## 1. Introduction

The influence of wind energy connection to the grid has increased greatly and turbulence or unreliable characteristics of wind energy are expected to produce frequency and voltage changes in power systems and protection system equipment. To prevent these changes, it is necessary to study the working point change due to turbulence. In other papers, the voltage and transient stability analysis have been studied during and after turbulence [2] and the impact of WTGs (wind turbine generators) on the system frequency, inertia response of different wind turbine technologies, and comparison between inertia response of single-fed and doubly-fed induction generators have been examined. Moreover study of the frequency change alone was conducted using Dig-SILENT simulator for FSWTs (fast-speed wind turbines) with one-mass shaft model [2].

In this chapter both frequency and grid voltage sag change are presented with MATLAB analytically and also by SIMULINK simulation in FSWTs with one- and two-mass shaft turbine models to compare both results and a new simulation of induction machine without limiter and switch blocks is presented as a new work. The first part of study is frequency change effect on wind station by SIMULINK that shows opposite direction of torque change in comparison with previous studies with Dig-SILENT. The second part of study is effect of frequency and voltage sag change on wind station torque due to turbulence in new simulation of induction generator that is new idea.

## 2. Wind turbine model

The equation of wind turbine power is

where

The *C* _{p }curve and equation are shown in Fig. 1 and given by equation (2) and (3)

where

where *R* is blade radius.

The curve of Fig.1 has positive slope before _{max} and it has negative slope after _{max}.

## 3. One-Mass Shaft Wind Station Model

Induction machine equation is

Where,

Table 1 shows the parameters of the one-mass shaft turbine model and induction generator.

Generator | Wind Turbine |

^{2}] | |

^{2 }[m^{2}] | |

^{3}] | |

## 4. Two-Mass Shaft Induction Machine Model

This model is used to investigate the effect of the drive train or two-mass shaft, i.e., the masses of the machine and the shaft, according to the equation (8) [3], [4]. In this equation,

The angular shaft speed

The Parameters, defined above, are given in Table 2.

This model is described as equation (8).

υ$$ | 1/80 |

[kg.m2] | .5 |

[kg.m2] | 1 |

[Nm/rad2] | 1e6 |

[Nm/rad] | 6e7 |

## 5. Induction Machine and Kloss Theory

In a single-fed induction machine, the torque angular speed curve of equation (12) [1] is nonlinear, but by using the Kloss equation (13), equations (9), (10), and (11), this curve is linearly modified [1], [2] as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the effect of frequency changes in wind power stations can be derived precisely by equation (12) and approximately using equation (13), as shown in Figs. 2–6.

Equations (11) and (12) are given in per unit, but the associated resistances are in ohms.

Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6 illustrate that for lower wind speeds of 6 and 10 m/s, as the synchronous frequency *f* _{s }and *V* _{sag} change, the *T* _{e }and *V* _{sag} = 0% (i.e., only the frequency changes), 10%, 20%, and 50%. However, for a higher wind speed of 13 m/s, as *f* _{s }and *V* _{sag} change, the *T* _{e }and

For small changes in the slip according to the Kloss approach in equation (13), the torque changes as follows [2]:

Then:

and

or

Thus, the new angular operation speed[2] is

6 | .96050 | -.1157 | 1.0005 | -.1064 | 1.0405 | -.0974 |

10 | .9621 | -.5337 | 1.0021 | -.491 | 1.0421 | -.4493 |

13 | .9631 | -.7863 | 1.0035 | -.8122 | 1.0439 | -.8331 |

6 | .9606 | -.1156 | 1.0006 | -.1064 | 1.0406 | -.0974 |

10 | .9625 | -.5163 | 1.0027 | -.5137 | 1.0429 | -.5086 |

13 | .9738 | -.7868 | 1.0043 | -.8127 | 1.0448 | -.8335 |

6 | .9607 | -.1156 | 1.0007 | -.1064 | 1.0407 | -.0974 |

10 | .9632 | -.5163 | 1.0034 | -.5136 | 1.0437 | -.5085 |

13 | .9648 | -.7875 | 1.0054 | -.8134 | 1.0461 | -.8341 |

6 | .9618 | -.1153 | 1.0018 | -.1061 | 1.0418 | -.0971 |

10 | .9681 | -.5161 | 1.0088 | -.5131 | 1.0494 | -.5076 |

13 | .9724 | -.7927 | 1.0139 | -.8181 | 1.0555 | -.8382 |

## 6. Simulation of wind generator with frequency change

During turbulence and changes in the grid frequency, the torque speed (slip) curves change in such a way that as the frequency increases, the torque is increased at low wind speeds; 6 and 10 m/s, in contrast to Fig. 6 and decreases at a high speed of 13 m/s [2], as shown in Table 7 and Figs. 7–15.

6 | .9619 | -.1148 | 1.0019 | -.1057 | 1.0418 | -.0969 |

10 | .9684 | -.5179 | 1.0091 | -.5134 | 1.0494 | -.5076 |

13 | .9724 | -.7945 | 1.0147 | -.8177 | 1.0559 | -.8373 |

Figs. 7–15 show the electrical torque and mechanical speed of the induction machine for the one- and two-mass shaft turbine models at wind speeds of 6, 10, and 13 m/s to validate Table 7.

## 7. Simulation of wind station with one-mass and two-mass shaft turbine models

The results of simulations of a simple grid, fixed-speed induction machine, and one-mass and two-mass shaft turbines are given in Tables 8 -10 and Figs. 16–42. For an induction wind generator using the induction block in SIMULINK with high voltage sag i.e. 50% with frequencies 50 and 52 and $$ equal to 13, *C* _{p }becomes negative, and the results are unrealistic. Then results of 50% voltage sag are realistic in new simulation of induction machine in Tables 8 -10.

6 | .9624 | -.1152 | 1.0024 | -.106 | 1.0423 | -.097 |

10 | .9703 | -.516 | 1.0111 | -.5128 | 1.0519 | -.5071 |

13 | .9757 | -.795 | 1.0176 | -.8201 | 1.0595 | -.8399 |

6 | .963 | -.1151 | 1.003 | -.1059 | 1.043 | -.0969 |

10 | .973 | -.5159 | 1.014 | -.5125 | 1.055 | -.5066 |

13 | .9799 | -.7977 | 1.0223 | -.8226 | 1.0648 | -.842 |

6 | .9674 | -.114 | 1.0074 | -.1048 | 1.0474 | -.0959 |

10 | .9933 | -.5146 | 1.0364 | -.5096 | 1.0796 | -.502 |

13 | 1.0248 | -.8239 | 1.0474 | -.8347 | 1.0917 | -.85 |

## 8. New Simulation of Induction Machine

Figs. 33 and 42 show the results of new simulation of the induction machine model illustrated in Fig. 43 [1]. The new simulation, which has no limiters and switches, is used because at high grid voltage drop-down or sag, the Simulink induction model does not yield realistic results.

The new simulation of induction machine is in *n* (Transfer coefficient) is assumed to be 1. Circuit theory is used in this simulation, and it does not have saturation and switch blocks, unlike the MATLAB–SIMULINK Induction block. In Fig. 43,

Where

Then

where the inductance matrix parameters are given by (21), (22), (23).

The linkage and leakage fluxes are given by (24) to (29).

To create the torque in equation (19), it is necessary to determine the currents in equations (30)–(33) from the stator and rotor currents by using current meters.

## 9. Conclusion

As frequency changes and voltage sag occurs because of turbulence in wind stations in ride-through faults, the system’s set point changes. The theoretical and simulation results results are similar for one mass shaft and two mass shaft turbine models. At lower wind speeds; 6 and 10 m/s, the directions of the changes in the new working point are the same as those of the frequency changes. At a higher wind speed; 13 m/s, the directions of these changes are opposite to the direction of the frequency changes. Simulation results of high grid voltage sag with SIMULINK induction block has error and new simulation of wind induction generator in synchronous reference frame is presented without error and in 50% voltage sag, new simulation of wind generator model has higher precision than that in 10% and 20% voltage sags; however, this model can simulate wind generator turbulence with voltage sags higher than 50%. Although results of new simulation of induction machine with wind turbine for 50% voltage sag and frequencies 50 and 52 have been presented in this chapter.

## 10. Nomenclature

J = Inertia

$$

$$

## 11. Future Work

The new simulation of induction generator will be tested by new innovative rain turbine theory and model of the author.

## Acknowledgments

I appreciate Dr. Oriol Gomis Bellmunt for conceptualization, Discussions and new information and Dr. Andreas Sumper for discussions about first part of chapter, with special thanks to Dr. Joaquin Pedra for checking reference frame and starting point in new simulation of induction machine.