1. Landscape reclamation: theoretical evolution vs. practical achievements: a brief overview
Landscape is continuously changing [1, 2] as a result of complex and interacting natural processes coupled with planned and unplanned actions by man . This scenario of landscape transformation worldwide “
In fact “
Still, has shown by Loures  it is clear that these contributions and the principles they integrate, have not been adequately assessed regarding land transformation efforts. However, this approach may be considered a proficient method to address urban sprawl, increasingly viewed as significant and growing land-use problem that encompass a wide range of social, economic and environmental issues [8, 17, 18].
The relevance and popularity of landscape reclamation and landscape transformation approaches and projects are increasingly recognized and as referred by Reed  “
Consequently, questions such as: What should be done with these landscapes? Which functions might these areas acquire in the future? What makes these spaces underutilized? What obstacles keep these landscapes from being transformed? Who is responsible for transforming them? Who is best qualified to do it? Is this process a single profession endeavor? Among others, remain to be answered. For this reason, new methodologies and frameworks are needed. In a period when “
The origin of this growing concern may be traced from a period when industry, became one of the main protagonists in the transformation of the city (Rossi, ). However, the consequences of the globalization of industry, relocation and restructuration of several industrial sectors over the past decades had a profound effect on quite a lot of industrial areas all over the world, producing a vast array of obsolete industrial facilities with various impacts generated from them . For this reason, numerous countries, all over the world, have undergone countless postindustrial land transformation projects (generally known as rehabilitation, revitalization, reclamation and/or redevelopment programs), in order to mitigate the negative effects arisen from these changes. In this scenario it is increasingly recognized that managing urban growth, transforming underused landscapes and protecting open space constitute relevant efforts to achieve sustainable urban planning.
Now no longer new, the production factories of the modern era have become obsolete, forcing this generation to decide on the disposition of the last generation’s industrial environment. The international industrial climate, which Pirelli  has termed as the third industrial revolution has rendered obsolete several industrial structures, technologies and processes of the first half of the twentieth century. Demolition and abandonment were and continue to be “
2. Landscape reclamation: a multiplicity of activities towards sustainable development
The complexity inherent to the majority of current landscape reclamation projects, evident in the number of different ways in which they have been characterized, both in the literature and by designers and other specialists who worked and/or analyzed them, make derelict landscape redevelopment difficult to accomplish. Apart from eminent contamination and liability on many of these landscapes [35, 36, 37], redevelopment processes have to consider also planning, real estate transaction and land use issues [38, 39, 40], plus community and economic development issues [40, 41, 42, 43], among others.
Considering this background and current need to reclaim derelict landscapes, this book will address both planning and design issues related to derelict land transformation. In fact, as mentioned by (Commoner , cited by ), thought the main problem lies in our means of production, in order to solve our derelict land problems, we need to change not only the location of certain activities but also the ways of making things. As it has been expressed, understanding this phenomenon is perhaps one of the most relevant consequences of assessing landscape reclamation issues, given that it becomes simpler not only to comprehend the current state of the art as it applies to us, but also to envision possible solutions for present and future problems [16, 21, 22, 29, 46, 47, 48].
As present trends of economic growth, resource consumption and environmental degradation become increasingly acknowledge as neither an acceptable nor sustainable option, discussion around why and how to redevelop derelict and or abandoned landscapes become progressively more relevant to growth management policies. As this remarkable phenomenon is gaining momentum, it becomes of utmost importance to address in one hand, the condition of these landscapes, and in the other the principles inherent to this process and the strategies and frameworks that best suit their redevelopment. For this reason, it is essential to study and understand both the differences between spaces generally typified as derelict landscapes, and the land transformation activities inherent to the redevelopment of these sites.
It is a given, that derelict land redevelopment, provides constant new opportunities for those who have the desire and the ability to seize landscape, regardless of their nature [6, 20, 49, 50, 51], for this reason landscape redevelopment and reclamation activities are considered to be, a significant resource for achieving sustainable development [52, 53, 54, 55], contributing as well to improve life’s quality. In this regard, reclamation processes need to be thought in terms of
Even if throughout recent years several normative theories associated to landscape reclamation, considering both design and planning principles towards sustainable communities, were created, the answer to this question is far from being achieved. From an overall viewpoint, sustainable landscape reclamation represents a subject of real sustainable dimensions, considering it is a positive response to environmental, social and economic issues [57, 58], which are the main dimensions of sustainability.