InTechOpen uses cookies to offer you the best online experience. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Privacy Policy.

Medicine » "Current Topics in Anemia", book edited by Jesmine Khan, ISBN 978-953-51-3775-7, Print ISBN 978-953-51-3774-0, Published: February 7, 2018 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

Chapter 13

Foods Produced with Cowpea Flour as a Strategy to Control Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children

By Regilda Saraiva dos Reis Moreira-Araújo and Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa Brandão
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69892

Article top


Cowpea cultivars: (A) BRS‐Aracê, (B) BRS‐Xiquexique, and (C) BRS‐Tumucumaque.
Figure 1. Cowpea cultivars: (A) BRS‐Aracê, (B) BRS‐Xiquexique, and (C) BRS‐Tumucumaque.
Cowpea flour.
Figure 2. Cowpea flour.
(A) Cheese bread and (B) cereal bar enriched with cowpea flour.
Figure 3. (A) Cheese bread and (B) cereal bar enriched with cowpea flour.
Cookie enriched with cowpea flour of the biofortified BRS Xiquexique cultivar and intervention with preschool children.
Figure 4. Cookie enriched with cowpea flour of the biofortified BRS Xiquexique cultivar and intervention with preschool children.

Foods Produced with Cowpea Flour as a Strategy to Control Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children

Regilda Saraiva dos Reis Moreira-Araújo1 and Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa Brandão2
Show details


Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are widely distributed throughout the world, being a relatively cheap source of protein and energy, but underutilized in most countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 1.62 billion people are affected by anemia and that preschool children are the most affected, with a prevalence of 47.4%. Several countries have stepped up efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia by supplementing iron, as well as universal fortification of foods with iron and other micronutrients and vitamins. Parallel to these programs, several intervention studies were carried out with the same objective, using various forms of food fortification/enrichment aimed at the control of anemia. Fortification/food enrichment has contributed to the reduction of the prevalence of anemia. The biofortification of foods, such as cowpea, produced in countries of Africa and Latin America, including Brazil, where the prevalence of anemia is high, deserves attention because can be used in the usual form of ingestion and also in the form of flour in the preparation of products for children, with greater acceptance by them, constituting a new and promising strategy to reduce the levels of iron deficiency anemia.

Keywords: cowpea, iron deficiency anemia, cowpea flour, children, enrichment, food fortified

1. Introduction

Among the various legumes, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is present in tropical and subtropical regions, being widely distributed throughout the world. It is considered a relatively inexpensive source of protein and energy, but is still underutilized in most countries [1].

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a high prevalence of anemia in worldwide, with children being the most affected, especially at preschool age, leading to several injuries ranging from the reduction of physical capacity to the increase in propensity to infections and mortality [2].

In an attempt to reduce this problem, several countries have intensified actions directed to reduce this lack by iron supplementation as well as through the universal food fortification with iron and other micronutrients and vitamins [3, 4]. Cowpea tree genetic improvement programs, such as HarvestPlus, aim to obtain cultivars with high productivity, resistance to diseases, and biofortification with micronutrients, also improving the nutritional quality of the beans [5]. Concomitant to this process, studies have been carried out and enriched/fortified products have been developed in an attempt to help in the fight against iron deficiency anemia. In this sense, cowpea flour is a raw material with great potential to be used in the development of products aimed at children as a strategy to reduce and/or control iron deficiency anemia.

2. Cowpea

The cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp) is a legume found in several countries, from Africa to other developing and developed countries, such as the United States of America. For a large part of the population in several countries is the main source of protein, calories, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins [1, 6, 7]. It also has bioactive compounds, highlighting the phenolic compounds [8], which makes it potentially important for the human diet from the nutritional point of view. It is mainly consumed in the form of dry beans, and may also be eaten as a vegetable, in the form of fresh beans and pods, or in the form of flours obtained from dry beans, weighing 16.5 g (weight of 100 grains). The plant has a semipruned size, with flourishing of 40–45 days after sowing and cycle of 65–75 days after seeding [911]. Despite being a relatively inexpensive source of protein and energy, it is underutilized in many countries, especially the developed ones, while it has been incorporated as an important staple food of poor communities in developing countries [9].

In Brazil, it is one of the most important crops in the North and Northeast regions and in great expansion in the Midwest region of the country, which is adapted to the heat conditions and water deficiency present in these regions due to its rusticity and precocity [10, 12, 13]. Specifically in the Northeast, according to a survey by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics—IBGE, the production and the productivity yield around 258,187 t and 250 kg/ha, respectively, and the largest producing states of this region are the states of Bahia (106,653 t), Ceará (52,721 t), Maranhão (34,837 t), and Piauí (26,520 t) [14]. In this sense, the cultivation of cowpea in much of the country is held by family‐based farmers; however, it has been incorporated into a production system of small, medium, and large companies, using modern technologies [15]. The growing interest in its cultivation has led to the production of several cultivars with good nutritional, culinary, and agronomic characteristic such as the Brazilian (BRS) cultivars BRS‐Xiquexique, BRS‐Aracë, BRS‐Tumucumaque, BRS17‐Gurguéia, BRS‐Maratauã, among others [15, 16].

The HarvestPlus program is developing genetic improvement research of various foods around the world in an attempt to counter the most varied micronutrient deficiencies. Among the researches developed are of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), because these are the most common legumes in Latin America and Africa (East and southern regions), regions of high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia [5]. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) presents estimates of cowpea production in 35 countries. In Brazil, the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) also develops biofortified agricultural products, one of which involves the cowpea (V. unguiculata (L). Walp), a species rich in iron (61.3 mg/kg), zinc (44.7 mg/kg), and protein (24 g/100 g), with several cultivars, among them, BRS‐Aracê, BRS‐Xiquexique, and BRS‐Tumucumaque (Figure 1) [17].


Figure 1.

Cowpea cultivars: (A) BRS‐Aracê, (B) BRS‐Xiquexique, and (C) BRS‐Tumucumaque.

In order to increase the efforts on complementary interventions to numerous nutritional deficiencies, biofortification has emerged as an option, in order to reduce the problems of deficiencies of several micronutrients, including iron, and is characterized by the increase of nutrient content in foods, through conventional breeding or genetic engineering [18, 19].

The biofortification of cowpea combined with the positive results obtained in intervention studies boosted research using cowpea flour in the development and improvement of commonly consumed products, sensorially accepted with nutritional characteristics superior to the standard formulation, such as cheese breads [20], blends containing cowpea flour for the production of fortified maize snack [21].

3. Nutritional and iron deficiency anemia

Nutritional anemia is defined as a pathological process in which the hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes is abnormally low, with respect to the variation of age and sex, which is due to the lack of one or more essential nutrients such as iron, folic acid, and/or vitamins A, whatever the cause, with iron deficiency being the most common [22, 23]. Although different nutrients and cofactors are involved in the maintenance of normal hemoglobin synthesis, iron deficiency anemia has been the most widespread and frequent nutritional deficiency in the world, both in industrialized and developing countries, the prevalence being four times higher in the latter [23, 24].

The iron deficiency anemia, in turn, is characterized by the reduction or absence of iron reserves, low iron concentration in the serum, low transferrin saturation, low hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit reduction. Initially, the forms of iron, ferritin, and hemosiderin, reserve decreased, with hematocrit and hemoglobin levels remaining normal. Furthermore, the serum iron level decreases and, concomitantly, the iron‐binding capacity in transferrin increases, resulting in a decrease of the percentage of iron saturation in transferrin. Consequently, there is a slight decrease in red cells circulation. This stage can be called iron deficiency without anemia. The iron deficiency anemia represents the most advanced stage of hyposiderosis, characterized by the reduction of hemoglobin and hematocrit, which is reflected in changes in erythrocyte cytomorphology, presenting microcytosis and hypochromy and causing disturbance in the mechanism of oxygen transport, leading to inadequate supply of iron to the tissues and possible functional damage to the organism [2426].

The World Health Organization (WHO), in a global analysis of anemia, estimated that about 1.62 billion people are affected by this condition across the world and that the preschool age children are most affected, with prevalence of 47.4% [2].

Some of the most varied injuries triggered by the installation of anemia in the infant population are the deficit of cognitive development, the reduction of physical capacity, the commitment of the work activity, the physical and psychomotor development retardation, depression of the immune system with a greater propensity to infections, and increased mortality [27]. These negative implications lead to severe damage in school performance, which means that this deficiency is considered a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Its consequences affect not only the population health but also the social and economic development of the world [2, 28, 29].

A serious and frequent problem in childhood anemia is the fact that many children are born to mothers who have iron deficiency anemia and therefore start in life with iron deficiency. This congenital iron deficiency can be further aggravated by nutritional insufficiency both qualitatively and quantitatively, further exacerbating the problem [30].

The highest susceptibility of anemia in children occurs at the preschool age, especially in children 24 months of age, strengthening the hypothesis that the disease is significantly more prevalent in younger children. This greater vulnerability can be attributed to the accelerated growth accompanied by a consequent increase in iron requirements in the first year of life. Low iron reserve at birth can also be an important factor in the onset of anemia, since the intrauterine mineral storage and exclusive maternal breastfeeding ensure that the needs of the infant are met only until the first 6 years of life [31].

Table 1 shows the studies performed in the period from 2014 to 2016 by different authors in the international scope that evaluated the prevalence of anemia in children. The results show that the prevalence of anemia is moderate to severe in several countries, including in Europe. This study was carried out in 19 European countries, highlighting the importance of interventions for the control, as it is a serious public health problem.

LocationSample number/ageAnemia (%)YearReferences
Ghana2168/<5 years78.42014[32]
China1290/6–23 months49.52015[33]
Peru1372/<5 years2015[34]
No indigenous40.9
Armenia729/0–59 months32.42015[35]
Europe7297/6–12 months2–252015[36]
12–36 months3–48
Brazil1210/2–6 years26.32016[37]
United States1437/1–5 years1.12016[38]

Table 1.

Prevalence of anemia in children in studies published between 2014 and 2016.

In Brazil, there is no national survey of prevalence of anemia; there are only studies in different regions of the country, showing a high notoriety, being considered an important public health problem, since it is not restricted to poor malnourished populations [39]. Table 2 shows the prevalence of anemia in children from 2010 to 2016 in Brazil, according to different authors.

RegionAnemia (%)YearReferences
South63.7 (12–16 months)
38.1 (3–4 years)

Table 2.

Prevalence of anemia in children by region of Brazil, studies published between 2010 and 2016.

4. Strategies for control of anemia

According to Stevens et al. [54], world awareness about anemia and its consequences for the health and development of women and children has increased in recent decades. In 2012, the 65th World Health Assembly adopted a plan of action and strategies for mothers and children with the goal of halving the prevalence of anemia in reproductive age until 2025, from 2011 levels, thus increasing attention to nutritional intervention initiatives [54].

Among the measures for the prevention and control of iron deficiency anemia, several countries have intensified actions directed to reduce this lack by iron supplementation as well as through the universal food fortification with iron and other micronutrients and vitamins [3, 4]. The most frequently used target vehicles for fortification are cereals [4]. In this sense, as other countries, Brazil instituted the universal mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flour with iron and folic acid in the last decade [55]. In parallel to these programs, several intervention studies have also been carried out in order to contribute to the control of this deficiency, through the development of interventional researches that use various forms of food fortification/enrichment aiming the anemia control.

The iron supplementation, according to WHO guidelines for direct daily iron supplementation, it should be considered a first‐line intervention in high‐risk or high‐prevalence groups. In endemic regions, the empirical administration of anthelmintic medications may also be justified [2]. However, studies highlight the low adherence to supplementation with iron salts. Even when the supplements are available, and mothers are instructed to supplement their children, they often do not administer the correct dosage and long enough to get benefits in hemoglobin levels due to side effects such as diarrhea, cramps, among others [56, 57].

As a successful example of this type of intervention, we have the intervention performed by Moreira‐Araújo et al. [58], who performed a nutritional intervention with a snack developed with chickpea, bovine lung, and corn, rich in iron for 60 days, three times a week, to control anemia in preschool children, decreasing the prevalence of anemia from 61.5 to 11.5% [58]. Other studies used iron‐fortified cowpea in the interventions. Adom et al. [59] investigated the effect of iron‐fortified maize‐cowpea blend (ferrous fumarate added) in controlling iron deficiency anemia in Ghana’s high‐risk population. Fifty‐six children aged 6–18 months were randomly assigned (i) iron‐fortified food or (ii) noniron‐fortified food, fed daily for 6 months. Significant differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration (1.08 ± 1.43 compared with 0.40 ± 1.72 g/dL, p = 0.0009), and the risk of developing anemia was about three times less likely among this group compared to the nonfortified group [59]. Another study conducted in Ghana with children aged 5–12 years with cowpea meal fortified with iron (NaFeEDTA) and nonfortified cowpea showed a reduction of 30 and 47% in the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, respectively, with the use cowpea meal fortified with iron (NaFeEDTA) indicating that when used for targeted school‐based interventions, fortification of cowpea flour is effective in improving iron status and consequently reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia [60].

On the other hand, Paganini et al. [61] warn of the risks of fortification of complementary foods at home by adding micronutrient powders, widely used in African countries. It also shows that, in controlled studies, these micronutrient powders containing iron significantly increase the risk of diarrhea in infants, with an increase in the number of hospitalization. These foods decrease the number of beneficial intestinal bacteria, increasing the ratio of enterobacteria to bifidobacteria, contributing to an increase in the number of opportunistic pathogens and inducing intestinal inflammation in school‐age children [61].

5. Product development with cowpea flour with potential to be used in interventions in children

The development of foods enriched/fortified has great importance not only for the food industry but also to raise the quality of food and nutrition of the population, since it is possible to create new products or improve existing ones with balanced compositions in relation to some nutrients, thus improving the nutritional value of various foods available in the market. Many of these products have been developed using unconventional raw materials selected to produce naturally enriched foods which are a means of substantially improve their nutritional quality [62]. Often these raw materials are not included in consumers’ habits and can contribute to improve the intake of important nutrients that are not usually found in conventional foods [58, 63, 64]. Flour production has been outstanding for this purpose, as they are rich in starch and mineral salts and present great variability for the food industry, especially in bakery products, dietetic products, and baby foods [65]. In this sense, studies have been carried out using cowpea bean flour (Figure 2).


Figure 2.

Cowpea flour.

In 2010, Frota et al. [66] have developed a work whose objective was to enrich bakery products, such as cookie and rocambole roulade with cowpea flour, to evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition, including the mineral content (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine). For this, three cookie formulations containing 10, 20, and 30% of cowpea flour and two rocambole formulations containing 10 and 20% of the flour were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein content of the cookie with 30% and of the rocambole with 20% of cowpea flour and the amount of ashes of the cookies with 20 and 30% and rocambole with 20% of cowpea flour, when compared to the standard formulations. The content of the analyzed minerals and pyridoxine has increased as the cowpea flour was added, while the thiamine concentration increased only in the rocambole with 20% of the flour. The cookie with 10% of cowpea flour was the most sensorially accepted (84.4%) by means of the nine‐point Hedonic scale sensory test, ranging from 1 “extremely disliked” to 9 “extremely liked,” among the cookies formulated with the flour, in addition, the rocambole with 10 and 20% of the flour had good acceptance (86.7 and 77.8%, respectively). Thus, all formulations containing cowpea flour had scores higher than 6, showing that the products were sensorially accepted. Thereby, the study showed that the addition of cowpea flour improved the nutritive value of cereal‐based formulations and that this practice is feasible [66].

Cavalcante et al. [20] developed a cheese bread enriched with whole grain biofortified cowpea flour and evaluated their acceptance and chemical composition (Figure 3A). For this, two formulations of cheese bread, F1 and F2, containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour in substitution of flour, respectively. To check the acceptance, three sensorial tests (Hedonic scale, purchase intention, and matched comparison) were used, and F1 was sensorially viable, according to the assessors, being chemically analyzed. The addition of cowpea increased the levels of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as the levels related to proteins and carbohydrates. On the other hand, the moisture contents, lipids, and total caloric content decreased when compared to the standard formulation. Therefore, it was concluded that cowpea, a raw material in evidence in the national market, presents itself as an option for the enrichment of gluten‐free bakery foods, such as cheese bread, including improving the technological quality of this product in relation to the growth and expansion of the mass, providing a better texture, due to its chemical composition [20]. Shakpo and Osundahunsi [21] studied the effect of the addition of cowpea on corn flour. Flour mixtures were produced from corn and cowpea flours in the following proportions of corn:cowpea 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 100% corn as a control, and the overall result showed that 20% of cowpea substitution was the most adequate percentage to produce a mixture of nutritious and acceptable corn and cowpea flour, which can be useful for pastry and confectionery [21].


Figure 3.

(A) Cheese bread and (B) cereal bar enriched with cowpea flour.

Other products fortified with cowpea have been developed, such as cereal bars in technological innovation projects. A patent application filing of a cereal bar enriched with cowpea, cashew fiber, honey, and cashew nuts was made, registration number: BR1020140169873 [67] and a cereal bar enriched with cowpea flour (Figure 3B), registration number: BR1020140169792 [68]. These products were accepted by more than 90% of the sensory assessors, which attributed grades between 8 (I really liked) and 9 (I liked very much), demonstrating the potential of acceptance of the products for nutritional interventions in population, both adults and children, to control endemic deficiencies such as iron deficiency anemia.

6. Nutritional interventions with cowpea flour to control iron deficiency  anemia

Most studies with nutritional interventions using cowpea flour to control iron deficiency anemia were developed with cowpea fortified with elemental iron, as in the studies of Adom et al. and Abizari et al. [59, 60], but satisfactory results were also obtained with the use of cowpea flour without addition of elemental iron in the control of anemia in children. This can be observed in this same study carried out by Abizari et al. [60], in which an intervention was performed with cowpea meal fortified with iron (NaFeEDTA) and nonfortified cowpea (control group), and it was observed that the group that ingested nonfortified cowpea flour also presented reduction in the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia at the end of the study, showing that the use of cowpea flour alone may be a good strategy in the control of this endemic disease.

In Brazil, Landim et al. [69] conducted an intervention study with 262 preschool children aged 2–5 years attended at municipal Childhood Educational Centers in Teresina, Piauí. One group received cookies prepared with wheat flour fortified with iron and folic acid. The other group received cookies prepared with cowpea flour biofortified with iron and zinc in addition to wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (Figure 4A and B) and noted that both cookies reduced the prevalence of anemia with a larger reduction in the latter group. In addition, a higher increase in hemoglobin levels (12.4–14.7) was observed in the group receiving the cookie prepared with cowpea flour fortified with iron and zinc (p = 0.003), whereas the group that received cookies prepared with wheat flour fortified with iron and folic acid showed hemoglobin levels of 12.6 and 12.7 (p = 0.0754) before and after the intervention, respectively. The study showed that the use of cookie based on cowpea flour of the biofortified BRS Xiquexique cultivar, as a nutritional intervention proposal, is a viable option because it contains a low cost ingredient, from the habit of the population and that resulted in a product with adequate composition and acceptance by the studied population [69].


Figure 4.

Cookie enriched with cowpea flour of the biofortified BRS Xiquexique cultivar and intervention with preschool children.

The high prevalence of anemia worldwide has warned government institutions and researchers to develop several research studies in an attempt to reduce the numbers and damage, especially to the most vulnerable groups such as children. Drug supplementation has been shown to be effective, but still presents a considerable degree of resistance to the use by children and mothers. Food fortification/enrichment is routinely practiced in several countries and has contributed to reduce the prevalence of anemia, but the biofortification of food as the cowpea, which is produced in countries in Africa and Latin America, including Brazil, where the prevalence of anemia is high, deserves attention because it can be used in the usual form of ingestion (in the form of grains), can be used in the form of flour in the preparation of products for children, with greater acceptance by them, constituting a new and promising strategy to reduce the levels of iron deficiency anemia.

Cowpea is a food that can assist to reduce nutritional endemics, such as iron deficiency anemia, and also improve the quality of the population’s diet. It can be used as a raw material in formulations such as snacks, cereal bars, cookies, pizza dough, and various bakery products, in addition to its use in the traditional may as a cooked legume, because it contains nutrients such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds.


1 - Phillips RD, McWatters KH, Chinnan MS, Hung, Y, Beuchat LR, Sefa‐dedeh S, Sakiy‐Dawson E, Ngoddoy P, Nnanyelugo D, Enwere J, Komey NS, Liu K, Mensa‐Wilmot Y, Nnanna IA, Okeke C, Prinnyawiwatkul W, Saalia FK. Utilization of cowpeas for human food. Field Crops Research. 2003;82(2-3):193
2 - World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia. Geneva: WHO, 2008. Available from
3 - Najafi TF, Roudsari RL, Hejazi M. Iron supplementation protocols for iron deficiency anemia: A comparative review of iron regimens in Three Countries of India, Iran and England. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health. 2013;1(2):89. DOI: 10.22038/jmrh.2013.2088
4 - World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006
5 - HarvestPlus. Biofortification Progress Briefs. Washington DC: Harvest; 2014. p. 82
6 - Singh BB, Ajeigbe HA, Tarawali SA, Fernandez‐Rivera S, Abubakar M. Improving the production and utilization of cowpea as food and fodder. Field Crops Research. 2003;84(1-2):169-177
7 - Carvalho AFU, Sousa NM, Farias DF, Rocha‐Bezerra LCB, Silva RMP, Viana MP, Gouveia ST, Sampaio SS, Sousa MB, Lima GPG, Morais SM, Barros CC, Filho FRF. Nutritional ranking of 30 Brazilian genotypes of cowpeas including determination of antioxidant capacity and vitamins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2012;26(1-2):81
8 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR, Sampaio GR, Soares RAM, Araújo MAM, Arêas JAG. Identificação e Quantificação de Compostos Fenólicos no Feijão‐caupi, cultivar BRS XiqueXique. Revista Caatinga. 2017
9 - Prinyawiwatkul W, McWatters KH, Beuchat LR, Phillips RD, Uebersak MA. Cowpea flour: A potential ingredient in food products. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1996;36(5):413-416
10 - EMBRAPA Meio‐Norte. Cultivares de feijão‐caupi ricas em ferro e zinco. 2010. Available from: [Accessed: 2017/02/12]
11 - EMBRAPA Meio‐Norte. BRS‐Guaribas, BRS‐Nova Era e BRS‐Xiquexique‐Novas Cultivares de Feijão‐caupi para o Amazonas. 2009. Available from: [Accessed: 2017/02/12]
12 - Dantas JP, Marinho FJL, Ferreira MMM, Amorim MSN, Andrade SIO, Sales AL. Avaliação de genótipos de caupi sob sanilidade. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental. 2002;6(3):425
13 - EMBRAPA Meio‐Norte. Cultivo de feijão‐caupi. Teresina, 2003
14 - BRASIL. Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. Levantamento Sistemático da Produção Agrícola. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. 2013;26(8)
15 - EMBRAPA Meio‐Norte. BRS‐Xiquexique: Cultivar de feijão‐caupi rica em ferro e zinco para cultivo em Roraima. Comunicado Técnico. 2008
16 - Moura JO. Potencial de populações segregantes de feijão‐caupi para biofortificação de grãos [Thesis]. Teresina: Universidade Federal do Piauí; 2011
17 - Freire‐filho FR, Ribeiro VQ, Rocha MM, Silva KJD, Nogueira MSR, Rodrigues EV. Production, Breeding and Potential of Cowpea Crop in Brazil. Embrapa Mid‐North. 2012
18 - Pfeiffer WH, Mcclafferty B. HarvestPlus: Breeding crops for better nutrition. Crop Science. 2007;47:S88‐S105
19 - Rios AS, Alves KR, Costa NMB, Martino HSD. Biofortificação: culturas enriquecidas com micronutrientes pelo melhoramento genético. Revista Ceres. 2009;56(6):713-718
20 - Cavalcante RBM, Morgano MA, Silva KJD, Rocha MM, Araújo MAM, Moreira‐Araújo RS. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour. Ciênc Agrotec. 2016;40(1):97-103
21 - Shakpo IO, Osundahunsi OF. Effect of cowpea enrichment on the physico‐chemical, mineral and microbiological properties of maize: Cowpea flour blends. Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2016;1:35-41
22 - Cappellini MD, Motta I. Anemia in clinical practice‐definition and classification: Does hemoglobin change with aging? Seminars in Hematology. 2015;52(4):161-169
23 - World Health Organization. Leaning from Large‐scale Community‐Based Programmes to Improve Breastfeeding Practices. Geneva: World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund/UNICEF, Academy for Educational Development/EAD; 2008
24 - Capanema FD, Lamounier JA, Norton RC, Jacome AAA, Rodrigues DA, Coutinho RL. Anemia ferropriva na infância: novas estratégias de prevenção, intervenção e tratamento. Revista de Medica de Minas Gerais. 2003;13(4):30-34
25 - Lopez A, Cacoub P, Macdougall I, Peyrin‐Biroulet L. Iron deficiency anaemia. Lancet. 2016;387:907-916
26 - Camaschella C. Iron‐deficiency anemia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372:1832-1843
27 - World Health Organization. Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention and Control: A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001. p. 114
28 - Silva FCD, Vitalle MSS, Quaglia EC, Braga JAP, Medeiros HGR. Anemia proportion according to pubertal stage using two diagnostic criteria. The Revista de Nutrição. 2007;20(3):297-306. DOI: 10.1007/s11046‐011‐9473‐z
29 - Ribeiro LC, Sigulem DM. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia with iron bis‐glycinate chelate and growth of young children. The Revista de Nutrição. 2008;1(5):483-490. DOI: 10.1590/S1415‐52732008000500001
30 - Milman N. Anaemia—still a major health problem in many parts of the world! Annals of Hematology. 2011;90(4):369-377
31 - Braga JAP, Vitalle MSS. Deficiência de ferro na criança. Revista Brasileira Hematologia e Hemoterapia. 2010;32(2):38-44
32 - Ewusie JE, Ahiadeke C, Beyene J, Hamid JS. Prevalence of anemia among under‐5 children in the Ghanaian population: Estimates from the Ghana demographic and health survey. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:626. DOI: 10.1186/1471‐2458‐14‐626
33 - Huo J, Sun J, Fang Z, Chang S, Zhao L, Fu P, et al. Effect of home‐based complementary food fortification on prevalence of anemia among infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months in poor rural regions of China. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2015;36:405-414
34 - Calderón TA, Martin H, Volpicelli K, Diaz C, Gozzer E, Buttenheim AM. Formative evaluation of a proposed mHealth program for childhood illness management in a resource‐limited setting in Peru. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública. 2015;38(2):144-151
35 - Demirchyan A, Petrosyan V, Sargsyan V, Hekimian K. Prevalence and determinants of anaemia among children aged 0-59 months in a rural region of Armenia: A case‐control study. Public Health Nutrition. 2016;19:1260-1269
36 - Eussen S, Alles M, Uijterschout L, Brus F, van der Horst‐Graat J. Iron intake and status of children aged 6-36 months in Europe: A systematic review. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2015;66:80-92
37 - Costa FV. Diagnóstico nutricional de pré‐escolaresno município de Teresina [Thesis]. Teresina: Universidade Federal do Piauí; 2016
38 - Côrtes MH, Vasconcelos IAL, Coitinho DC. Prevalence of iron‐deficiency anemia in Brazilian pregnant women: A review of the last 40 years. The Revista de Nutrição. 2009;22(3):409-418
39 - Oliveira CSM, Cardoso MA, Araújo TS, Muniz PT. Anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses e fatores associados no município de Jordão, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Caderno de Saúde Pública. 2011;27(5):1008-1020
40 - Castro TG, Silva‐Nunes M, Conde WL, Muniz PT, Cardoso MA. Anemia e deficiência de ferro em pré‐escolares da Amazônia Ocidental: Prevalência e fatores associados. Caderno de Saúde Pública. 2011;27(1):131-142
41 - Cardoso MA, Scopel KK, Muniz PT, Villamor E, Ferreira MU. Underlying factors associated with anemia in Amazonian children: A population‐based, cross‐sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(5):e3634
42 - Souza OF, Macedo LF, Oliveira CSM, Araujo TS, Muniz PT. Prevalence and Associated Factors to Anaemia in Children. Journal of Human Growth and Development. 2012;22(3):307-313
43 - Carvalho AGC, Lira PIC, Barros MFA, Aléssio MLM, Lima MC, Carbonneau MA et al. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in children of Northeast Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2010;44(3):513-519
44 - Leal LP, Batista‐Filho M, Lira PIC, Figueroa JN, Osório MM. Prevalência da anemia e fatores associados em crianças de seis a 59 meses de Pernambuco. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2011;45(3):457-466
45 - Gondim SSR, Diniz AS, Souto RA, Bezerra GRS, Albuquerque EC, Paiva AA. Magnitude, tendência temporal e fatores associados à anemia em crianças do Estado da Paraíba. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2012;46(4):649-656
46 - Paula WKAS, Caminha MFC, Figueirôa JN, Batista Filho M. Anemia e deficiência de vitamina A em crianças menores de cinco anos assistidas pela Estratégia Saúde da Família no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Ciênc. saúde coletiva. 2014;19(4):1209-1222
47 - Pessoa MLSB. Anemia Ferropriva, Antropometria e Consumo Alimentar em Pré‐Escolares do Município de Teresina [Thesis]. Teresina: Universidade Federal do Piauí; 2014.
48 - Bortolini GA, Vitolo MR. Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro. Revista de Nutrição. 2010;23(6):1051-1062
49 - Bortolini GA, Vitolo MR. Relationship between iron deficiency and anemia in children younger than 4 years. Journal of Pediatrics. 2010;86(6):488-492
50 - Rodrigues VC, Mendes BD, Gozz A, Sandrini F, Santana RG. Deficiência de ferro, prevalência de anemia e fatores associados em crianças de creches públicas do oeste do Paraná, Brasil. Revista de Nutrição. 2011;24(3):407-420
51 - Silva EB, Villani MS, Jahn AC, Coco M. Prevalência da anemia em crianças avaliada pela palidez palmar e exame laboratorial: Implicações para enfermagem. Esc. Anna Nery. 2011;5(3):497-506
52 - Netto MP, Rocha DS, Franceschini SCC, Lamounier JA. Fatores associados à anemia em lactentes nascidos a termo e sem baixo peso. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. 2011;57(5):550-558
53 - Rocha DS, Capanema FD, Netto MP, Franceschini SCC, Lamounier JA. Prevalência e fatores determinantes da anemia em crianças assistidas em creches de Belo Horizonte‐MG. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia. 2012;15(3):675-684
54 - Stevens GA, Fincane MM, De‐Regil LM, Paciorek CJ, Flaxman SR, Branca F, Peña‐Rosas JP, Bhutta ZA, Ezzati M and on behalf of Nutrition Impact Model Study Group (Anaemia). Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and nonpregnant women for 1995-2011: A systematic analysis of population‐representative data. Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(1):16-25. DOI: 10.1016/S2214‐109X(13)70001‐9
55 - Brasil. Ministério da Saúde, Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resolução – RDC n° 344 de 13 de Dezembro de 2002. Aprova o Regulamento Técnico para a Fortificação das Farinhas de Trigo e das Farinhas de Milho com Ferro e Ácido Fólico. Diário Oficial da União 2002
56 - Panamá. Ministerio de Salud (MS). Direccion General de Salud. Departamento de Nutricion. Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF). Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Situación de deficiencia de hierro y anemia. Panamá: MS; 2006
57 - Azeredo CM, Cotta RMM, Silva LS, Franceschini SCC, Sant Ana LFR, Lamounier JA. A problemática da adesão na prevenção da anemia ferropriva e suplementação com sais de ferro no município de Viçosa (MG). Ciênc. Saúde Coletiva. 2013;18(3):827-836
58 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR, Araújo MAM, Arêas JA. Fortified food made by extrusion of a mixture of chickpea corn and bovine lung controls iron‐deficiency anaemia in preschool children. Food Chemistry. 2008;107(1):158-164. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.074
59 - Adom T, Steiner‐Asiedu, M, Sakyi‐Dawson E, Anderson AK. Effect of fortification of maize with cowpea and iron on growth and anaemia status of children. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(4):136-142
60 - Abizari AR, Moretti D, Zimmermann MB, Armar‐Klemesu M, Brouwer ID. Whole cowpea meal fortified with NaFeEDTA reduces iron deficiency among Ghanaian school children in a malaria endemic area. Journal of Nutrition. 2012;142(10):1836-1842
61 - Paganini D, Uyoga MA, Zimmermann MB. Iron Fortification of foods for infants and children in Low‐Income countries: Effects on the Gut Microbiome, Gut Inflammation, and Diarrhea. Nutrients. 2016;8(8):494
62 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR. Utilização de snack com elevado conteúdo de ferro em pré‐escolares para o controle da anemia ferropriva [Thesis]. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo (USP); 2000.
63 - Cardoso Santiago RA, Moreira‐Araújo, RSR, Pinto e Silva MEM, Arêas JAG. The potential of extruded chickpea, corn and bovine lung for malfunction programs. Innovative Science and Emerging Technology. 2001;2:203-209
64 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR, Araújo MAM, Silva AMSE, Carvalho CMR, Arêas JAG. Impacto de salgadinho de alto valor nutritivo na situação nutricional de crianças de creches municipais de Teresina‐PI. Nutrire. 2002;23:7-21
65 - Carvalho RV. Formulações de snacks de terceira geração por extrusão: caracterização texturométrica e microestrutural [Thesis]. Lavras: Universidade Federal de Lavras; 2000
66 - Frota KMG, Morgano MA, Silva MG, Araújo MAM, Moreira‐Araújo RSR. Utilização da farinha de feijão‐caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) na elaboração de produtos de panificação. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. 2010;30:44-50
67 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR, Barros NVA. Barra de cereais enriquecida com feijão‐caupi, fibra de caju, mel e castanha de caju e o seu respectivo processo de obtenção. Brazil Patent: BR1020140169873. INPI deposit: June 17, 2014
68 - Moreira‐Araújo RSR, Sousa IG. Barra de cereais enriquecida com feijão‐caupi e o seu respectivo processo de obtenção. Brazil Patent: BR1020140169792. INPI deposit: June 17, 2014
69 - Landim LA, Pessoa ML, Brandão AC, Morgano MA, Araújo MAM, Rocha MM, Arêas JA, Moreira‐Araújo RS. Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil. Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2016;33(5):579. DOI: 10.20960/nh.579