Immunology and Microbiology

Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus

Edited by Shymaa Enany and Laura E. Crotty Alexander, ISBN 978-953-51-2982-0, Print ISBN 978-953-51-2981-3, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published March 08, 2017 under CC BY 3.0 license
DOI: 10.5772/63039
Edited Volume

Staphylococcus was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1880 and was named for its grape cluster-like appearance. In 1884, Staphylococcus aureus was identified and named for its vibrant golden color, which was later found to be the result of golden toxin production. Here, experts examine in-depth patterns of S. aureus colonization and exposures in humans, mammals, and birds that have led to the development of various clinical diseases. The mode of transmission of S. aureus and different methods for its detection in different samples are defined. Conventional antibiotic options to treat this aggressive, multifaceted, and readily adaptable pathogen are becoming limited. Alternative, novel chemotherapeutics to target S. aureus are discussed in the pages within, including herbal medicines, bee products, and modes of delivery.

Dr. Shymaa Enany

Suez Canal University, Egypt

Dr. Shymaa Enany is an assistant professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Suez Canal University, Egypt. She received her PhD from School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Japan. She has completed her postdoctoral work in collaboration with many laboratories in San Diego, California, USA and in Niigata, Japan. She is an editorial board member and reviewer in many journals and scientific associations and has many publications in eminent journals as well as books. She has an extensive experience in bacterial genomics and proteomics.

Education

  • 2001 - 2006

    Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia

    Microbiology and Immunology Department

  • 2006 – 2010

    School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata

    Department of Infectious Disease Control and International Medicine

Edited Books

  • Clostridium Difficile - A Comprehensive Overview

    Clostridium difficile bacteria could be found everywhere around us: in the air, water, and soil and in the feces of humans and animals. You can easily become infected with C. difficile if you touch contaminated clothing, sheets, or other objects and then touch your mouth. Many people have the bacteria in their intestines and never have any symptoms. Still, it can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. The chance of developing a C. difficile infection increases with the usage of high doses of antibiotics over a prolonged period; thus, it is most often spread in the healthcare facilities between workers, patients, and residents. Each year in the United States, almost a half million people get sick from C. difficile, and approximately 29,000 patients died within 30 days of its initial diagnosis. Nowadays, C. difficile infections have become more frequent, severe, and difficult to treat. Therefore, the early diagnosis and the suitable treatment have become a real demand. In this book, we present the experience of worldwide specialists on the diagnosis and the treatment of C. difficile infections along with its lights and shadows.

  • Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus

    Staphylococcus was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1880 and was named for its grape cluster-like appearance. In 1884, Staphylococcus aureus was identified and named for its vibrant golden color, which was later found to be the result of golden toxin production. Here, experts examine in-depth patterns of S. aureus colonization and exposures in humans, mammals, and birds that have led to the development of various clinical diseases. The mode of transmission of S. aureus and different methods for its detection in different samples are defined. Conventional antibiotic options to treat this aggressive, multifaceted, and readily adaptable pathogen are becoming limited. Alternative, novel chemotherapeutics to target S. aureus are discussed in the pages within, including herbal medicines, bee products, and modes of delivery.

  • The Rise of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a growing issue both within hospitals and community because of its virulence determinants and the continuing emergence of new strains resistant to antimicrobiotics. In this book, we present the state of the art of S. aureus virulence mechanisms and antibiotic-resistance profiles, providing an unprecedented and comprehensive collection of up-to-date research about the evolution, dissemination, and mechanisms of different staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance patterns alongside bacterial virulence determinants and their impact in the medical field. We include several review chapters to allow readers to better understand the mechanisms of methicillin resistance, glycopeptide resistance, and horizontal gene transfer and the effects of alterations in S. aureus membranes and cell walls on drug resistance. In addition, we include chapters dedicated to unveiling S. aureus pathogenicity with the most current research available on S. aureus exfoliative toxins, enterotoxins, surface proteins, biofilm, and defensive responses of S. aureus to antibiotic treatment.

INTECHOPEN PUBLICATIONS

Dr. Laura Crotty Alexander

Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA 92161

Dr. Laura E. Crotty Alexander is a Pulmonary Critical Care physician at the University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare System. As a biomedical basic science researcher, she studies host-pathogen interactions at molecular, cellular, organ, and organism levels and recently defined pro-virulent effects of inhalants such as cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor on Staphylococcal virulence. Dr. Crotty Alexander’s clinical interests include bacterial pneumonia and sepsis, e-cigarette effects on innate immunity, and moderate-to-severe asthma.

Experience

  • Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA 92161

INTECHOPEN PUBLICATIONS