent differences of estimates of both groups of companies are statistically significant, the overall tendency shows (Table 30), that information technology is not sufficiently rationally used and does not meet the needs of nearly half of the respondents. Especially, shortcomings are highlighted in the assessments of employees of the second group of companies. However, it is stated that the technical solutions to meet the needs of internal customers’ needs are not sufficiently effective for the management culture problem solving, as the existing information systems are not used to the maximum. In other words, the organizations’ activities could be more effective with the available resources, too, if the management staff analysed and solved the arising problems effectively. For example, one-third of the respondents in the second group of companies confirmed that the electronic data management system is available to all who need it. It can be assumed that the priority is still given to conventional ‘paper’ document system, what should be refused in seeking for corporate social responsibility status, solving rational use of natural resources and environmental protection issues.

The activities of both groups of companies are calculated in a dozen of years, but archival storage systems (Table 31) are not developed enough to create favourable conditions for archiving documents and work with them, so by increasing their emissions and without changing the management approach, it is possible to predict the relevance of the systems (i) rationality problem.

Statistically reliable and significant approach of both groups of companies was revealed to archiving of the documents by all subscale statements. As previously discussed in the subscales of this scale, the second group of companies still faces the most pressing information technology and human resources organization problems.

The following discussion concerns practical implementation of culture of documentation system management, involving documentation registration, documentation search, use and storage. In this context, rationality of information technology use is assessed, by grouping the employee survey responses by negativity, neutrality and positivity.

In the practice of Lithuanian companies’ management, there is still an enough tenacious provision that documentation registration, following clerical requirements is the object of attention of more ‘bureaucratic’ that is, public sector organizations. The existence of such unwritten provision is indirectly confirmed by the respondents’ assessments in the context of the statements of culture of documentation registration subscale (Table 32). For example, only 57.9% of respondents note that there are officially approved documentation preparation rules.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Culture of official registration of documentation’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
80.There are approved document preparation, official registration rules17176.335.857.93.6840.8423%
81.There is strict compliance with the requirements of clerical work171613.238.748.13.4630.8926%
82.Document language culture—requirement applied in practice171713.637.449.03.4630.9026%
83.Employees are constantly introduced to the latest requirements of official registration of documentation171716.635.048.43.4140.9327%
84.Errors and weaknesses of official registration of documentation and language culture are analysed171717.546.136.43.2730.9028%
85.The recommendations are given for correction of official registration of documentation and language errors171717.546.136.43.2530.9128%

Table 32.

Culture of official registration of documentation: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Firstly, it shows the existence of rules, but, secondly, the total sample estimates signal that not all respondents may confirm the existence of these rules or regulations. In this context, above all things, attention is paid to language errors and language culture support questions. In other words, there is clear and consistent problem of document registration organization that can complicate the organization’s internal managerial processes, as well as relations with external stakeholders—customers, partners, state institutions and others. In addition, in a sense, this can have a negative impact on the company’s image, too.

The statements in the subscale ‘Optimal document search and access system’ (Table 33) and the subscales below represent the rationality and optimality level of software used to manage documents. The positive estimates of statements showing the document search, access, functionality and optimality of codes, do not reach even 50% (mode of all statements—3). Although it was not calculated, how many working hours are lost due to uncomfortable system to users, but it can be assumed that the system of beneficiaries of time and effort losses can be significant.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Optimal document search and access system’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
86.There is rapid search engine system for documents necessary for work171711.244.844.03.4130.8425%
87.Convenient access to documents is ensured171713.640.246.23.4130.8826%
88.Document access system is understandable for the average consumer, it does not require special skills171712.939.347.83.4430.9026%
89.In document search system, there is installed theme classification: codes171710.449.440.23.4130.8926%
90.There is guaranteed job facilitation function allowing to prepare your documents comfortably, copy the fragments of the necessary documents, etc.171711.242.546.43.4230.8124%

Table 33.

Optimal document search and access system: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Information technology can be used at different levels—from e-mail, basic word processing to varying degrees of document complexity and other managerial systems (Table 34). However, the question of use of these systems expedience and investment rationality, considers particular needs of work place and customer possibilities. It should be noted that only just over a half of the respondents (55.6% positive assessments) confirmed that the use of technology in the workplace meets the needs and even 48.6% indicate that the available information technology is exploited to the maximum. In addition, while assessing the answers by other statements of this subscale, a tendency appears that a significant part of the investment in information technology can be allocated, distributed and used irrationally.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Rational use of modern information technologies’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
91.My organization has a reliable electronic data processing system171713.443.143.53.3530.8224%
92.Reports, analysis, prognoses and so on are prepared using information technologies171712.439.348.33.4530.8625%
93.Information technologies used in workplaces meet the needs171710.933.555.63.5540.8825%
94.Available information technologies are exploited maximally17179.641.948.63.5030.8625%
95.My workplace invests in the latest information technologies171711.837.650.63.5040.9026%
96.Electronic data management system is available to all departments and employees who need it171714.738.147.23.4330.9227%
97.In the organization, it is usual to use the electronic signature171718.244.437.43.2630.9830%
98.Workers have adequate access to external information databases171717.945.836.33.2530.9128%

Table 34.

Rational use of modern information technologies: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

Though the statement that the workplace invests in the latest information technologies received half (50.6%) of positive estimates, the management staff should, first of all, pay attention to assessment and disposal of the problems that hinder the rational use of technology. One reason could be already identified above—management staff competence and lack of development problem.

The statements in the subscale ‘Rational storage system of the archival documents’ basically confirm the problem highlighted in the above-presented subscales about the systematic approach to work with documents (Table 35). Archival document storage rationality level is shown by the ratio between positive (supporting the statement) and negative (opposing the statement) estimates. This ratio (having excluded the respondents who do not know or have no opinion) suggests that the respondents employed with archival documents are not satisfied with the existing system. The system itself does not allow a rational and prudent use of time. For example, only 40% support the statement that the documentation can be quickly found as there is a lack of people directly responsible for documents transfer to the archives (48.2% support the statement), and you have to spend time for finding previously created documents.

R/no.Statements in the subscale ‘Rational storage system of archival documents’NAssessment %M (average)MoSDV
NegativeNeutralPositive
99.There exists a clear document storage system17179.645.045.43.4530.8725%
100.Archived documents can quickly be found171711.348.340.43.3830.8525%
101.There is an information system of an electronic archive171711.857.330.93.2530.8325%
102.The archived documents are never lost171710.350.539.33.3830.8525%
103.Sometimes finding previously created documents takes a long time171712.755.931.53.2630.8325%
104.There are responsible people for the transfer of documents to the archive for storage17178.243.648.23.5230.8825%

Table 35.

Rational storage system of the archival documents: negative, neutral and positive assessments.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Note: Order number shows the place of the statement in the questionnaire.

For organizations with the existence history of two decades, the access to documents created before and stored in the archives is becoming urgent, because information technology has changed. Attitudes to document archiving nature changed as well. The estimates show the attitude to document digitization which makes it easier to work with them.

In summary, it could be stated that these issues concern not only the approach to new technologies, understanding their necessity, but also deficiency of the ability to use them rationally. It only confirms the need for systematic approach to the management culture relevance. This is partly in line with the general trend in the region, as measured by the statistical research in the European Union countries. For example, by the use of a computer at work, Lithuania (39%) lagged behind Poland (42%) and Estonia (46%), while the general average—53% is much lower than the EU average, and by use of the Internet: Lithuania—37%, the EU average—44% [37].

Thus, the origins of the problem may be sought in general technology use culture, but together it emphasizes unused potentials which could be provided by investment to the developing companies’ management culture.

Single statements of the subscales on the scale ‘Documentation system culture’ in the questionnaire were coded as positive. The overall positive assessment percent is 44.2, that is, the lowest if compared to other subscales on management culture scale. The mode of 21 indicators from 25 is 3, which indicates that the documentation system culture expression occupies middle positions.

When assessing the readiness to become a socially responsible company, a significant point is to set management culture development level in the researched company groups. Firstly, estimate distribution is assessed by percentage expression according to five levels that are consistent with the five divisions Likert [38] scale used in the research: very low level—less or equal to 20; low level—from 20 to 40; average—from 40 to 60; high level—from 60 to 80; a very high level—from 80 to 100. The percentage expression details the distribution of respondents’ answers and indicates the tendencies of their approval of isolated components. Management culture development level is determined by the five-point system. Assessing the general management culture expression in order to implement corporate social responsibility the mode will be counted, where 1 corresponds to the weakest expression (i.e. up to 20%), and 5—to the strongest (i.e. from 80 to 100%). Documentation system culture assessment in the case of both groups of companies is presented in Table 36.

Documentation system cultureFirst groupSecond groupGeneraltp
There is an information system of an electronic archive46.0%13.9%29.9%15.3010.000
Sometimes finding previously created documents takes a long time46.0%15.0%30.5%14.6250.000
The recommendations are given for correction of official registration of documentation and language errors50.4%20.6%35.5%13.4540.000
Workers have adequate access to external information databases48.1%23.0%35.5%11.1870.000
Errors and weaknesses of official registration of documentation and language culture are analysed46.9%24.6%35.7%9.8490.000
In the organization, it is usual to use the electronic signature47.0%26.6%36.8%8.9270.000
The archived documents are never lost49.8%27.3%38.6%9.8040.000
In document search system, there is installed theme classification—codes57.5%20.6%39.1%16.7970.000
Archived documents can quickly be found52.5%26.8%39.6%11.2000.000
There is rapid search engine system for documents necessary for work55.1%31.4%43.2%10.1680.000
My organization has a reliable electronic data processing system46.0%40.7%43.3%2.2120.027
There exists a clear document storage system53.2%36.6%44.9%7.0040.000
There is guaranteed job facilitation function allowing to prepare your documents comfortably, copy the fragments of the necessary documents, etc.56.0%35.5%45.7%8.6800.000
Convenient access to documents is ensured52.8%38.8%45.8%5.8460.000
Electronic data management system is available to all departments and employees who need it56.9%36.2%46.5%8.7300.000
There are responsible people for the transfer of documents to the archive for storage60.6%34.2%47.4%11.2970.000
Document access system is understandable for the average consumer, it does not require special skills50.9%44.2%47.6%2.8050.005
Reports, analysis, prognoses and so on are prepared using information technologies54.6%41.3%47.9%5.5240.000
Available information technologies are exploited maximally56.9%39.2%48.0%7.4170.000
There is strict compliance with the requirements of clerical work47.7%48.4%48.1%−0.2880.773
Employees are constantly introduced to the latest requirements of official registration of documentation51.8%44.5%48.2%3.0150.003
Document language culture—requirement applied in practice55.0%42.2%48.6%5.3400.000
My workplace invests in the latest information technologies55.9%44.7%50.3%4.6620.000
Information technologies used in workplaces meet the needs58.9%51.7%55.3%3.0060.003
There are approved document preparation, official registration rules57.1%58.8%57.9%−0.7240.469

Table 36.

Documentation system culture at the level of solitary statements.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

According to the criteria of documentation system culture, at the level of individual statements, significant and statistically important differences between the two groups of companies were determined. In this case, the technical requirements that in practice reveal themselves in association with record keeping and preparation and official registration of documentation are less important than professional ones, related to the organization of processes. However, the whole of the estimates shows that loopholes are found in the organization of processes.

The approval percentage of employees of both groups of companies assessing documentation system culture at individual statements level is seen from the graphically presented results. The estimates suggest three summarizing conclusions. Firstly, the percentage expression of individual statements assessment shows very significant differences between the two groups of companies. Secondly, though the approval percent in the first group of companies is higher, but even the highest reaches only 60.6% (presence of persons responsible for transferring data to the archive). When the lowest estimate is 46%, representing such features as electronic document management system reliability. Thirdly, the first group of companies focuses more on electronic data management, although, as noted above, there exists a relevant hardware equipment problem. We pointed out earlier that in the second group of companies, higher supply of technical equipment is provided, which is not used effectively enough. Analysing percentage expressions of individual statements presented in Table 36 in more detail, the previous assumption could be confirmed (investment in advanced information technologies is higher than in the first group and the approval percentage expression is 55.9), and that in this group of companies not all possibilities provided by electronic control systems are used.

This highlighted general tendency is confirmed by more specific control statement that existing information technology is exploited to the maximum (approval percent is only 32.9). In other words, though the first group of companies allocated less resources, their use is better than in the second group of companies. It is possible to link this with management education problems that have already been discussed previously. Still, the documentation system culture is described not only by using information technologies. However, in this case, in the first group of companies, more attention is paid to document registration and language culture.

It is true, in this case, that some Lithuanian language specificity should be stressed and the increased attention given to its correct professional usage. It is also necessary to pay attention to the effort to protect the language from improper structures and, foreign words, and create Lithuanian neologisms which correspond to the English terms (it is the responsibility of a special state commission, providing recommendations).

2.5. Comparison of management culture in various groups of companies

Management culture in the first group of companies (Table 37), when summarizing estimates, is assessed more positively. According to very low assessments, the subscale of rational organization of management work and the computerization of processes subscale are distinguished (respectively lower estimates according to a very high level, too). Most favourably assessed are the working environment, workplace organization, safety and sociopsychological climate. It can be assumed that a sufficiently high management staff culture influenced the further assessments of behaviour of socially responsible organization and socially responsible employee.

ScalesManagement cultureExtremely low levelLow levelMedium levelHigh levelExtremely high level
Management staff cultureManagement staff general culture level2.013.128.841.514.6
Management science knowledge level3.113.130.636.716.5
Managers’ personal and professional characteristics6.318.628.132.214.8
The level of the ability to manage2.413.628.339.416.3
Managerial processes organization cultureOptimal managerial processes regulation4.617.427.035.016.0
Rational organization of management work6.217.327.635.213.7
Modern computerization level of managerial processes6.616.927.634.714.2
Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls4.716.427.437.414.1
Management working conditions’ cultureWorking environment level (interior, lighting, temperature, cleanness, etc.)3.014.826.837.318.1
Level of organizing working places4.916.827.833.317.2
Work and rest regime, relaxation options4.616.729.134.714.9
Work security, sociopsychological microclimate3.614.529.135.317.5
Documentation system cultureCulture of official registration of documentation1.815.231.636.914.5
Optimal document search and access system2.212.331.139.115.3
Rational use of modern information technologies2.614.629.839.014.0
Rational storage system of archival documents2.813.032.836.015.4
Management culture development level in the first group of companies3.815.32936.515.4

Table 37.

Management culture development level in the first group of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

Analysing the respondents’ approval percentages according to the relative levels, insignificant differences between scales and subscales were set, so it must be assumed that in the groups of companies, there exists a sufficiently strong, stable management culture the further development of which could be successful enough aiming for corporate social responsibility status. However, it should be noted that nearly one-fifth of respondents assess manager’s behaviour, processes organization, working conditions and documentation system in critical and very critical ways. This signals the company’s problem areas, and management efforts do not satisfy the majority of respondents. This has an impact on employees’ feedback about the company and the relationship with it, which, as we shall see below, received high approval percent in the subscale ‘Intentions to leave work’ on the scale ‘Behaviour of a socially responsible employee’.

Although in the second group of companies (Table 38), when comparing with the first, the percentage expression of critical and extremely critical assessments is lower; however, there are a lot fewer assessments that are very high. There dominate estimates that are attached to the medium level (40%). Attention should be drawn to the fact that the percentage of estimates vary strongly according to the separate subscales of the four scales. This indicates that corporate management policy lacks consistency, and the culture is not fully clearly formed from the point of view of employees. For example, according to the highest assessments, the estimates range from 4.7 (document search system optimality) to 18.9% (working environment level). Many less favourable and extremely favourable assessments were received by management staff culture separate subscales which represent the general culture of management staff, the level of management science knowledge, professional characteristics and abilities to manage.

ScalesManagement cultureExtremely low levelLow levelMedium levelHigh levelExtremely high level
Management staff cultureManagement staff general culture level2.715.529.739.512.6
Management science knowledge level1.37.758.425.37.3
Managers’ personal and professional characteristics3.418.030.138.89.7
The level of the ability to manage4.818.627.639.89.2
Managerial processes organization cultureOptimal managerial processes regulation1.812.538.336.211.2
Rational organization of management work1.47.145.233.612.7
Modern computerization level of managerial processes2.510.942.935.08.7
Culture of visitors’ reception, conducting meetings, phone calls1.710.944.334.19.0
Management working conditions’ cultureWorking environment level (interior, lighting, temperature, cleanness, etc.)5.818.38.748.318.9
Level of organizing working places1.710.616.652.618.5
Work and rest regime, relaxation options10.622.635.925.15.8
Work security, sociopsychological microclimate4.617.434.533.510.0
Documentation system cultureCulture of official registration of documentation1.39.749.231.58.3
Optimal document search and access system0.98.156.929.44.7
Rational use of modern information technologies1.28.352.530.87.2
Rational storage system of archival documents0.7469.620.65.1
Management culture development level in the second group of companies:2.912.540.034.610.0

Table 38.

Management culture development level in the second group of companies.

Source: Compiled by the authors.

The emerged gaps have a negative impact on the whole work organization of the group of companies. Judging from the fairly high level of assessment of the level of organizing working places and comparing with significantly lower level of work and rest regime, relaxation options, safety and sociopsychological climate evaluations, it can be assumed that the focus on the physical environment far surpasses the attention to the human resources and management staff relationship with employees. It is significant that the assessment tendencies of social responsibility and management culture in both the first and the second group of companies, are essentially the same: within the companies themselves as well as in comparing both groups of companies. These tendencies, on the one hand, imply a relationship between the management culture and social responsibility, as well as show the interdependence, on the other hand, they show the general tendencies of management culture traditions, but to confirm or deny them deeper research is necessary.

© 2018 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided the original is properly cited.

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Pranas Žukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitienė (April 18th 2018). Determining the Level of Management Culture Development, Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility, Pranas ?ukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt and Regina Andriukaitien?, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70636. Available from:

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