Open access peer-reviewed chapter

A Comparative Study on Energy Use and Cost Analysis of Rice Varieties Under Traditional and Semi-Mechanized Farming Systems in North of Iran

By Ebrahim Azarpour and Maral Moraditochaee

Submitted: November 15th 2011Reviewed: June 29th 2012Published: April 30th 2013

DOI: 10.5772/51165

Downloaded: 1586

1. Introduction

Rice is an important food crop for a large proportion of the world’s population. It is staple food in the diet of the population of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Rice provides 35-60% of the dietary calories consumed by more than 3 billion people [12]. Globally, it is also the second most cultivated cereal after wheat. Unlike wheat, 95% of the world’s rice is grown in less developed nations, primarily in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. China and India are the largest rice producing and consuming countries in the world. By the year 2025, it is estimated that it will be necessary to produce about 60% more rice than what is currently produced to meet the food needs of a growing world population. In addition, the land available for crop production is decreasing steadily due to urban growth and land degradation. Hence, increases in rice production will have to come from the same or an even less amount of land. This means appropriate rice production practices should be adopted to improve rice yield per unit area [13]. Guilan province has allocated more 35 and 42 percent of paddy production and cultivation land area cultivation area of Iran, respectively. In this province more than 181 exploiters on productive and talented areas with more than 230000 hectares, are busy rice farming [26]. Indeed, rice cultivation is considered the most important agricultural activity in this province and the economy of the province is also based on agriculture, with rice cultivation in top. Most of the under cultivation area of local varieties in Guilan are including Hashemi and Alikazemi. Most of the under cultivation area of breed varieties in Guilan are including Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar.

The system of agricultural productions in the world has been deeply changed because of using mechanization, chemical fertilizers and poisons and reformed seeds and as a result considerable changes in the direction of consumed energy in agricultural section have been created and caused higher relationship to the energy of fossil fuel. This change in the pattern of energy consumption has created problems include warming environment results from green house gases and water and soil pollutions and etc. Nowadays, agricultural sector for providing more food needed the population increase like other sectors has depended to energy sources like electricity and fossil fuels [14]. Energy has been a key input of agriculture since the age of subsistence agriculture. It is an established fact worldwide that agricultural production is positively correlated with energy input [28]. Agriculture is both a producer and consumer of energy. It uses large quantities of locally available non-commercial energy, such as seed, manure and animate energy, as well as commercial energies, directly and indirectly, in the form of diesel, electricity, fertilizer, plant protection, chemical, irrigation water, machinery etc. Efficient use of these energies helps to achieve increased production and productivity and contributes to the profitability and competitiveness of agriculture sustainability in rural living [28]. Energy use in agriculture has been increasing in response to increasing population, limited supply of arable land and a desire for higher standards of living [18]. However, more intensive energy use has brought some important human health and environment problems so efficient use of inputs has become important in terms of sustainable agricultural production [31]. Recently, environmental problems resulting from energy production, conversion and utilization increased public awareness in all sectors of the public, industry and government in both developed and developing countries It is predicted that fossil fuels will be the primary source of energy for the next several decades [8, 9]. The level of fossil fuel dependence differs significantly between developed and developing countries. Although total primary fossil energy input into farm production is comparable between developed countries and developing countries, as illustrated in “Figure 1”, developed countries use more than four times the energy per capita (8.0 gigajoules/capita/year) than developing countries (1.7 GJ/capita/year). Moreover, Figure 5 further reveals very different distribution of energy use across agricultural inputs. For developing countries, nitrogen fertilizer accounts for more than half the energy inputs, with fuel and irrigation forming the next largest inputs. By contrast, in developed countries, fuel and machinery account for more than half the inputs, with nitrogen accounting for about one quarter. Efficient use of resources is one of the major assets of eco-efficient and sustainable production, in agriculture [10]. Energy use is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices [29] and efficient use of energy is one of the principal requirements of sustainable agriculture [18]. It is important, therefore, to analyses cropping systems in energy terms and to evaluate alternative solutions, especially for arable crops, which account for more than half of the primary sector energy consumption [27].

Agricultural systems are complex, and understanding this complexity requires systematic research, but resources for agricultural research are limited. The field experiments investigate a number of variables under a few site-specific conditions. Crop simulation models consider the complex interactions of weather, soil properties, and management factors, which influence crop performance. Mechanistic models are very helpful in deciding the best management options for optimizing crop growth and the yield. In the middle of 1990s, Rice Research Institute of Iran (IRRI), Wageningen University, and the Research Centre developed the ORYZA model series to simulate the growth and development of tropical lowland rice. In 2001, a new version of the ORYZA model was released that improved and incorporated all previous versions into one model called ORYZA2000 [7]. The model ORYZA2000, simulates the growth and development of rice under conditions of potential production, water and nitrogen limitations.

The aims of the study were to survey input energy in local and breed varieties rice production under two farming systems condition (traditional and semi-mechanized), to investigate the energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of rice in Guilan province of Iran.

Figure 1.

Distribution of farm energy inputs in developing countries (left) and in developed countries (right)

2. Materials and methods

In order to gather the required data in this study, information related to 72 farms in Guilan province during the agricultural year 2010 was studied. The Location of studied region in north of Iran was presented in “Figure 2”. The random sampling of production agro ecosystems was done within whole population and the size of each sample was determined by using bottom equation [18].

n=N×s2×t2(N1)d2+s2+t2

In the formula, n is the required sample size, s is the standard deviation, t is the t value at 95% confidence limit (1.96), N is the number of holding in target population and d is the acceptable error.

Figure 2.

Location of the study area

Cultivated varieties in these farms include local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi) and breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid (GRH1) and Gohar (SA13)). Farming methods in these farms include traditional system and semi-mechanized system. In semi-mechanized system in addition to tiller and thrasher, transforming machine and reaping machine are used for plant out and reaping respectively.

Efficient use of the energy resources is vital in terms of increasing production, productivity, competitiveness of agriculture as well as sustainability of rural living. Energy auditing is one of the most common approaches to examining energy efficiency and environmental impact of the production system. It enables researchers to calculate output-input ratio, relevant indicators, and energy use patterns in an agricultural activity. Moreover, the energy audit provides sufficient data to establish functional forms to investigate the relationship between energy inputs and outputs. The amount of inputs used in agricultural production practices (human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, poison fertilizers, water and seeds) were calculated per hectare and then, these data were converted to forms of energy to evaluate the output-input analysis. In order to calculate output and input energy, these input data and amount of output yield were multiplied with the coefficient of energy equivalent. Energy equivalents of inputs and output were converted into energy on area unit. The previous researches “Table 1” were used to determine the energy equivalents’ coefficients [15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 31]. Firstly, the amounts of inputs used in the production of rice were specified in order to calculate the energy equivalences in the study. Energy input include human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, chemical poison, water and seed amounts and output yield include paddy of rice.

In this research, energy indices (energy use efficiency, energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity, net energy gain and water and energy productivity) based on the energy equivalents of the inputs and output “Table 2” were calculated according to bottom equations [15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 31].

Energy use efficiency=Output energy (Mj/ha)Input energy (Mj/ha)

Energy production=Grain yield (Kg/ha)Input energy (Mj/ha)

Energy specific=Input energy (Mj/ha)Grain yield (Kg/ha)

Water and energy productivity=Yield output (Kg/ha)Water applied (M3/ha) × Input energy (Mj/ha)

Net energy gain=Output energy (Mj/ha)Input energy (Mj/ha)

The input energy is also classified into direct and indirect and renewable and non-renewable forms energy equivalents for different inputs and outputs in agricultural production. Indirect energy consists of seeds, chemical fertilizer, chemical poison, and machinery energy while direct energy covered human labor, water and diesel fuel used in the rice production. Non-renewable energy includes diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, chemical poison and machinery and renewable energy consists of human labor, water and seed [2, 4, 5, 6].

ParameterHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGoharEnergy equivalent
Traditional system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)94.394.394.394.394.31.96
Machinery (h/ha)37.237.237.237.237.262.7
Diesel fuel (l/ha)127.2127.2127.2127.2127.256.31
Nitrogen (kg/ha)12512518023023069.5
Phosphorus(kg/ha)60608010010012.44
Potassium (kg/ha)11011015020020011.15
Herbicide (l/ha)3333385
Fungicide (l/ha)22222160
Insecticide (l/ha)2211199
Water (m3/ha)10000100001000010000100001.02
Seed (kg/ha)909070303017
Output
Paddy (kg/ha)3520418048406600836014.7
Straw (kg/ha)44375706660790101141312.5
Husk (kg/ha)813104512101650209013.8
Biomass (kg/ha)87701093112657172602186313.67
Semi-mechanized system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)73.773.773.773.773.71.96
Machinery (h/ha)47.347.347.347.347.362.7
Diesel fuel (l/ha)142.1142.1142.1142.1142.156.31
Nitrogen (kg/ha)12512518023023069.5
Phosphorus(kg/ha)60608010010012.44
Potassium (kg/ha)11011015020020011.15
Herbicide (l/ha)3333385
Fungicide (l/ha)22222160
Insecticide (l/ha)2211199
Water (m3/ha)10000100001000010000100001.02
Seed (kg/ha)707050202017
Output
Paddy (kg/ha)4000475055007500950014.7
Straw (kg/ha)546164857508102391296912.5
Husk (kg/ha)1000118813751875237513.8
Biomass (kg/ha)104611242314383196142484413.67

Table 1.

Amounts of input-output used and energy equivalent in varieties rice production under traditional system and semi-mechanized system condition

ParameterHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)184.83184.83184.83184.83184.83
Machinery (h/ha)2332.442332.442332.442332.442332.44
Diesel fuel (l/ha)7162.637162.637162.637162.637162.63
Nitrogen (kg/ha)8687.58687.5125101598515985
Phosphorus(kg/ha)746.4746.4995.212441244
Potassium (kg/ha)1226.51226.51672.522302230
Herbicide (l/ha)255255255255255
Fungicide (l/ha)320320320320320
Insecticide (l/ha)198198999999
Water (m3/ha)1020010200102001020010200
Seed (kg/ha)153015301190510510
Output
Paddy (kg/ha)51744614467114897020122892
Straw (kg/ha)554637132582588112625142663
Husk (kg/ha)1121914421166982277028842
Biomass (kg/ha)119857149390172979235887298794
Semi-mechanized system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)144.45144.45144.45144.45144.45
Machinery (h/ha)2965.712965.712965.712965.712965.71
Diesel fuel (l/ha)8001.658001.658001.658001.658001.65
Nitrogen (kg/ha)8687.58687.5125101598515985
Phosphorus(kg/ha)746.4746.4995.212441244
Potassium (kg/ha)1226.51226.51672.522302230
Herbicide (l/ha)255255255255255
Fungicide (l/ha)320320320320320
Insecticide (l/ha)198198999999
Water (m3/ha)1020010200102001020010200
Seed (kg/ha)11901190850340340
Output
Paddy (kg/ha)588006982580850110250139650
Straw (kg/ha)682638106393850127988162113
Husk (kg/ha)1380016394189752587532775
Biomass (kg/ha)142967169781196568268058339535

Table 2.

Input-output energy for varieties rice under traditional system and semi-mechanized system condition

In order to calculate energy balance indices, these input data and amount of output yield were multiplied with the coefficient of energy balance equivalent. Energy balance equivalents of inputs and output were converted into energy on area unit. The previous researches “Table 3” were used to determine the energy balance equivalents’ coefficients [2, 4, 5, 6] By using of consumed data as inputs and total production as output, and their concern equivalent energy, indicators of energy balance were calculated “Table 4”.

ParameterHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGoharEnergy balance equivalent
Traditional system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)848.7848.7848.7848.7848.7500
Machinery (h/ha)37.237.237.237.237.290000
Diesel fuel (l/ha)127.2127.2127.2127.2127.29237
Nitrogen (kg/ha)57.557.582.8105.8105.817600
Phosphorus(kg/ha)12.612.616.821213190
Potassium (kg/ha)45.145.161.582821600
Chemical Poison (l/ha)5555527170
Water (m3/ha)1000010000100001000010000272.2
Seed (kg/ha)90907030306513
Depreciation for per diesel fuel (L)106.85106.85106.85106.85106.859583
Semi-mechanized system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)663.3663.3663.3663.3663.3500
Machinery (h/ha)47.347.347.347.347.390000
Diesel fuel (l/ha)142.1142.1142.1142.1142.19237
Nitrogen (kg/ha)57.557.582.8105.8105.817600
Phosphorus(kg/ha)12.612.616.821213190
Potassium (kg/ha)45.145.161.582821600
Chemical Poison (l/ha)5555527170
Water (m3/ha)1000010000100001000010000272.2
Seed (kg/ha)70705020206513
Depreciation for per diesel fuel (L)119.36119.36119.36119.36119.369583

Table 3.

Amounts of input used and energy balance equivalent in varieties rice production under traditional system and semi-mechanized system condition

ParameterHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Input
ParameterHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Human labor (h/ha)424350424350424350424350424350
Machinery (h/ha)33480003348000334800033480003348000
Diesel fuel (l/ha)11749461174946117494611749461174946
Nitrogen (kg/ha)10120001012000145728018620801862080
Phosphorus(kg/ha)4019440194535926699066990
Potassium (kg/ha)721607216098400131200131200
Chemical Poison (l/ha)135850135850135850135850135850
Water (m3/ha)27220002722000272200027220002722000
Seed (kg/ha)586170586170455910195390195390
Depreciation for per diesel fuel (L)10239241023924102392410239241023924
Semi-mechanized system
Input
Human labor (h/ha)331650331650331650331650331650
Machinery (h/ha)42570004257000425700042570004257000
Diesel fuel (l/ha)13125781312578131257813125781312578
Nitrogen (kg/ha)10120001012000145728018620801862080
Phosphorus(kg/ha)4019440194535926699066990
Potassium (kg/ha)721607216098400131200131200
Chemical Poison (l/ha)135850135850135850135850135850
Water (m3/ha)27220002722000272200027220002722000
Seed (kg/ha)455910455910325650130260130260
Depreciation for per diesel fuel (L)11438651143865114386511438651143865

Table 4.

Input energy in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition from calculated indicators of energy balance energy

Cluster analysis and correlation analysis of energy indices and balance energy indices for rice production were obtained by SPSS software. Yield function of paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield for rice production was obtained by STATISCA software. Simulation growth indices of rice cultivars were obtained by model ORYZA2000 “Figure 3” [7].

In the last part of the study, the economic analysis of varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition was investigated. Net profit, gross profit and benefit to cost ratio was calculated. The gross value of production, net return and benefit to cost ratio were calculated using the following equations (Mohammadi et al., 2008):

Figure 3.

The model ORYZA2000 structure

Gross value of production ($/ha) =  Yield (kg/ha) × Sale price ($/kg)

Net return ($/ha) =  Gross value of production ($/ha) - Total cost of production ($/ha)

Productivity (kg/$)=Yield (kg/ha) Total cost of production ($/ha)

Benefit to cost ratio =Gross  value of production ($/ha) Total cost of production ($/ha)

3. Results and discussions

3.1. Analysis of energy indices in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

In “Figure 4” (traditional system) and “Figure 5” (semi-mechanized system), seven groups of reserves of production of studied figures according to percentage of total energy of reserve is observed. Results showed that highest energy consumption in all varieties was related to chemical fertilizer. The amount of further use of fertilizer and also raising of equivalent amounts of energy in this reserve showed this subject. The energy of water reserve, fuel, poison, machines, seed and human labor are in next grades.

Rice plants require fertilizer during vegetative stage to promote growth and tillering, which in turn, determines potential number of panicles. Fertilizer contributes to spikelet production during early panicle formation stage, and contributes to sink size during the late panicle formation stage. Fertilizer also plays a role in grain filling, improving the photosynthetic capacity, and promoting carbohydrate accumulation in culms and leaf sheaths [1].

Results of “Tables 5 and 6” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi), highest paddy yield (9500 kg/ha), straw yield (12969 kg/ha), husk yield (2375 kg/ha) and biomass yield (24844 kg/ha) of semi-mechanized system and paddy yield (8360 Kg/ha), straw yield (11413 kg/ha), husk yield (2090 kg/ha) and biomass yield (21863 kg/ha) of traditional system observed in Gohar rice.

Breed varieties because of accepting higher fertilizer have further input energy than local varieties under two farming systems condition “Tables 5 and 6”. Traditional system because of consumption higher fertilizer and seed has further input energy than semi-mechanized system “Tables 3 and 4”.

Figure 4.

The share (%) production inputs for varieties rice under traditional system condition

Figure 5.

The share (%) production inputs for varieties rice under semi-mechanized system condition

ItemUnitHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Paddy
Yieldkg/ha35204180484066008360
Input energyMJ/ha3284332843369224052340523
Output energyMJ/ha51744614467114897020122892
Energy ratio-1.581.871.932.393.03
Energy intensityMJ/kg9.337.867.636.144.85
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.110.130.130.160.21
Net energy gainMJ/ha1890128603342265649782369
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0110.0120.0130.0160.020
Straw
Yieldkg/ha443757066607901011413
Input energyMJ/ha3284332843369224052340523
Output energyMJ/ha554637132582588112625142663
Energy ratio-1.692.172.242.783.52
Energy intensityMJ/kg7.405.765.594.503.55
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.140.170.180.220.28
Net energy gainMJ/ha22620384824566672102102140
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0130.0170.0180.0220.028
Husk
Yieldkg/ha8131045121016502090
Input energyMJ/ha3284332843369224052340523
Output energyMJ/ha1121914421166982277028842
Energy ratio-0.340.440.450.560.71
Energy intensityMJ/kg40.4031.4330.5124.5619.39
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.020.030.030.040.05
Net energy gainMJ/ha-21624-18422-20224-17753-11681
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0020.0030.0030.0040.005
Biomass
Yieldkg/ha877010931126571726021863
Input energyMJ/ha3284332843369224052340523
Output energyMJ/ha119857149390172979235887298794
Energy ratio-3.654.554.695.827.37
Energy intensityMJ/kg3.743.002.922.351.85
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.270.330.340.430.54
Net energy gainMJ/ha87013116547136057195364258271
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0270.0330.0340.0430.054

Table 5.

Energy indices for varieties rice under traditional system condition

Semi-mechanized system because of producing higher paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield than traditional system of has higher output energy “Tables 5 and 6”. Breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher output energy in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi). Highest output energy with averages 139650, 162113, 32775 and 339535 MJ/ha of semi-mechanized system and with averages 122892, 142663, 28842 and 298794 MJ/ha of traditional system observed in Gohar rice “Tables 5 and 6”.

Energy ratio in two farming systems and five varieties showed that positive output of energy production and being further of energy output of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties (tables 5 and 6).

Results of energy intensity under two farming systems condition “Tables 5 and 6” showed that local varieties require of further input from production of paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield than breed varieties.

Results of energy productivity under two farming systems condition “Tables 5 and 6” were showed that in breed varieties lieu of imported energy consumption have higher energy productions than local varieties.

Net energy gain in two farming systems and five varieties showed that highest net energy gain of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties. Highest net energy gain with averages 97865, 120328, -9010 and 297750 MJ/ha of semi-mechanized system and with averages 82369, 102140, -11681 and 258271 MJ/ha of traditional system observed in Gohar rice “Tables 5 and 6

Direct, indirect energy, renewable, non-renewable, % direct, % indirect energy, % renewable and % non-renewable in two farming systems and five varieties were showed “Tables 7”. In two farming systems and five varieties were showed that direct energy and % direct energy as compared with indirect energy and % indirect energy; renewable energy and % renewable energy as compared with nonrenewable energy and % nonrenewable energy have lower amount “Tables 7”. The amount of higher consumption of machinery and diesel fuel in semi-mechanized system lead to increasing indirect energy in this system in compared with traditional system. The amount of higher consumption of chemical fertilizer in breed varieties lead to increasing indirect energy in these varieties in compared with local varieties. Results showed that, lower amount of consumption of seed and human labor in semi-mechanized system in compared with traditional system leads to being lower of renewable energy in semi-mechanized system than traditional system “Tables 7”. Lower amount of consumption of seed in breed varieties in compared with local varieties leads to being lower of renewable energy in breed varieties than local varieties. The amount of higher consumption of chemical fertilizer in breed varieties in compared with local varieties leads to increasing nonrenewable energy in these breed varieties than local varieties. The share of direct and indirect energy from total reserve of energy and share of renewable and nonrenewable energies from total reserve of energy “Tables 7” in studied farming systems and varieties were that the percentage of direct energy is lowest than percentage of indirect energy and percentage of renewable energy in producing rice is lowest than nonrenewable energies that this required to consider saving in energy consumption.

ItemUnitHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Paddy
Yieldkg/ha40004750550075009500
Input energyMJ/ha3393533935380144178541785
Output energyMJ/ha588006982580850110250139650
Energy ratio-1.732.062.132.643.34
Energy intensityMJ/kg8.487.146.915.574.40
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.120.140.140.180.23
Net energy gainMJ/ha2486535890428366846597865
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0120.0140.0140.0180.022
Straw
Yieldkg/ha5461648575081023912969
Input energyMJ/ha3393533935380144178541785
Output energyMJ/ha682638106393850127988162113
Energy ratio-2.012.392.473.063.88
Energy intensityMJ/kg6.215.235.064.083.22
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.160.190.200.250.31
Net energy gainMJ/ha34327471275583686203120328
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0160.0190.0190.0240.030
Husk
Yieldkg/ha10001188137518752375
Input energyMJ/ha3393533935380144178541785
Output energyMJ/ha1380016394189752587532775
Energy ratio-0.410.480.500.620.78
Energy intensityMJ/kg33.9428.5627.6522.2917.59
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.030.040.040.040.06
Net energy gainMJ/ha-20135-17541-19039-15910-9010
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0030.0030.0040.0040.006
Biomass
Yieldkg/ha1046112423143831961424844
Input energyMJ/ha3393533935380144178541785
Output energyMJ/ha142967169781196568268058339535
Energy ratio-4.215.005.176.428.13
Energy intensityMJ/kg3.242.732.642.131.68
Energy productivitykg/MJ0.310.370.380.470.59
Net energy gainMJ/ha109032135846158554226273297750
Water and energy productivityg/m3.MJ0.0310.0370.0380.0470.059

Table 6.

Energy indices for varieties rice under semi-mechanized system condition

ItemHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Direct energy (MJ/ha)1754717547175471754717547
Direct energy (%)53.4353.4347.5343.3043.30
Indirect energy (MJ/ha)1529615296193752297622976
Indirect energy (%)46.5746.5752.4756.7056.70
Renewable energy (MJ/ha)1191511915115751089510895
Renewable energy (%)36.2836.2831.3526.8926.89
Nonrenewable energy (MJ/ha)2092820928253472962829628
Nonrenewable energy (%)63.7263.7268.6573.1173.11
Semi-mechanized system
Direct energy (MJ/ha)1834618346183461834618346
Direct energy (%)54.0654.0648.2643.9143.91
Indirect energy (MJ/ha)1558915589196672343923439
Indirect energy (%)45.9445.9451.7456.0956.09
Renewable energy (MJ/ha)1153411534111941068410684
Renewable energy (%)33.9933.9929.4525.5725.57
Nonrenewable energy (MJ/ha)2240122401268193110031100
Nonrenewable energy (%)66.0166.0170.5574.4374.43

Table 7.

Division of the energy for varieties rice under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Moradi and Azarpour [23] with study of energy indices for native and breed rice varieties production in Iran were recorded the highest grain yield, input energy, output energy, energy ratio, energy productivity and Net energy gain obtained from breed varieties as compared with local varieties. Eskandari Cherati et al. [11] with study energy survey of mechanized and traditional rice production system in Mazandaran province of Iran showed that the total energy used for semi-mechanized and traditional rice production system was 67217.95 and 67356.28 MJ/ha, respectively. Based on the results, irrigation and fertilizer in both systems with 50232 and 7610.32 MJ/ha was the most input energy. Total energy output of the traditional method was 127.5 GJ/ha and that of the semi-mechanized was 132.26 GJ/ha. Parallel to the mechanization level of operations that increased, consumption of fuel and machinery energy increased similarly, but the human labor and seed energy consumption dropped. The renewable energy in the traditional and semi-mechanized systems was 3168.3 (4.70% total energy) and 2312.1 MJ/ha (3.44%), respectively. Energy ratio and energy productivity in traditional and semi-mechanized systems was 3 and 3.08, and 0.111 and 0.116 kg/MJ 116.0, respectively. Nonetheless, net energy gain and specific energy showed that energy efficiency of semi-mechanized systems was more than the traditional system. Khan et al. [16] with energy requirement and economic analysis of rice production in western part of Pakistan Energy requirement and economic analysis of rice production in western part of Pakistan revealed that energy consumption and rice yield were 5,756 kWh and 3.23 tons per hectare on Bullock Operated Farms (BOF) and 11,162 kWh and 4.12 tons per hectare on Tractor Operated Farms (TOF). Consumption of animate energy on BOF was more than TOF due to heavy use of animate energy in land preparation operation. Result also showed that energy efficiency i.e. output-input ratio on BOF (6.32) was higher than TOF (4.16). Cost of production remained lower on BOF than TOF, however, the yield and consequently crop values and net return were higher on TOF than BOF.

Khan et al. [17] with study energy requirements and economic analysis of wheat, rice and barley production in Australia revealed that chemical fertilizer consumed 47, 43 and 29 % of the total energy inputs on wheat, rice and barley growing farms, respectively. Wheat consumed 3028, rice 6699 and barley consumed 2175 kWhha-1. Similarly, wheat utilized 2852, rice 17754 and barley 856 m3ha-1. Average energy output of wheat was 27874, rice 44885, and barley obtained 17865 kWhha-1. Wheat was most energy efficient crop compared to rice and barley, whereas barley achieved the highest water productivity.

3.2. Analysis of energy indices and balance energy indices in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

The inputs used in varieties rice production under two farming system and their energy equivalents and output energy equivalent were illustrated in “Tables 3 and 4”. About 848.7 h human labor, 37.2 h machinery power, 1000 m3 water, 5 L chemical poison and 127.2 L diesel fuel for total operations were used in varieties rice production under traditional on a hectare basis; Also 106.85 L depreciation power in this system was used. The highest use of nitrogen fertilizer (105.8 kg/ha), phosphorus (21 kg/ha) and potassium (82 kg/ha) were observed in Gohar rice. The lowest use seed in varieties rice production under traditional was observed in Gohar rice (30 kg/ha). About 663.3 h human labor, 47.3 h machinery power, 1000 m3 water, 5 L chemical poison and 142.1 L diesel fuel for total operations were used in varieties rice production under traditional on a hectare basis; Also 119.36 L depreciation power in this system was used. The highest use of nitrogen fertilizer (105.8 kg/ha), phosphorus (21 kg/ha) and potassium (82 kg/ha) were observed in Gohar rice. The lowest use seed in varieties rice production under traditional was observed in Gohar rice (20 kg/ha).

In “Figure 6” (traditional system) and “Figure 7” (semi-mechanized system), eight groups of reserves of production of studied figures according to percentage of total energy of reserve were observed. Results showed that highest shares of this amount were reported for machinery, water, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer and depreciation for per diesel fuel in all varieties rice production respectively. The energy inputs of seed, human labor and chemical poison were found to be quite low compared to the other inputs used in all varieties rice production respectively.

The highest percent of compositions, amounts, production energy, and production energy to consumption energy ratio in rice paddy were obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat; the lowest consumption energy to production energy ratio in rice paddy was obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat “Table 8”. Results of “Table 8” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest amounts (protein: 551.76, fat: 183.92 and starch: 6688), production energy (protein: 2207040 kg/ha, fat: 1655280 kg/ha and starch: 26752000 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.20, fat: 0.15 and starch: 2.41) in rice paddy of traditional system and highest amounts (protein: 627, fat: 209 and starch: 7600), production energy (protein: 2508000 kg/ha, fat: 1881000 kg/ha and starch: 30400000 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.21, fat: 0.16 and starch: 2.51) in rice paddy of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice.

The highest percent of compositions, amounts, production energy, and production energy to consumption energy ratio in rice husk were obtained from starch as compared with fat and protein; the lowest consumption energy to production energy ratio in rice husk was obtained from starch as compared with fat and protein “Table 9”. Results of “Table 9” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest amounts (protein: 107.22, fat: 107.64 and starch:1045), production energy (protein: 428868 kg/ha, fat: 968715 kg/ha and starch: 4180000 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.04, fat: 0.09 and starch: 0.38) in rice husk of traditional system and highest amounts (protein: 121.84, fat: 122.31 and starch: 1187.50), production energy (protein: 487350 kg/ha, fat: 1100813 kg/ha and starch: 4750000 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.04, fat: 0.09 and starch: 0.39) in rice husk of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice.

The highest percent of compositions, amounts, production energy, and production energy to consumption energy ratio in rice straw were obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat; the lowest consumption energy to production energy ratio in rice straw was obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat “Table 10”. Results of “Table 10” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest amounts (protein: 490.76, fat: 148.37 and starch:4941.83), production energy (protein: 1963036 kg/ha, fat: 1335321 kg/ha and starch: 19767316 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.18, fat: 0.12 and starch: 1.87) in rice straw of traditional system and highest amounts (protein:557.67, fat: 168.60 and starch: 6515.68), production energy (protein: 2230668 kg/ha, fat: 1517373 kg/ha and starch: 22462308 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.18, fat: 0.13 and starch: 1.86) in rice straw of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice.

Figure 6.

The share (%) production inputs for varieties rice under traditional system condition

Figure 7.

The share (%) production inputs for varieties rice under semi-mechanized system condition

Varieties riceItemPercent of compositionsEnergy per gram
(kcal)
Amounts
(kg/ha)
Production
energy
(kcal/ha)
Traditional system
HashemiProtein6.64232.329292800.0911.34
Fat2.2977.446969600.0715.12
Starch8042816112640001.070.94
AlikazemiProtein6.64275.8811035200.109.55
Fat2.2991.968276400.0812.73
Starch8043344133760001.270.79
KhazarProtein6.64319.4412777600.128.53
Fat2.29106.489583200.0911.37
Starch8043872154880001.420.70
HybridProtein6.64435.617424000.166.36
Fat2.29145.213068000.128.48
Starch8045280211200001.910.52
GoharProtein6.64551.7622070400.205.02
Fat2.29183.9216552800.156.70
Starch8046688267520002.410.41
Semi-mechanized system
HashemiProtein6.6426410560000.0910.87
Fat2.29887920000.0714.50
Starch8043200128000001.110.90
AlikazemiProtein6.64313.512540000.119.16
Fat2.29104.59405000.0812.21
Starch8043800152000001.320.76
KhazarProtein6.6436314520000.128.15
Fat2.2912110890000.0910.87
Starch8044400176000001.490.67
HybridProtein6.6449519800000.166.11
Fat2.2916514850000.128.14
Starch8046000240000001.980.50
GoharProtein6.6462725080000.214.82
Fat2.2920918810000.166.43
Starch8047600304000002.510.40

Table 8.

Items of energy balance indices in rice paddy production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

The highest percent of compositions, amounts, production energy, and production energy to consumption energy ratio in rice biomass were obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat; the lowest consumption energy to production energy ratio in rice biomass was obtained from starch as compared with protein and fat “Table 11”. Results of “Table 11” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest amounts (protein: 1087.52, fat: 355.91 and starch:12259.26), production energy (protein: 4350060 kg/ha, fat: 32032260 kg/ha and starch: 49037040 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.41, fat: 0.30 and starch: 4.65) in rice biomass of traditional system and highest amounts (protein:1235.80, fat: 404.44 and starch: 13930.87), production energy (protein: 4943180 kg/ha, fat: 3639978 kg/ha and starch: 55723120 kg/ha), and production energy to consumption energy ratio (protein: 0.47, fat: 0.35 and starch: 5.29) in rice biomass of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice.

Varieties riceItemPercent of compositionsEnergy per gram
(kcal)
Amounts
(kg/ha)
Production
energy
(kcal/ha)
Traditional system
HashemiProtein5.13441.711668280.0263.18
Fat5.15941.873768260.0427.97
Starch504406.5016260000.156.48
AlikazemiProtein5.13453.612144340.0249.15
Fat5.15953.824843580.0521.76
Starch504522.5020900000.205.04
KhazarProtein5.13462.072482920.0243.88
Fat5.15962.325608350.0519.43
Starch504605.0024200000.224.50
HybridProtein5.13484.653385800.0332.74
Fat5.15984.987647750.0714.49
Starch504825.0033000000.303.36
GoharProtein5.134107.224288680.0425.85
Fat5.159107.649687150.0911.44
Starch5041045.0041800000.382.65
Semi-mechanized system
HashemiProtein5.13451.302052000.0255.96
Fat5.15951.504635000.0424.77
Starch504500.0020000000.175.74
AlikazemiProtein5.13460.942437780.0247.11
Fat5.15961.185506380.0520.85
Starch504594.0023760000.214.83
KhazarProtein5.13470.542821500.0241.96
Fat5.15970.816373130.0518.57
Starch504687.5027500000.234.30
HybridProtein5.13496.193847500.0331.43
Fat5.15996.568690630.0713.92
Starch504937.5037500000.313.22
GoharProtein5.134121.844873500.0424.81
Fat5.159122.3111008130.0910.99
Starch5041187.5047500000.392.55

Table 9.

Items of energy balance indices in rice husk production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Varieties riceItemPercent of compositionsEnergy per gram
(kcal)
Amounts
(kg/ha)
Production
energy
(kcal/ha)
Traditional system
HashemiProtein4.34190.797631640.0713.81
Fat1.3957.685191290.0520.30
Starch4341921.2276848840.731.37
AlikazemiProtein4.34245.369814320.0910.74
Fat1.3974.186676020.0615.79
Starch4342470.7098827920.941.07
KhazarProtein4.34284.1011364040.109.59
Fat1.3985.897730190.0714.09
Starch4342860.83114433241.050.95
HybridProtein4.34387.4315497200.147.15
Fat1.39117.1310541700.1010.52
Starch4343901.33156053201.410.71
GoharProtein4.34490.7619630360.185.65
Fat1.39148.3713353210.128.30
Starch4344941.83197673161.780.56
Semi-mechanized system
HashemiProtein4.34234.829392920.0812.23
Fat1.3970.996389370.0617.97
Starch4342364.6194584520.821.21
AlikazemiProtein4.34278.8611154200.1010.29
Fat1.3984.317587450.0715.13
Starch4342808.01112320200.981.02
KhazarProtein4.34322.8412913760.119.17
Fat1.3997.608784360.0713.48
Starch4343250.96130038561.100.91
HybridProtein4.34440.2817611080.156.87
Fat1.39133.1111979630.1010.10
Starch4344433.49177339481.470.68
GoharProtein4.34557.6722306680.185.42
Fat1.39168.6015173730.137.97
Starch4345615.58224623081.860.54

Table 10.

Items of energy balance indices in rice straw production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Results of “Table 12” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest paddy yield (8360 kg/ha), consumption energy (11084731 kcal/ha), production energy (30614320 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (2.76) in rice paddy of traditional system and highest paddy yield (9500 kg/ha), consumption energy (12093473 kcal/ha), production energy (34789000 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (2.88) in rice paddy of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice. Energy per unit for rice varieties under to farming system was equaled. Highest Consumption energy to production energy ratio for rice varieties under to farming system was observed in Hashemi rice. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) in this study was calculated 2.76 and 2.88; showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems rice paddy production.

Varieties riceItemPercent of compositionsEnergy per gram
(kcal)
Amounts
(kg/ha)
Production
energy
(kcal/ha)
Traditional system
HashemiProtein5.54437.6417505400.176.02
Fat1.89143.2312890340.128.18
Starch6244933.34197333601.870.53
AlikazemiProtein5.54543.7321749200.214.85
Fat1.89177.9516015320.156.58
Starch6246129.32245172802.330.43
KhazarProtein5.54629.5925183400.244.33
Fat1.89206.0518544140.185.87
Starch6247097.14283885602.690.38
HybridProtein5.54858.5534342000.333.23
Fat1.89280.9825288200.244.38
Starch6249678.20387128003.670.29
GoharProtein5.541087.5243500600.412.55
Fat1.89355.9132032260.303.46
Starch62412259.26490370404.650.23
Semi-mechanized system
HashemiProtein5.54520.3620814200.205.52
Fat1.89170.3015326820.157.49
Starch6245865.82234632802.230.49
AlikazemiProtein5.54617.9324717000.234.65
Fat1.89202.2318200700.176.31
Starch6246965.70278628002.640.41
KhazarProtein5.54715.4428617600.274.14
Fat1.89234.1421072960.205.62
Starch6248064.96322598403.060.37
HybridProtein5.54975.6539025800.373.10
Fat1.89319.3028737180.274.21
Starch62410998.18439927204.170.27
GoharProtein5.541235.8049431800.472.45
Fat1.89404.4436399780.353.32
Starch62413930.78557231205.290.22

Table 11.

Items of energy balance indices in rice biomass production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Energy balance indicesHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Grain yield (kg/ha)35204180484066008360
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1053959510539595108942531108473111084731
Production energy (kcal/ha)1289024015307160177240802416920030614320
Energy per unit (kcal)36623662366236623662
Production energy/ Consumption energy1.221.451.632.182.76
Consumption energy/ Production energy27.4023.0720.6015.3712.13
Semi-mechanized system
Grain yield (kg/ha)40004750550075009500
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1148320711483207118378651209347312093473
Production energy (kcal/ha)1464800017394500201410002746500034789000
Energy per unit (kcal)36623662366236623662
Production energy/ Consumption energy1.281.511.702.272.88
Consumption energy/ Production energy26.2722.1219.7014.7611.65

Table 12.

Analysis of energy balance indices in rice paddy production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Results of “Table 13” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest husk yield (2090 kg/ha), consumption energy (11084731 kcal/ha), production energy (5577583 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (0.50) in rice husk of traditional system and highest husk yield (2357 kg/ha), consumption energy (12093473 kcal/ha), production energy (6338163 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (0.52) in rice husk of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice. Energy per unit for rice varieties under to farming system was equaled. Highest Consumption energy to production energy ratio for rice varieties under to farming system was observed in Hashemi rice. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) in this study was calculated 0.50 and 0.52; showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems rice husk production.

Results of “Table 14” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest straw yield (11413 kg/ha), consumption energy (11084731 kcal/ha), production energy (23065673 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (2.08) in rice husk of traditional system and highest paddy yield (12969 kg/ha), consumption energy (12093473 kcal/ha), production energy (26210349 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (2.17) in rice husk of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice. Energy per unit for rice varieties under to farming system was equaled. Highest Consumption energy to production energy ratio for rice varieties under to farming system was observed in Hashemi rice. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) in this study was calculated 2.08 and 2.17; showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems rice straw production.

Energy balance indicesHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Grain yield (kg/ha)8131045121016502090
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1053959510539595108942531108473111084731
Production energy (kcal/ha)2169653.12788792322912744033555577583
Energy per unit (kcal)26692669266926692669
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.210.260.300.400.50
Consumption energy/ Production energy97.6375.9567.8050.5939.94
Semi-mechanized system
Grain yield (kg/ha)10001188137518752375
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1148320711483207118378651209347312093473
Production energy (kcal/ha)26687003170416366946350038136338163
Energy per unit (kcal)26692669266926692669
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.230.280.310.410.52
Consumption energy/ Production energy86.4872.7964.8448.5738.35

Table 13.

Analysis of energy balance indices in rice husk production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Energy balance indicesHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Grain yield (kg/ha)443757066607901011413
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1053959510539595108942531108473111084731
Production energy (kcal/ha)896717711531826133527471820921023065673
Energy per unit (kcal)20212021202120212021
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.851.091.231.642.08
Consumption energy/ Production energy35.4827.5924.6318.3814.51
Semi-mechanized system
Grain yield (kg/ha)5461648575081023912969
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1148320711483207118378651209347312093473
Production energy (kcal/ha)1103668113106185151736682069301926210349
Energy per unit (kcal)20212021202120212021
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.961.141.281.712.17
Consumption energy/ Production energy31.4126.4523.5517.6413.93

Table 14.

Analysis of energy balance indices in rice straw production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Results of “Table 15” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi); the highest biomass yield (19773 kg/ha), consumption energy (11084731 kcal/ha), production energy (56590326 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (5.37) in rice biomass of traditional system and highest biomass yield (22469 kg/ha), consumption energy (12093473 kcal/ha), production energy (6430278 kcal/ha) and production energy to consumption energy ratio (6.10) in rice biomass of semi-mechanized observed in Gohar rice. Energy per unit for rice varieties under to farming system was equaled. Highest consumption energy to production energy ratio for rice varieties under to farming system was observed in Hashemi rice. Energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) in this study was calculated 5.37 and 6.10; showing the affective use of energy in the agro ecosystems rice biomass production.

Energy balance indicesHashemiAlikazemiKhazarHybridGohar
Traditional system
Grain yield (kg/ha)79579886114471561019773
Consumption energy (kcal/ha)1053959510539595108942531108473111084731
Production energy(kcal/ha)2277293428293732327613144467582056590326
Energy per unit (kcal)28622862286228622862
Production energy/ Consumption energy2.162.683.114.245.37
Consumption energy/ Production energy14.7311.8610.587.906.23
Semi-mechanized system
Grain yield (kg/ha)946111235130081773922469
Consumption energy(kcal/ha)1148320711483207118378651209347312093473
Production energy(kcal/ha)2707738232154570372288965076901864306278
Energy per unit (kcal)28622862286228622862
Production energy/ Consumption energy2.573.053.534.826.10
Consumption energy/ Production energy13.5011.3710.127.585.99

Table 15.

Analysis of energy balance indices in rice biomass production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

3.3. Correlation analysis of energy indices and balance energy indices for rice production

Result of “Table 16” (balance energy indices) showed that between paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield with production energy and production energy to consumption energy ratio have a positive and very significant correlation, also between paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield with consumption energy to production energy ratio energy intensity a negative and significant correlation in probability level of 1% were recorded.

ItemYieldConsumption
Energy
Production
energy
Paddy yield1
Consumption energy0.581
Production energy0.99**0.581
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.99**0.480.99**1
Consumption energy/ Production energy-0.96**-0.50**-0.96**-0.97**1
Straw yield1
Consumption energy0.591
Production energy0.99**0.591
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.99**0.490.99**1
Consumption energy/ Production energy-0.96**-0.52**-0.96**-0.96**1
Husk yield1
Consumption energy0.591
Production energy0.99**0.591
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.99**0.480.99**1
Consumption energy/ Production energy-0.96**-0.52**-0.96**-0.96**1
Biomass yield1
Consumption energy0.591
Production energy0.99**0.591
Production energy/ Consumption energy0.99**0.590.99**1
Consumption energy/ Production energy-0.96**-0.51**-0.96**-0.96**1

Table 16.

Correlation of energy balance indices for rice production

Result of “Table 17” (energy indices) showed that between paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield with input energy, output energy, energy ratio, energy productivity, net energy gain and water and energy productivity have a positive and very significant correlation, also between paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield with energy intensity a negative and significant correlation in probability level of 1% were recorded.

3.4. Growth analysis of rice varieties

Most climate change studies benefit from crop models. Crop simulation models could provide an alternative, less time-consuming and inexpensive means of determining the optimum crop N requirements under management nitrogen conditions. The model ORYZA2000, which simulates the growth and development of rice under conditions of potential production, water and nitrogen limitations, Results of growth indices analysis of rice varieties “Figure 8” showed that breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid and Gohar) higher growth indices rather than Hashemi local varieties (Hashemi and Alikazemi). Azarpour et al. [3] with study Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 model of rice cultivars in Guilan climate condition showed that the model ORYZA2000 can satisfactorily in Simulates processes of growth and development and grain yield of rice cultivars under weather conditions of Guilan. Therefore validated ORYZA2000 model can apply to research purposes for rice cultivars under weather conditions of Guilan.

ItemYieldInput energyOutput energyEnergy
Ratio
Energy intensityEnergy productivityNet energy gainWater and energy productivity
Paddy yield1
Input energy0.91**1
Output energy0.99**0.91**1
Energy ratio0.99**0.86**0.99**1
Energy intensity-0.97**-0.90**-0.97**-0.97**1
Energy productivity0.98**0.84**0.98**0.99**-0.96**1
Net energy gain0.99**0.89**0.99**0.99**-0.97**0.99**1
Water and energy productivity0.99**0.87**0.99**0.99**-0.97**0.99**0.99**1
Straw yield1
Input energy0.92**1
Output energy0.99**0.92**1
Energy ratio0.99**0.87**0.99**1
Energy intensity-0.96**-0.83**-0.96**-0.96**1
Energy productivity0.99**0.88**0.99**0.99**-0.96**1
Net energy gain0.99**0.90**0.99**0.99**-0.96**0.99**1
Water and energy productivity0.99**0.87**0.99**0.99**-0.97**0.99**0.99**1
Husk yield1
Input energy0.92**1
Output energy0.99**0.92**1
Energy ratio0.99**0.87**0.99**1
Energy intensity-0.96**-0.88**-0.96**-0.96**1
Energy productivity0.92**0.77**0.92**0.95**-0.94**1
Net energy gain0.93**0.71**0.93**0.96**-0.89**0.93**1
Water and energy productivity0.95**0.84**0.95**0.96**-0.93**0.96**0.92**1
Biomass yield1
Input energy0.92**1
Output energy0.99**0.92**1
Energy ratio0.99**0.87**0.99**1
Energy intensity-0.96**-0.89**-0.96**-0.97**1
Energy productivity0.99**0.97**0.99**0.99**-0.97**1
Net energy gain0.99**0.91**0.99**0.99**-0.96**0.99**1
Water and energy productivity0.99**0.87**0.99**0.99**-0.97**0.99**0.99**1

Table 17.

Correlation of energy indices for rice production

Figure 8.

Simulation and measured of biomass of leaves (○), stem (◊), panicles (▲), and total aboveground biomass (■)

3.5. Cluster analysis of energy indices and balance energy indices for rice production

In cluster analysis genotypes were classified into four groups based on Ward’s method. Cluster analysis showed that Hybrid and Gohar varieties and Alikazemi, Khazar and Hashemi varieties in group similarities “Figure 9”.

Figure 9.

Dendrogram of rice genotypes based on different ward method

3.6. Yield function

Relation between amounts of energy efficiency (energy output to input energy ratio) and energy balance efficiency (production energy to consumption energy ratio) and their effect on paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield were showed in figure 10. Paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield were increased with of use energy efficiency and energy balance efficiency “Figure 10”. Yield function of paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield obtained by following relationship “Figure 10”.

3.7. Economic analysis of varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Crop profitability is the indicator for a farmer to decide what to grow and what and how much should be the energy inputs for growing that specific crop. Total cost of production in two farming systems and five varieties were showed that highest total cost of production in traditional system than semi-mechanized system and local varieties than breed varieties “Figure 11”. The amount of higher consumption of human labor, chemical fertilizer, chemical poison and seed in traditional system lead to increasing total cost of production in this system in compared with semi-mechanized system. Also, because of suitable genetic specifications have higher operation in compared with local varieties. The suitable genetic specifications in breed varieties lead to reducing total cost of production in these varieties in compared with local varieties.

Gross value of production in two farming systems and five varieties were showed that highest gross value of production of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties “Figure 12”. Highest gross value of production with average of 11717 $/ha (semi-mechanized system) and 10311 $/ha (traditional system) observed in Gohar rice.

Net return in two farming systems and five varieties were showed that highest net return of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties “Figure 13”. Highest net return with average of 9391 $/ha (semi-mechanized system) and 11239 $/ha (traditional system) observed in Gohar rice.

Figure 10.

The effect of energy efficiency and energy balance on paddy yield, straw yield, husk yield and biomass yield

Figure 11.

Total cost of production in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Figure 12.

Gross value of production in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Productivity in two farming systems and five varieties were showed that highest productivity of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties “Figure 14”. Highest productivity with average of 19.87 kg/$ (semi-mechanized system) and 9.09 kg/$ (traditional system) observed in Gohar rice.

Benefit to cost ratio in two farming systems and five varieties were showed that highest benefit to cost ratio of semi-mechanized system than traditional system and breed varieties than local varieties “Figure 15”. Highest benefit to cost ratio with average of 11.21 (semi-mechanized system) and 24.51 (traditional system) observed in Gohar rice.

Figure 13.

Net return in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Figure 14.

Productivity in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

Khan et al. [17] with study energy requirements and economic analysis of wheat, rice and barley production in Australia showed that Cost of production on wheat crop was 323, rice 896 and barley was A$ 246 ha-1. Rice grower obtained the highest return of A$ 2088, as compared to wheat and barley growers, who obtained A$ 589 and 370 ha-1. Therefore, the benefit-cost ratio was the highest on rice farms (3.33) as compared to wheat (2.82) and Barley (2.50). It was concluded that increase in energy consumption at farm level increased yield of rice, hence the farmers with higher cost of production could get better return of their crop [16].

Figure 15.

Benefit to cost ratio in varieties rice production under traditional and semi-mechanized system condition

4. Conclusion

Consider that breed varieties rice and semi-mechanized farming system are suitable case for increasing production of rice according to the limitation of rice fields of Guilan province (Iran). Identifying the way of developing and exploitation, energy indicators in agricultural section of Iran either in the light of having weak economical fundamentals or in the light of strict competition in global scene for obtaining better economical condition, helps that we lead our resources and facilities of our production in a direction that can obtain our suitable place in international occasions faster. According to the results of this research and studying the energy and economic analysis, we can say that the condition of the management of energy consumption in producing breed varieties (Khazar, Hybrid (GRH1) and Gohar (SA13)) are more suitable and according to the need of country about producing rice and limitation of energy sources which are mainly nonrenewable energy, producing breed varieties is a step towards sustainable agriculture.

© 2013 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ebrahim Azarpour and Maral Moraditochaee (April 30th 2013). A Comparative Study on Energy Use and Cost Analysis of Rice Varieties Under Traditional and Semi-Mechanized Farming Systems in North of Iran, Biomass Now - Sustainable Growth and Use, Miodrag Darko Matovic, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/51165. Available from:

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