Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Coupled Mathieu Equations: γ-Hamiltonian and μ-Symplectic

By Miguel Ramírez Barrios, Joaquín Collado and Fadi Dohnal

Submitted: April 23rd 2019Reviewed: July 17th 2019Published: August 23rd 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88635

Downloaded: 326


Several theoretical studies deal with the stability transition curves of coupled and damped Mathieu equations utilizing numerical and asymptotic methods. In this contribution, we exploit the fact that symplectic maps describe the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems. Starting with a Hamiltonian system, a particular dissipation is introduced, which allows the extension of Hamiltonian and symplectic matrices to more general γ -Hamiltonian and μ -symplectic matrices. A proof is given that the state transition matrix of any γ -Hamiltonian system is μ -symplectic. Combined with Floquet theory, the symmetry of the Floquet multipliers with respect to a μ -circle, which is different from the unit circle, is highlighted. An attempt is made for generalizing the particular dissipation to a more general form. The methodology is applied for calculation of the stability transition curves of an example system of two coupled and damped Mathieu equations.


  • Hamiltonian systems
  • periodic systems
  • Mathieu equation
  • parametric excitation
  • parametric resonance
  • symplectic maps

1. Introduction

Dynamical systems represented by nonlinear or linear ordinary differential equations with periodic coefficients occur in many engineer problems (see for instance [1, 2]). The simplest example of such a system is the Mathieu equation. Most investigations in literature deal with the corresponding stability transition curves [3]. Some works analyze the stability of two coupled Mathieu equations [4, 5, 6]. In general, an asymptotic or a numerical analysis method is required for analyzing this class of systems. Perturbation techniques may lead to cumbersome expression, at least for second-order perturbation [7], and a numerical analysis may require considerable computation time. In this contribution, an extension of the theory developed in [8] is exposed in which coupled Mathieu equations are analyzed in the context of a Hamiltonian system.

The literature on Hamiltonian systems is vast. We focus on the two main references [9, 10] that are relevant for the present work. The latter focuses on linear periodic Hamiltonian systems. Although every periodic mechanical system possesses at least a small amount of dissipation, the main literature on linear Hamiltonian systems does not incorporate a dissipation. The dynamics of Hamiltonian systems can be described by symplectic maps [11]. A key fact here is that a symplectic transformation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying dynamic system. In this work we attempt to derive an appropriate formalism for linear Hamiltonian systems incorporating a very particular dissipation. For this purpose we redefine and develop the properties of the so-called γ-Hamiltonian and μ-symplectic matrices. With the last definitions, we prove that the state transition matrix of any γ-Hamiltonian system is μ-symplectic. The relevance of the symplectic matrices or symplectic maps lies on their symmetry which allows simplifying many computations and analysis [12]. The formalism is benchmarked for two coupled and damped Mathieu equations highlighting its advantages. Due to the symmetry of the symplectic matrices, the parametric resonance zones are characterized, which allows faster computations, and with higher accuracy, of the stability transition curves. This work is an extension of the contribution presented in [8, 13].


2. Preliminaries on matrices

2.1 Symplectic matrices

Definition 1The matrixAR2n×2nis called symplectic if it satisfies




andInis then×nidentity matrix.

Note that for Jthe following relations hold: JT=J, J1=JT, J2=I2n, and detJ=1. The determinant of a symplectic matrix is 1 ([9]), and I2nand Jare symplectic matrices themselves. If Aand Bare of the same dimensions and symplectic, then ABis also symplectic because ABTJAB=BTATJAB=BTJB=J. Finally and importantly, the inverse of a symplectic matrix always exists and is also symplectic:


The set of the symplectic matrices of dimension 2n×2nforms a group. The corresponding characteristic polynomial of a symplectic matrix AR2n×2n


is a reciprocal polynomial:


This is equivalent to stating that the coefficients of PAλsatisfy the relation ak=a2nkor rewriting as a matrix product


Since Ais real, if λis an eigenvalue of A, then so are λ1, λ¯, and λ¯1, where the bar indicates the complex conjugate. Equivalently, the eigenvalues of a symplectic matrix are reciprocal pairs. This property is called reflexivity [11]. Consequently, the eigenvalues are symmetric with respect to the unit circle, namely, if there is an eigenvalue inside of the unit circle, then there must be a corresponding eigenvalue outside of the unit circle. As a result of the coefficient symmetry of a symplectic matrix A, the following transformation is proposed in [12]:


where λσA. This transforms the characteristic polynomial PAλof degree 2nto an auxiliary polynomial QAδof degree n, while keeping all pertinent information of the original polynomial [12].

2.2 Hamiltonian matrices

Definition 2The matrixAR2n×2n(AC2n×2n) is said to be Hamiltonian if and only if


Let PAsbe the characteristic polynomial of A, then PAsis an even polynomial, and it only has even powers. Thus, the eigenvalues of Aare symmetric with respect to the imaginary axis, i.e., if sis an eigenvalue of A, then sis an eigenvalue, too. Furthermore, if the matrix Ais real, s¯and s¯are eigenvalues as well. Then the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrix are located symmetrically with respect to both real and imaginary axis. The eigenvalues appear in real pairs, purely imaginary pairs, or complex quadruples [9, 14].

2.3 μ-symplectic matrices

The next definitions and properties attempt to generalize the classical definitions above.

Definition 3MR2n×2nis calledμ-symplectic matrix if


is satisfied forμ01.

Lemma 4The determinant of aμ-symplectic matrixMR2n×2nisμn.

To see the proof of the last lemma, see Appendix A. If Mis a μ-symplectic matrix, M2is a μ2-symplectic matrix, and the set of μ-symplectic matrix matrices does not form a group.

Lemma 5The characteristic polynomial of aμ-symplectic matrixMR2n×2nsatisfies


Proof 6PMλ=detλI2nMT=detλI2nμJM1J1


Corollary 7The eigenvalues of aμ-symplectic matrixMsatisfy the symmetry


The product of each pair of eigenvalues contributes withμtodetM, and there arenof these pairs; therefore,detM=μn. If all eigenvalues have the same magnitude, i.e.,λi=rexpθi, theni=12nλ=i=12nreθi=r2n=detM=μn. From this we find thatr=μ, independent ofn. This may be interpreted as asymmetry” with respect to a circle of radiusr=μ. SinceMis real ifλis an eigenvalue ofM, thenλ¯,μλ, andμλ¯are also eigenvalues ofM. Moreover, the eigenvalues are symmetric with respect to theμ-circle: if there is an eigenvalue inside of theμ-circle, then there must be another eigenvalue outside (seeFigure 1a for a visualization).

Figure 1.

Symmetries in the spectra in the complex plane: (a)μ-symplectic matrix and (b)γ-Hamiltonian matrix.

Remark 8Due toEq. (9) , the characteristic polynomialPMλ=m2nλ2n+m1λ+m0of theμ-symplectic matrixMsatisfies the following relations:


rewritten as a product of matrices yields


Forμ=1, the relations inEq. (12) reduce toEq. (5) .

Remark 9By applying the transformation


the characteristic polynomial PMλof degree 2n, associated to a μ-symplectic matrix, is reduced to an auxiliary polynomial QMδof degree n. For instance,


Note that the property of the characteristic polynomial of a μ-symplectic matrix in Eq. (9) reduces to Eq. (4) at μ=1. Then Eq. (12) represents the “symmetry” of the characteristic polynomial for all μ01. Although the definition of μ-symplectic matrices appears in [9], no further properties were developed within this reference. In the next section, we reveal their relationship as a generalized definition of Hamiltonian matrices, the so-called γ-Hamiltonian matrices.

2.4 γ-Hamiltonian matrices

Definition 10A matrixAR2n×2n(AC2n×2n) is calledγ-Hamiltonian matrix if for someγ0,


Lemma 11Aisγ-Hamiltonian if and only ifA+γI2nis Hamiltonian.

Proof 12IfAisγ-Hamiltonian, thenATJ+JA=2γJwhich can be rewritten asA+γI2nTJ+JA+γI2n=0. Hence,A+γI2nis Hamiltonian.

Lemma 13IfAisγ-Hamiltonian and ifs+γσA, thens+γσA.

Proof 14Recall that ifσR=r1r2n, thenσR+γI2n=r1+γr2n+γ. Then ifs+γσA, thensσA+γI2n, sinceA+γI2nis Hamiltonian and consequentlysσA+γI2nwhich is equivalent tos+γσA.

Remark 15If in the last lemma all the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrixA+γI2nhave zero real parts, then the real parts of the eigenvalues of theγ-Hamiltonian matrixAare identical toγ. Thus, the eigenvalues of theγ-Hamiltonian matrixAare symmetric with respect to the vertical lineγin the complex plane (seeFigure 1b for a visualization).

Figure 2.

All configurations of multiplier positions with respect to the unit (in solid line) andμ-circle (dashed line).

Notice that real Hamiltonian matrices have their spectrum symmetric with respect to the real and imaginary axes, whereas the spectrum of real γ-Hamiltonian matrices is symmetric with respect to the real axis and a vertical line at Res=γ. Then the eigenvalues of a real γ-Hamiltonian matrix are placed: (i) in quadruples symmetrically with respect the real axis and the line Res=γ, (ii) pairs on the line Res=γand symmetric with the real axis, and (iii) real pairs symmetric with the line Res=γ. All cases are shown in Figure 1b .

By the last lemma, the characteristic polynomial of the γ-Hamiltonian Asatisfies




Thus, PAsdepends only on ncoefficients. For instance, for n=1,

s+γ2+a1s+γ+a0=γs2+a1γs+a0. Equating the coefficients leads to a1=2γ, a0=a0, and finally to


Similarly, the polynomials for the lowest values of nread


Furthermore, by applying the transformation


the polynomial PAscan be written as an auxiliary polynomial QAϕwhich only has even coefficients, namely,


For instance,


3. Linear γ-Hamiltonian systems

Definition 16If there is a differentiable function called Hamiltonian function (energy)Htxy,H:R×Rn×RnR, which satisfies


then it is called a Hamiltonian system. If Htxyis a quadratic function with respect to xand y, then the system is a linear Hamiltonian system.

It is easy to prove that if Hdoes not depend on t, Hxyis a first integral. However, this is no longer true in the time-periodic case. In the time-periodic case, even for n=1, the integration of the equations is not possible. Any linear Hamiltonian system can be written as


where HTt=Htis a symmetric matrix (Hermitian in the complex case). Herein, the variables used in the definition satisfy z=xTyTT. Therefore, the dimension of real Hamiltonian systems is always even. Finally, note that the product JHsatisfies the condition for a Hamiltonian matrix. The fundamental property of any linear Hamiltonian system is that the state transition matrix of the system in Eq. (16) is a symplectic matrix (see [9] for more details).

If Ais γ-Hamiltonian matrix, or equivalently, A+γI2nis a Hamiltonian matrix for some γ>0; then it follows from Eq. (16) that


for some matrix H=HT. From the last equation A+I2n=JH, we obtain


Any γ-Hamiltonian matrix Amay be written as in Eq. (17), which motivates the next definition.

Definition 17Any linear system that can be written as


with xR2n, HTt=Ht, and γ0is called a linearγ-Hamiltonian system.

Lemma 18The state transition matrix of a linearγ-Hamiltonian system inEq. (18) isμ-symplectic withμ=e2γt.

Proof 19Let beNt=Φt0be the state transition ofEq. (17) , and then


Differentiating the productNTJNgives


SinceNT0JN0=J, we get1



Lemma 20Consider the transformation


with Sta symplectic matrix for all t. Then the transformation in Eq. (20) preserves the γ-Hamiltonian form of the system, Eq.(18).

Proof 21From the definitionSTJS=0ṠTJS+STJṠ=0, thusṠTJS=STJṠ, and fromEq.(20)


then applying the transformation Eq.(20) into Eq.(18) it is obtained as ż+S1Ṡz=S1JH+γJSz; then from the symplectic definition matrix S1=J1STJ,



3.1 Mechanical, linear γ-Hamiltonian system

Consider any mechanical system described by the equation


where ytRn, K˜t=K˜TtRn×n, and the constant matrices M˜and D˜Rn×nsuch that M˜=M˜T>0and D˜=D˜T. Then there always exists a linear transformation Tsuch that


(e.g., see [15]). Therefore, applying the transformation y=Tzyields


where Kt=TTK˜tT. Eq. (22) can be rewritten as a first-order system by introducing the state vector x=zTżTT:


where xR2n×2n. Let


be an orthogonal matrix satisfying QQT=QTQ=I2n, and also JQ=QJ, one can introduce the transformation w=QTx, and Eq. (23) gives


or equivalently,


Since D=diagd1d2dnand K=KT, the matrix


is also symmetric Ht=HtT. Therefore, Eq. (25) can be cast into the γ-Hamiltonian linear system form ẇ=JH+γJwif γis approximated as γ12ni=1ndi. In the special case d=d1=d2==dn, γis given exactly given by γ=d2.

3.2 Periodic linear systems

This section summarizes the main results on periodic linear systems. The proofs and details are omitted and can be found in [16, 17]. Consider the linear periodic system:


where xRn, BRn×n, and Ωare the fundamental periods.

Theorem 22 (Floquet)The state transition matrixΦtt0of the system inEq. (26) may be factorized as




In additionP1t=P1t+Ωis a periodic matrix of the same periodΩ, andRis in general a complex constant matrix [18 ].

Definition 23We define the monodromy matrixMassociated to theEq. (26) as


The monodromy matrix may be defined as Mt0=ΦΩΩ+t0, but we use only the spectrum of the monodromy matrix, σM. From.

Φtt0=P1teRtt0Pt0t=t0+Ω=ΦΩΩ+t0=P1t0+ΩeRWPt0=P1t0eRWPt0, because Pand P1are Ω-periodic. This last relation shows that Mand Mt0are similar matrices and possess the same spectrum. Moreover, if t0=0in the Floquet theorem, then Φt0=QteRtbased on Qt=Qt+Ωand Q0=In; we have


Definition 24The eigenvaluesλiof the monodromy matrix are calledcharacteristic multipliersormultipliers. The numbersρi, not unique, defined asλi=eρiΩ, are calledcharacteristic exponentsorFloquet exponents.

Corollary 25 (Lyapunov-Floquet Transformation)If we define the change of coordinates


where Pfulfills Eq. (28), then the periodic linear system in Eq. (26) can be transformed into a linear time-invariant system


where Ris a constant matrix as introduced in the Floquet theorem.

The transformation in Eq. (31) is a Lyapunov transformationwhich means that the stability properties of the linear system in Eq. (26) are preserved. Therefore any periodic system as in Eq. (26) is reducible to a system in Eq. (32) with constant coefficients2 ([16]). However, the matrix Ris not always real (e.g., see [10, 20]). In the present discussion, we only use its spectrum σR.

For analyzing xtas t, we assume that the initial conditions are given at t0=0. Then for any t>0, tmay be expressed as t=kΩ+τ, where kZ+and τ[0,Ω). Applying the well-known properties of the state transition matrix, the solution can be written as


Analyzing the last expression, the terms Φτ0and x0are bounded; the following three cases can be distinguished:


  1. the solution xtis bounded limkMk=0is boundedσMD¯=zC:z1, and if λσMand λ=1, λis a simple root of the minimal polynomial of M.

  2. xtλσM:λ>1or λσM:λ=1and λis a multiple root of the minimum polynomial of M.

Theorem 26 (Lyapunov-Floquet)Considering the linear periodic system inEq. (26) , then the system is (a) asymptotic stable if and only ifEq. (1) is satisfied, (b) stable if and only ifEq. (2) is satisfied, and (c) Unstable if and only ifEq. (3) is satisfied.

Due to the Lyapunov-Floquet transformation in Eq. (31), the stability of the periodic linear system in Eq. (26) can be determined by analyzing the system in Eq. (32).

Corollary 27The system inEq. (26) is:

  1. Asymptotically stableσRZ=zC:Rez<0.

  2. StableσRZ¯=zC:Rez0, ifRezi=0are simple roots of the minimum polynomial ofR.

  3. UnstableρiσR:Rez>0orσRZ¯&Rezi=0which is a multiple root of minimum polynomial ofR.

4. Periodic γ-Hamiltonian systems

Once the linear Hamiltonian systems become periodic, i.e., the matrix Htof the system in Eq. (18) possesses a periodically time-varying Ht=Ht+Ω, the underlying monodromy matrix becomes μ-symplectic and γ-Hamiltonian.

Definition 28Any linear periodic system that can be written as


with Ht=Ht+Ωwill be named linear periodicγ-Hamiltonian system, where xR2nand HTt=Htare a 2n×2nmatrix and γ0.

Remark 29According to Lemma 18, the state transition matrixΦtt0ofEq. (33) isμ-symplectic, in particular, the state transition matrix evaluated over one periodΩ.

Corollary 30Themonodromy matrixM=eRΩand the matrixRof the periodic system inEq. (33) areμ-symplectic andγ-Hamiltonian matrices, respectively, withμ=e2γΩ.

Proof 31From the definition of aμ-symplectic matrixMTJM=eRΩTJeRΩ=μJ, we obtaineRTΩ=μJeRΩJ1=μJI2nRΩ+RRΩ22RRRΩ33!++RkΩ4k!+J1=μeJRJ1Ω=e2γΩeJRJ1ΩthuseRTΩ=e2γΩJRJ1ΩRTJ+JR=2γJ.

This corollary states the main relation in our analysis. The symmetry of the μ-symplectic matrix will be utilized for obtaining the stability conditions of the system in Eq. (33). Furthermore, by applying the Lyapunov transformation


we conclude that any linear periodic γ-Hamiltonian system can be reduced to a linear time-invariant γ-Hamiltonian system


The next two subsections are based on [12] and are adapted for characteristic polynomials of μ-symplectic matrices.

4.1 Stability of a system with one degree of freedom

For n=1, the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix Massociated with the system in Eq. (33) becomes PMλ=λ2++μwith a=trM. According to the Lemma 18, Mis μ-symplectic. Then, there are two multipliers symmetric to the circle of radius rand the real axis. Therefore, the multipliers only can leave the unit circle at the coordinates 10or 10(see Figure 2 ). Note that the term ais equal to the transformation in Eq. (13):


Theorem 32Forn=1, the system inEq. (33) is asymptotically stable if and only if the inequality


is satisfied.

Proof 33Since the multipliers only leave the unit circle on the pointsλ=1orλ=1, the stability boundaries are given by


This means thata+μ+1>0anda+μ+1>0must be fulfilled; thus,a<1+μ.

4.2 Stability of a system with two degrees of freedom

For n=2, the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix Massociated with the system in Eq. (33) reads


where a=trMand 2b=trM2trM2. There are four multipliers, and due to the symmetry with respect to the μ-circle, they can be categorized in the position configurations depicted in Figure 2 .

Respecting that the characteristic polynomial is associated with a μ-symplectic matrix, we can use the transformation


to obtain the auxiliary polynomial


The symmetry of the eigenvalues yield


The transition boundaries are characterized by having at least one eigenvalue at λ=1. The simplest cases are if λ=1(δ=1+μ) or λ=1(δ=1μ). These points overlay if a real-valued multiplier leaves the unit circle at the point 10or 01(see the cases c, d, e, f, or g in Figure 2 ). Substituting these two values into Eq. (36) gives




Considering the case λC, we search the transition boundary line when two complex multipliers leave the unit circle at points different to 10and 01(see cases a or b in Figure 2 ). Then the transition boundary line can be obtained by considering the symmetry of the multipliers with respect to the real axis and the circle of the radius r=μ. Here, λ1=x+iy, λ2=μλ1, λ3=xiy, and λ4=μλ3. At λ=1x2+y2=1, it follows that


Hence, the transformation in Eq. (13) follows:


Adding δ1and δ2gives


From Eq. (38) we obtain


Note that for δ1and δ2to become complex, the inequality


must be fulfilled. Adding δ1and δ2, one obtains


Equating Eqs. (41) and (43) yields


The real part xof the eigenvalues results from Eq. (37)




Substituting Eq. (42) into Eq. (45) and choosing only the positive signs gives


with the abbreviation w=24a2μ+b+2μ2. Consequently, the real part of λis


and substituting into Eq. (44) results in


which can be solved for bto obtain the transition boundary curve


Two intersection points exist on each line in Eqs. (39) and (40) with the curve defined by Eq. (46). These points are


and are highlighted in Figure 3 . The line in Eq. (47), dashed line in the figure, is a necessary condition for stability.

Figure 3.

Multiplier map in the case ofn=2: Horizontal and vertical axes are the coefficients a andbof the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix M inEq. (36). The solid lines represent the borders of the inequalities in Theorem 34,Eqs. (49),(50), and(51). The dots indicate the position of multipliers and the unit circle, in solid line, associated with the system inEq. (33)in the case ofn=2. The dashed circle depicts theμ-circle.

Theorem 34TheEq. (33) whenn=2is asymptotically stable if and only if the inequalities are fulfilled:


From this analysis, the multipliers position in relation to the unit circle and μ-circle are defined by inequalities. These split the complex plane into four regions as it is shown in the Figure 3 .

5. Coupled Mathieu equations

Figure 4.

Multiplier map and stability charts, for example, systems inEq. (52). Multiplier map corresponds toFigure 3but now with colored regions for the different unstable multiplier configurations. Stability charts are given for different values of damping. (a) Multiplier map:aandbare the coefficients of the corresponding characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix. All colored zones correspond to unstable positions multipliers configurations. (b) Stability chart of coupled Mathieu equations,Eq. (52), with small damping:Θ12=Θ21=0andΘ11=Θ22=0.1.Each color code is according to the position of the multipliers as inFigure 4a. (c) Stability chart of coupled Mathieu equations,Eq. (52), with damping:Θ12=Θ21=0andΘ11=Θ22=0.3.

Consider two coupled and damped Mathieu equations of the following form:


Following the procedure presented in Section 3.1, the system in Eq. (52) can be cast into the γ-Hamiltonian form in Eq. (33) if Θ12=Θ21and Q12=Q21, i.e., the coefficient matrices Θand Qare symmetric. In this case, the coupled Mathieu equations present all the properties of the periodic γ-Hamiltonian system defined in Eq. (33) for n=2and Ω=2π/ν. Hence, all the above analysis on Hamiltonian systems can be applied. The monodromy matrix is computed by numerical methods, and the stability chart is obtained by applying the Theorem 34.

The following numerical values are chosen for the analysis of a specific system ω12=8, ω22=26, Q11=Q22=2, Q12=Q21=2. Figure 4a depicts the multiplier chart similar to Figure 3 . The unstable regions are colored and the stable regions are kept white. Each color depicts a specific configuration of the multiplier positions within the unit circle and the μ-circle according to the inequalities stated in Theorem 34 and visualized in Figures 3 and 4a . The description of each color is relevant because each color describes the parametric resonance phenomenon. Thus, yellow, magenta, and cyan colors refer to the configuration of four real-valued multipliers, two of them inside and two outside of the unit circle. These multipliers are either all negative (magenta region), all positive (yellow region), or two positive and two negative (cyan region). The blue and red regions indicate two complex conjugate multipliers on the μ-circle, while the other two are real with λ>1. The two real multipliers are either positive (blue) or negative (red). Then, all four multipliers are complex conjugate within the green region. In this case, two multipliers lie inside and two outside of the unit circle.

Additionally, parametric primary resonances occur at parametric excitation frequencies ν=2ωi/k, with k+, and parametric combination resonances of summation type occur at ν=ω1+ω2/k[7, 10]. These frequencies are also observed for the example system in Figure 4 . The green regions mark parametric combination resonances. The blue and red regions correspond to parametric primary resonances. The presented calculation technique can be categorized as a semi-analytical method. After rewriting the original system into the form in Eq. (33), the monodromy matrix is constructed by integrating the equations of motion using numerical methods.

Subsequently, the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix can be computed as a=trMand 2b=trM2trM2. This technique avoids the computation of the eigenvalues itself. This has the main advantage that numerical problems on the computation of the eigenvalues are avoided, e.g., numerical sensitivity of multipliers [21].

The definitions of μ-symplectic and γ-Hamiltonian matrices allow the analysis of a linear periodic Hamiltonian system with a particular dissipation. The main result of the proposed theory lies in Corollary 30 which states that the state transition matrix of any γ-Hamiltonian system is μ-symplectic. The symmetry properties of the eigenvalues of μ-symplectic matrices lead to an efficient calculation of the stability boundaries of this type of system. The general framework is applied for the example analysis of two damped and coupled Mathieu equations confirming the faster and robust computation of the stability chart. The procedure can be extended to a higher number of coupled Mathieu equations as outlined above.



M.Ramírez is thankful to Conacyt for the provided support during his Ph.D. studies in México and to the Austrian EFRE/LEADER project LaZu-CLLD IWB TIROL OSTT 005 for his research stay at Campus Technik Lienz.

Proof 35In[22], Rim proposed an elementary proof that real symplectic matrices have determinant one; following the same procedure, we prove that the symplectic matrices have determinantμn. From the definitiondetMTJM=detMTdetJdetM=detμJ=μ2ndetM=±μn, therefore it is necessary to prove thatdetM=μ2nis false. Considering the matrixS=MTM+μI2nsinceMTM0andμ01, the matrixShas real and greater thanμeigenvalues:


Now from the definitionMT=μ1JMJ1and rewritingS,


denotes the subblocks of Mas follows:


with M11,M12,M21,M21Rn×n; thus M+JMJ1=M11+M22M12M21M21M12M11+M22if A=M11+M22and B=M12M21; then


We rewrite (54) with the unitary transformationT:




since A,Bare real, the complex conjugation commute with the determinant, and then


and from Eq. (53)


thendetA+iB2>0anddetM>0; thereforedetM=μn.


  • The matrix product d dt N T JN N T JN = N T JN d dt N T JN is commutative.
  • For applying the transformation in Eq. (31), the analytical solution of Eq. (26) is only available for special cases [19], and in general a numerical solution needs to be calculated.

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Miguel Ramírez Barrios, Joaquín Collado and Fadi Dohnal (August 23rd 2019). Coupled Mathieu Equations: <em>γ</em>-Hamiltonian and <em>μ</em>-Symplectic, Dynamical Systems Theory, Jan Awrejcewicz and Dariusz Grzelczyk, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88635. Available from:

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