InTechOpen uses cookies to offer you the best online experience. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Privacy Policy.

Medicine » Mental and Behavioural Disorders and Diseases of the Nervous System » "ADHD - New Directions in Diagnosis and Treatment", book edited by Jill M. Norvilitis, ISBN 978-953-51-2166-4, Published: September 24, 2015 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

Chapter 11

Family Difficulties in Children with ADHD, the Role of Integrated Psychopharmacology Psychotherapy Treatment

By H.H. Aili, B. Norharlina, K.S. Manveen and W.I. Wan Salwina
DOI: 10.5772/61416

Article top

Family Difficulties in Children with ADHD, the Role of Integrated Psychopharmacology Psychotherapy Treatment

H.H. Aili1, B. Norharlina2, K.S. Manveen1 and W.I. Wan Salwina3

1. Introduction

Children with ADHD have difficulties in their social and adaptive behavior which are related to the core symptoms of the disorder [1, 2]. The difficulties are felt within and outside the family setting [1, 3-5] with factors in their environment increasing the risk of impairment. Families of children with ADHD have consistently been shown to experience more burdens including stress [1, 6, 7].

Her parents brought Alice, a 12-year-old Asian girl to a child and adolescent psychiatry service. Her parents were upset that Alice would not follow their instructions at home. Alice would daydream and procrastinate with her school assignments despite constant reminders, and her grades were deteriorating. Alice’s parents appeared frustrated, as they felt Alice intentionally defy their requests, even in simple day-to-day tasks, and to make matters worse, Alice was disinterested in her studies.

The parents were especially distressed that Alice had posted seductive photos of herself on Facebook, and their daughter had become increasingly moody and irritable over the past couple of months. They described Alice as being lazy, deceitful and dishonest. Her father at this point revealed that since the discovery, he had successfully removed all Internet access at home.

Alice remained quiet, while her parents went on relentlessly in a tirade of dissatisfaction regarding their daughter’s behavior. When the clinician could, she asked the parents for qualities they admired in Alice, they were unable to come up with any.

On seeing Alice alone, she was warm and engaging. Alice expressed frustration at not being understood. Alice expressed she had difficulties in concentrating for long periods. She felt angry with herself for not finishing her tasks, and noticed she was often distracted easily. About her being distracted easily, Alice felt, this has been present since as long as she could remember. She later expressed regret over posting pictures of herself on Facebook. She said she was dared by a friend, and did it without thinking. Alice said she was petrified of her dad when he found the pictures, as no one at home chose to annoy her father. Her father, she added, had a “very bad temper”.

The difficulties illustrated above may seem common in many children. However, when these difficulties considerably interfere with a child’s normal functioning, clinicians should consider the possibility of the child having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a common neurobiological condition affecting 5-8% of school-age children [8]. For children like Alice, the inability to focus, attend to lessons, listen and obey instructions, and the presence of impulsive behavior often impact their functioning and interaction with others [9, 10].

It is often difficult to sort out what difficulties are caused specifically by the disorder and what factors add to the difficulties, and how. Adults often see the problems in the children as the child misbehaving and being under the influence of friends, as this case illustrates. There are many ways of characterizing the difficulties associated with ADHD [11, 12], with some researchers categorizing it as:

  1. Emotional component, e.g., they are easily frustrated, impatient and emotionally reactive. The pathology is described as the presence of uncontrolled irritable temperament and has been suggested to be as a result of inability to inhibit responses, with the impulsivity in ADHD thought to drive the emotional component seen [11].

  2. Social component, e.g., arguing, defiant. Other than poor behavioral inhibition [12], the social component is often linked to learned behaviors and is frequently related to the reaction of significant others to the child’s behavior.

2. Behavioral disinhibition

Alice’s parents reported a broad range of behaviors that can be classified as ‘behavioral disinhibition”. Alice struggled to contain and restrain her behavior. Alice was unable and at times was unwilling to inhibit her impulses, resulting in the emergence of inappropriate or disruptive behaviors. One of the most complained about behaviors by Alice’s parents was that Alice was excessively responding to things when she was stressed. This caused their communication and interaction to deteriorate quickly as many times Alice responded by answering back to her parents instead of taking time to assess the task or requests from them and to come to a reasonable response. Alice’s reactions angered her parents as they expected Alice to respond to them more appropriately and most importantly to comply with their requests.

Behavioral disinhibition is central to understanding many behavioral complications seen in ADHD, and it is described as being impulsive/ impulsiveness. Behaviors such as uncontrollable silly and clown-like conduct, giggling too much, and involvement in risk- taking behaviors, e.g., sexual misconduct, substance use or abuse, engagement with online friends or interest in prohibited actions, are behaviors often seen as annoying and causing disturbances or distress to others. These behaviors are beyond the definition of normal behavior and signify the impulsive behavior seen in people with ADHD.

Inhibition is defined as the ability to control one’s attention, behavior, thoughts, and/or emotions [12]. In humans, the ability to use one’s inhibition is necessary to override many strong internal vulnerability and external lure [13]. Inhibition is part of executive function, which is regulated in the frontal lobe [14].

Appropriate regulation of emotions is reliant on having effective behavioral inhibition [12]; and when this is deficient or defective, this often results in many emotional and behavioral problems [3, 15]. Many researchers have emphasized the presence of poor behavioral inhibition as the central impairment of the disorder [12, 16]. The poor behavior inhibition and poor impulse control is evident in people with ADHD having greater disinhibition and being less effective at regulating their emotions [12, 16]. As the consequence, they have the inability to delay responding long enough to consider the social situation and the consequences of their behavior [12, 16, 17]. Thus they make frequent hasty decisions and actions that occur in the moment without them thinking and considering the possibility of high potential of harm, failure or disappointment to the individual. Learning from their mistakes does not often occur or is difficult. They are repeatedly unable to use appropriate self-regulation strategies and social skills [12, 16]. They are unable to persist long enough to complete tasks and are unable to regulate them from being easily distracted.

Children with ADHD are seen as being disruptive and annoying. Again, this is as a consequence of their inability to regulate their behaviors and emotions. Their behaviors are highly intense, unmodulated and often inappropriate in the given context and insensitive to social expectations [3, 5, 18, 19]. They are often described as interrupting and intruding on others. The disruptive behaviors often emerge as early as in the preschool years and in many children persisting into adolescence [20]. Children with ADHD are described as less attentive to social cues, not listening to adults, and ignoring parental requests.

These difficulties impair their academic and social functioning, use of their recreational time as well as the relationship with their parents [21]. They are often seen as being less compliant even oppositional towards adults [22, 23]. It makes it hard for the parent of a child who is often annoyed and over-reacting to things around him/ her. Just as frustrating and worrying, many parents have been called in to their child’s school to listen to numerous negative reports of their child and some may have triggered negative reactions from their teachers.

Further neurobiological information on impulsivity and inhibition has been suggested to be as a result multiple pathway models [16, 24, 25] and discussed in-length elsewhere in the book.

Alice felt over controlled being home, and expressed that she chose to keep to herself. Alice added she would usually confide and feel better when she chatted with friends online. She felt miserable, as she had no longer had any access to them after her father cut-off the Internet access.

Alice felt she was walking on eggshells when she was at home. She added that she felt tense at home, and was not able to be herself. She feared that her father would be angry, and he often was angry when he came home. In many of his angry outbursts, father has asked Alice’s mother to leave the house.

Alice had symptoms of ADHD, which was clearly impacting her performance at school and putting a strain on her relationship with her parents. Her impulsivity resulted in her making hasty and unwise decisions, as seen in her risk-taking behavior. The dispute and conflict at home between her parents and her, her parent’s negative perception of her, further drove her to seek comfort and acceptance with online friends. Her anger and frustration at her predicament appeared to be taking a toll on her ability to regulate her emotions. She was seen to be moody and irritable at the time of presentation, and it worsened the interaction between her and her parents.

3. Diagnosis


Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Difficulties with Primary support group

Reactive attachment disorder

The diagnoses arrived at were purely based on detailed psychiatric assessment which involves thorough history taking and mental state examination of the child and her family. No other assessment devices/ rating scales were employed.

The writers were based in a child and adolescent mental health facility where the service has only child and adolescents psychiatrists. There are many such services operating with the lack of staffs e.g. child psychiatrists or allied health personnel, and funding. This should not prevent clinicians or any mental health professionals assessing any child presenting to mental health facilities with symptoms suggestive of ADHD. It is most logical to gather enough data from the parents regarding symptoms of ADHD, i.e. look for any behavioral, emotional and academic difficulties.

Neuropsychological testing, speech-language assessments, and computerized testing of attention or inhibitory control may not be available in many centers or settings. These assessments are not required as part of a routine assessment for ADHD, but may be indicated by the findings of the initial psychological assessment [26]. Having no such assessment tools should not prevent any child and their families to be assessed.

4. Emotional dysregulation

children with ADHD are viewed as being more unsuccessful with regulation and this can be easily seen as they are easily upset when faced with faced with daunting and frustrating tasks [12, 13, 27]. As demonstrated in Alice, they respond impulsively.

Emotion regulation refers to the ongoing process of responding to one’s environment with emotions that are both socially acceptable and context-appropriate for any given situation [13]. It is a process that allows the individual to select, attend and appraise emotionally arousing stimuli [28]. The expression of emotions is pertinent and it has to be appropriate to help promote adaptive and goal-oriented behaviors and to fit in with others [29]. These processes trigger behavioral and physiological responses that can be modulated through understanding of what influences these components of emotions, with dysregulation of one’s emotion appearing when these adaptive processes are impaired [28, 30].

From the history Alice seemed easily frustrated, moody and irritable. Alice was not able to regulate her emotions adequately, giving rise to her being irritable at home especially when she felt she was confronted by her parents. These clearly complicated things between Alice and her parents; despite them telling her to consider issues brought up by her parents, Alice was not able to delay responding.

Emotional dysregulation can be seen in three domains from temper control, affective lability and emotional over reactivity [31]. Emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD and is a major contributor to impairment [13, 32, 33]. Reports estimates, prevalence of between 24% and 50% children with ADHD has emotional dysregulation [33-35], and it is more severe in males [13].

Furthermore, children with ADHD has been described as emotionally explosive [1, 13]. The difficulties with self-regulating their emotions is seen in them being easily frustrated, and having low frustration tolerance, with frequent temper outbursts and mood lability [16, 36]. They are seen seen to be easily angry, hot-tempered, sensitive thus easily annoyed and reacts to the slightest comments. They fight with parents, teachers and even their peers [1, 37, 38]. Many children end up facing numerous limitations in their activities with friends at school or within the neighborhood, with some children consequently having no friends. Peers avoid being with the child due to their negative, harsh and at times aggressive behavior.

It has been proposed that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of emotional dysregulation in children with ADHD [33, 39, 40]. Failures of parental emotion regulation, high levels of parental criticism contribute to the development of emotion dysregulation in children with ADHD [41, 42], and these issues were illustrated in Alice and her family.

Emotional dysregulation is thought to have a greater impact than hyperactivity and inattention on an individual’s well-being and self-esteem [33]. Individuals with combination of ADHD and emotional dysregulation face more impairment in peer relationships, family life, occupational attainment, and academic performance than those with ADHD alone [1, 33]. Other than it is a major source of impairment, the presence of emotional dysregulation indicates poorer clinical outcome [30].

The presence of oppositional behavior and difficulties with self-regulation are often an indication of more serious difficulties [12, 16].

5. Peer and school challenges in ADHD

Having friends is important; children learn to socialize, communicate, cooperate, and negotiate having friends. They also learn to manage disagreements and challenges. Friends are an important source of influence, both positive and negative, especially outside the home environment [43, 44]. Friends play a key role in the development of personal competence and identity, with having friends predictive of the child’s later psychological functioning as they are an important source of support [45]. Peer relationships are important especially for adolescents with presence of peer rejection linked to long-term negative outcomes including academic problems, school dropout, delinquency, even cigarette and substance use [5, 19, 45].

The core symptoms of ADHD, i.e. inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity impede effective functioning with peers [19, 46, 47]. Between 50% and 80% of children with ADHD are rejected by peers [19, 48]. Inattentiveness limits opportunities to acquire social skills through observational learning and to attend to social cues necessary for successful social interaction, while hyperactive and impulsive behaviors contribute to unrestrained and overbearing social behavior that makes children with ADHD highly aversive to their peers [3, 5, 46, 47].

Peers often report children with ADHD exhibit more negative behaviors, such as “interrupting or intruding on others”, are noisy and others often find them as socially immature. This is primarily because these children exhibit deficits in social skills such as reduced capacity for social reciprocity and difficulties in understanding social cues [49]. In addition, children with ADHD have reduced ability to monitor and evaluate their own behaviors [19, 50]. They are unable to wait for their turn or to learn from being told before, resulting in them to be lower on social preference among their peers. They are less well-liked and have fewer dyadic friendships [19, 50]. The deficits in peer rejection often occur early in age and these children are often excluded from popular social groups [47].

The presence of ADHD symptoms in children impact the child’s school functioning, performance and achievement [26, 51]. A significant proportion of children with ADHD faced significant difficulties in school with learning [52, 53], low academic achievement [54], and absenteeism [21, 55-57].

To add to their challenges in school, even among their teachers, children with ADHD are perceived as being less socially competent [58] and at times challenging. Teachers play an important role in the lives of children, including in children with ADHD. They have daily contact with the children, and they are often the first to notice the difficulties in the children with ADHD. Teachers often make inferences about the child’s present and future academic achievement and general classroom behavior of their students, thus creating expectations for and perception of the child [54, 59, 60]. Like parents, teachers report feeling more stressed when handling and interacting with children with ADHD as the interactions are more negative [61]. Similarly the perceptions and expectations of teachers affect their interactions with the children, which in turn affect the children’s behavior and academic success [59, 60].

6. Co-morbidity

Approximately two thirds of children with ADHD have at least one other coexisting condition [62, 63]. Disruptive behavior is one of the most common behavioral difficulties with an estimate of between 30% and 50% of children with ADHD have them [63-65]. Children with ADHD, particularly those exhibiting more impulsivity, are likely to be diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. They have more difficulties restricting their behavior in conformance with instructions especially from adults, deferring gratification and resisting temptations [12]. Additionally the presence of conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder significantly complicates the acute presentation of ADHD and its management. The disruptive behavior is associated with more aggression and delinquency, and disrupts academic achievement [12, 66-69]. The emergence of disruptive behavior in Alice clearly caused a lot of animosity between her parents and Alice.

7. Depression

Alice did not have sufficient symptoms to warrant a diagnosis of a depressive disorder, however she did reveal some symptoms to suggest she was depressed. Many children with ADHD describe chronic unhappiness even though they do not fulfill the criteria of major depression (MD). Presence of depression is common with between 5% and 40% of children with ADHD meeting the criteria for MD [62, 70, 71]. Major depression in children with ADHD is often recurrent and the prevalence increases significantly around puberty [72]. Presence of depression further complicates the picture as it is linked with increasing disruptive behavior, and further impairments in academic performance, peer relationships, and family relationships [71, 73]. The presence of MD in ADHD children is as well associated with significant long-term psychiatric morbidity [72].

Adolescents with ADHD and co-morbid mood disorders are at increased risk for suicide attempts [72, 74]. The rate of suicide is much higher in patients with both ADHD and MD as compared to patients with MD alone because both disorder may aggravate the symptoms of the other [75]. Even though Alice did not have any suicide attempt, she did express death wishes; hence, it was crucial that the clinician closely monitored her mood symptoms. This was done with regular and close follow-up visitation. With the ongoing difficulties within her family still continuing, Alice was at definite risk of developing depression. Noticeably, her relationship with her parents had deteriorated.

Alice found solace in friends online. Both inattention and hyperactive-impulsivity domains in ADHD are important risk factors for excessive use of Internet. Internet addiction is also found to be associated with symptoms of ADHD [76]. Significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children [76, 77]. It is postulated that the rapid response and immediate reward of the Internet makes it attractive for children with ADHD who easily bored and have aversion to delaying rewards. Thus it is not surprising the lack of self-control and inhibition makes them vulnerable to Internet Addiction [76, 77].

Other difficulties, i.e., bipolar and substance use and abuse, are discussed elsewhere.

Subsequent Sessions

Over the subsequent sessions, Alice established a comfortable relationship with the clinician. She would walk in and eagerly share her difficulties. In one of the session, Alice shared she was upset that her teacher complained to her parents that Alice had kissed a boy outside school. At this point, her relationship with her parents was at its worst.

Her clinician was able to explore the family dynamics. The authoritarian parenting characteristics, the family environment, its lack of emotional warmth and support, and the parental psychopathology were clearly impacting Alice. Her behaviors may have served an important purpose within the family. It appeared to be an avenue for focus to be directed to her, instead of the very evident conflict between her parents. The clinician felt Alice was attempting to keep her parents together, as they appeared to be united in their stance and approach handling her. The high levels of conflict at home had conferred Alice at a heightened state of anxiety and hypervigilance, which were clearly taking a toll on her ability to regulate her emotions.

The clinician felt at this point it would be essential to make Alice’s parents conscious of the dysfunctionality within the family. This was very difficult as her father was suspicious and untrusting of the clinician. To the clinician, it appeared that the father was fearful of the loss of autonomy over his family. Hence it showed showed in the father’s presentation to the clinic. Her father portrayed a very defensive and almost aggressive stance. In view of the clinician’s difficulty with the client’s father, the clinician decided to engage the mother in order to facilitate some changes.

8. Family background

Alice came from an upper class family. Her father was a businessman, while her mother was a housewife. She had an older sister with whom she did not have a close relationship. She felt looked down upon by her sister, and her parents made constant comparison between her and her sister. Her sister was doing exceptionally well.

8.1. Alice’s mother

Alice’s mother had a difficult childhood. Her father passed away when she was very young. At the age of 10 years, she was expected by her mother to look after her younger siblings, whilst her mother worked. Mother was expected to be independent and she was constantly reminded of her role as the eldest, and to not be a burden to her mother. Alice’s mother lost a normal childhood, and grew up with a mother who showed no warmth, was critical, and imposed huge demands on her that she carried out dutifully. When the clinician asked her what she saw when she looked at her own daughter, mother added that she saw a lazy child, who was so different from how she was, as a child. Upon reflection, mother then added that she indeed had become exactly like her own mum. At this juncture mother became very distressed and tearful.

When the clinician asked her how she felt when she had discovered those letters, mother added that she was not surprised. Alice had, over past 6 months, placed letters of death wishes on mum’s pillow. The clinician asked her how she responded to Alice, on reading the letters. Mother mentioned that she never asked Alice about the letters, as she felt her daughter was seeking attention, and if she asked her, it would encourage her further. Once again, she cried upon realizing the impact of what she had just said. It was a difficult session for mother, but one that allowed her to self-reflect, and impelled her to make changes, for the sake of her daughter. Mother realized she did love her daughter still, but mother had great difficulties to express her love, to show she cared, and it affected her bonding and ability to secure a loving relationship.

9. Parenting and parent-child relationship in children with ADHD

Parenting is challenging enough and the case demonstrates the reality that parenting children with ADHD is a big challenge to many parents. Symptoms of the disorder such as hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention make parenting a child more difficult [65, 78, 79]. Although the presentation may change throughout the developmental years, the difficulties are often ongoing [9, 63]. It is often more challenging during the adolescent years.

For school-going children like Alice, the inability to focus, attend to lessons, listen and obey instructions, difficulties in play or recreational activities and to interact pleasantly with others clearly impairs their academic and social functioning [7, 9] as well as the relationship with their parents [80]. It is stressful dealing with a child’s noncompliance and oppositional behavior. Parents frequently misinterpret their child’s behavior and intentions, and are often frustrated as “correcting their child’s behaviors” is every so often associated with more oppositional behaviors from the child. This was how Alice’s parents felt towards their daughter. Children with ADHD tend to exhibit higher than average rates of noncompliance [81], and in adolescents with ADHD, as discussed, it is not uncommon to see an increased in emotionality, especially in the form of anger [82]. This results in parents expressing their child as being non-compliant and oppositional [22, 23, 81]. Parents are not aware of their child having a disorder, or even aware what behaviors are related to the disorder. All they think about is how frustrating it is for them to handle their child.

Alice’s parents felt managing their daughter was indeed challenging, especially in her adolescent years; they felt Alice was the major source of stress for the family. The problematic parent child interactions are often ongoing and repetitive, characterized by parents requesting for compliance, followed by the child’s refusal to comply. This often results in either escalation of parents control and demanding compliance. This eventually leads to occurrence of occurrence of annoyance and increasing control control over the child while in other instances the parents give up. Despite this, there is still presence of frustration and anger in the environment. Many are unaware that the parent child interactions negatively reinforce each other in ways that increase the probability and severity of the child’s problematic behaviour(s) and the deterioration of the parent child relationship.

Presence of negative emotions and cognitions, e.g., in a distress parent consistently influences one’s evaluations of others with major consequences on their interactions with their children [83-85]. As the case demonstrates, the parents and the child are both angry and distressed with each other. There is as well presence of distrust milieu, both parties perceiving the other as intentionally frustrating resulting in the behavior of being noncompliant with the other. The presence of many conflicting interactions between parents and children often results in angry or distraught interactions, with each perceiving the other as intentionally frustrating, being uncooperative. This often results in both sides trying to out-do the other. The environment is often of greater negative affect, with less positive involvement and parenting responsiveness. It is no wonder that both parties could not exert some control on their own behaviour and emotions, and to try to find a compromise. Each party feel, they are right.

Unresolved parental reactions to their own or family crisis impacts the parents’ parenting styles [84, 85]; with Pianta and Marvin [84] and Sheeran, Marvin [85] stating the resolution of the matter, influences their mental representation of strategies in managing their difficulties. The lesser positive parenting responsiveness invariably leads to the use of more harsh and inconsistent discipline, and more coercive exchanges than in families of nonproblematic children [86].

Like any parents, parents of ADHD children may have their own difficulties. However, parents of ADHD children are at increased risk of having other psychiatric disorders as low self-confidence [22, 87] and depression [88, 89]. Presence of parental stress, marital disharmony, high expressed emotions etc. affects parental functioning, family involvement and the parent child interaction [90, 91]. Without doubts, problematic parent child relationships adds to the parenting distress [37, 92].

Aspects of parenting are significant and are often over-shadowed by the difficulties in children with ADHD. Parenting style is a constellation of attitudes, behaviors and interactional styles or patterns of parenting practices [93]. Invariably how parents behave and interact with their children creates an emotional climate for the parent–child relationship [20, 93-95]. Parenting practices and behaviors are directly linked to children’s emotional, behavioral regulation, social and interpersonal competence [93]; with substantial associations demonstrated between undesirable parenting behaviors/ styles with problems in their off-springs [96]. Other than maladaptive parenting practices [92, 97], parental perceptions and ideas [37, 97], differences in parenting and disagreements between the couple [81, 86, 90, 98] are factors which contribute to the development and escalation of the child’s problematic behaviors [99]. These issues distract the parents towards finding a more workable intervention for their child with difficulties.

The psychodynamic model emphasizes the importance of emotional relationships between parents and their child plays a significant role in the development course of children. The emotional relationships between parents and child are thought to be as a result of parenting behaviors and attitudes influencing the parents and their child’s behaviors, and later influencing the child’s relationships with other adults and peers [100-102]. In this dynamic family system, the internal representation of each party is just as influential [100, 103].

This notion is supported by Maccoby [104] who stated that the parent child interaction is a reciprocal process with parents influencing their children and the children’s behaviors may influence the way they are treated by their parents. While it is evident that parents often exhibit a range of emotions toward their children, in Alice’s parents there is a predominant and persistent feeling of hostility and displeasure. Their interaction with their daughter was often distant, hostile, and at times disengaged, which supports the hypothesis that parental beliefs and perceptions influence specific parental behaviors and the emotional climates concerning their child [93, 95, 105].

Perception toward the child’s symptoms is important as it significantly influences parents’ interaction with their children [106]. In parents of ADHD children Alizadeh, Applequist [87] reported parents showed less warmth and involvement in the parenting of their children and they are more prone to greater use of corporal punishment. Similarly, Gau [107] found mothers of children with ADHD were less affectionate, more overprotective and controlling toward their children than mothers of controls. Margari, Craig [108] found parents with ADHD children tend to be more controlling, disapproving and rejecting of their children. The parents tended to use more verbal direction, repeated commands, added with more verbal reprimands and correction of their children. Margari, Craig [108] reported in these parents, they are also less rewarding and responsive than parents of children without ADHD. This is not surprising surprising as having a child with chronic difficulties and different from others affects the parents’ beliefs, perceptions, attributions, etc. about the child and of other things faced by the parents.

Parents are often unaware of their reactions to the children’s behaviors and emotions, which are often modeled by the children and affecting most notably their self-image. Alice’s mother was getting more and more tired and irritable having to deal with her daughter’s chronic difficulties and she was feeling alone and unsupported. Having to handle their daughter alone aggravated the marital disharmony. Many parents may not be aware of the symptoms and the severity of the problems that their child has. In this instance, Alice’s parents labeled her as “bad, stubborn”, they were unable to acknowledge their daughter was struggling as well. The parents’ expectations and their beliefs, perceptions, and attribution about the child affect the parents’ behavior toward the child. Thus if the parents feel their child is exhausting for them, it creates more tension in their relationship. Some parents may initially be overwhelmed with guilt feelings and blamed themselves for the children’s misbehaviors however when the situation deteriorates, and things worsened, feelings of hopelessness and helplessness creep in. In other parents, they may have difficulty accepting the fact that their child is suffering from a disorder, given the stigma attached to the illness.

Mothers are the principal caregivers in many families across different cultures and countries. In countless instances, mothers are the parent who interacts and has to deal with their children in situations where the child exhibits most of the ADHD symptoms. Mothers are the ones most often helping their child do their school work, even organizing their school bag, their room, getting their children organized and to get through their daily activities. Inevitably, mothers are more likely to be blamed for their child’s poor academic and social performances [109]. It is not surprising mothers of children with ADHD often report greater psychological distress and receiving lesser support from their families than do mothers of normal children [107, 110].

Maternal affection buffers children with attention problems from developing social and adjustment problems [50], and this was considerably absent in the family discussed. Alice’s mother was not able to offer comfort to her daughter, as the mother was distressed with having to handle her daughter on her own. This is not surprising as seen in the case described. As the situation continued and with no end insight, the severity of the difficulties increased. Predictably, the impairment increases, and it seemed the parents are the ones who often feel the impact more than their children [79]. Alice’s parents, especially her mother, had become averse to being with Alice. Mother felt distress knowing her daughter was around. By the time the family was seen, the parents were very critical of their daughter, and it worried the clinician. The adults were not able to see any strength in Alice. Their perception of their daughter and the difficulties made the child parent interaction and parenting challenging.

Additionally, the difficulties are complicated by the presence of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors in the parents themselves. Family dysfunction or disadvantage is associated with early conduct complications [20]. This was clearly happening in Alice’s family as her parents were struggling in their own marital relationship and often reacted hastily and angrily to their daughter’s struggles.

Alice’s father was impatient and often angry, and in his outburst he had told his wife to leave their matrimonial home. Unaware to the couple, it made Alice anxious and worried. Alice’s father displayed poor emotional regulation resulting in frequent anger outbursts. Further history revealed that the father was brash in his manner with his family. In the clinical sessions, the clinician found father had difficulties to engage in the session. This raised the possibility of undiagnosed ADHD in the father.

ADHD is one of the most heritable psychiatric disorder [111, 112]. Parents of children with ADHD are more likely to have ADHD themselves [113, 114]. Subsequently, the parenting difficulties observed in families of children with ADHD may be accounted for, at least in part, by parental ADHD [114]. Presence of parental ADHD symptoms significantly impairs parents’ parenting of their children, affecting the parental and child interactions and relationship [37, 114, 115]. Adults with ADHD have similar impairment in their executive functioning such as self-regulation of attention, inhibition, and organization. This effects their time management, planning, memory, motivation, persistence, and emotional regulation, i.e., they are likely to have more difficulties managing their child particularly those with oppositional behaviors [79, 115, 116].

In most parents, their ADHD symptoms have not been assessed. Many of the adults are not aware of the symptoms and how the symptoms may affect their functioning as parents. The symptoms of inattentiveness and impulsivity are likely to cause adults with ADHD to engage in harsh or lax parenting behaviors when dealing with their child’s problems [113, 117]. It is more difficult for parents to refrain themselves during discipline encounters therefore they are likely to use more negative and coercive methods. As the presence of ADHD results in difficulties with self-regulating, this may effect parents ability to think through about long-term gains [113, 118]. The short attention span and impulsivity may make it difficult for a parent to stay focused or be consistent in monitoring or carrying out rules [81, 118]. Additionally, they have problems with decision-making, e.g., they will have hitches with monitoring their child’s behaviors, progress, or whereabouts. The consistency of the external feedback provided by parents of ADHD children is an important element for these children to remain on track with tasks, behaviors, etc. Harvey, Danforth [118] reported mothers with ADHD tended to use more repetitions during mothers with ADHD tended to use more repetitions during attempts to get their child to comply. This often results in arguments because repeated and angry requests from mothers are often ignored.

Affective lability is also seen in adult ADHD [113]. Fathers displaying features of impulsivity were found to have more arguments with their children during the interactions [118]. They were more demanding, are more power-assertive and they are less likely to express warmth toward these children [119]. When fathers do attend to their children’s noncompliance, they demand more compliance and obedience at the expense of not or less expressing nurturance [118-120]. Similarly in mothers with ADHD, they are more emotionally reactive, causing likely to use more to use harsh or physical forms of punishments [116]. Like-wise maternal ADHD symptoms have been associated with lower level of positive parenting, lesser involvement and inconsistent discipline [113, 118]. In adolescences, this dyadic interaction with their parents often results in the relationship to be hostile or distant.

Fathers are often less talked about as the source of emotional support and attachment. Fathers are equally an important source of support and resource for their children’s well-being, cognitive development, and social competence [119, 121-123]. Studies of fathers with ADHD children found fathers’ parenting style play a significant role in their interaction with their children [119] including the engagement and progression of adolescent delinquent behaviors [118, 122, 124]. Fathers of children with ADHD, particularly when handling their sons, are more demanding and controlling [125, 126] and argumentative [118]. Other than being demanding, both Buhrmester, Camparo [126] and Gerdes, Hoza [120] reported fathers of ADHD children were less likely to express warmth 
towards their children while Harvey, Danforth [118] found in fathers with ADHD, the inattentiveness and impulsivity results in lax parenting. The presence of a supportive father may certainly help lift the burden of mothers handling the child alone. Likewise, support between parents and parenting similarity has been found to be associated with greater marital adjustment and and lesser marital conflict among parents of ADHD children [81].

10. Impact: Why the need to be aware of parenting difficulties?

It is not easy to parent a child with ADHD. Lower quality of life has been reported in families with ADHD children [79, 115, 127], complicated by the presence of adversities, conflicts [23, 128-131], and psychological difficulties [88, 89]. These factors significantly impact family functioning which may precipitate and/or aggravate the child parent relationship and parenting difficulties [131]. Hence it is important for clinicians and mental health workers to consider these difficultieswhen interacting with a family of a child or adolescent with ADHD.

In psychiatry, family factors are taken into consideration in the formulation of clients’ presentation and symptoms, i.e., in precipitating, perpetuating, predisposing or aggravating patient’s symptoms, in treatment and in prognosis [132]. Over the past decade, much attention has been given to the understanding of the parent child interaction, with regards to attachment styles and parental behaviors, etc. and their impact on children. A significant number of researches have recognized the family environment plays an important role in the development, outcomes, and manifestation of difficulties in children with ADHD [37, 50, 128]. Both parental psychopathology and parenting behavior have been identified as important environmental risk and/or protective factors in children with ADHD [37, 133]. Family dysfunction impacts not only the family functioning and certainly clinical outcomes. Family functioning influences continuity and/or exacerbation of the child’s ADHD symptoms [37, 86]. The difficulties related to the parents and family dysfunction are often linked to the frequency and severity of ADHD symptoms [20, 134-136]. Whereas improvement in outcomes linked to ongoing family engagement particularly active parental involvement and participatory collaborations between care-givers and healthcare providers [97, 137].

These phenomena can be explained as the family interaction is continuous and ongoing, and invariably children are affected by the dynamics in the family. Parents are the main source of their children’s socialization and emotional regulation [44, 96], and children often model their parents’ regulation and expression of emotions [44, 138]. Accordingly, positive parenting constitutes having parenting attitudes and behaviors which are accepting and nurturing (acceptance), while negative parenting practices encompasses parenting styles which are rejecting and controlling [95]. In negative parenting practices, there is a constant need need for parents set fixed rules with rigid boundaries, with the necessity for constant supervision [139, 140]. The parents often make endless demands on their children and readily confronts the child who disobeys with more continuous demands made [140]. In this style of parenting there is often presence of hostility when dealing with the child [141]. As studies have indicated, parents with ADHD children often are controlling, disapproving and hostile of their children [20, 37, 108].

It is not unusual for parents to react to their child’s noncomplaint and disruptive behavior in a less positive manner, and this is often seen among parents with ADHD children [86, 125]. The use of punishment and harsh discipline are often thought to be associated with good parenting. Parents feel using frequent punishment allows them by doing so, they are able to control their children’s behaviors. Likewise, parents often exert control on their children in the pretext of having to protect their children from possible harm or from going astray. Many parents often believe their parenting is adequate, appropriate or the best for their for their children. Many parents parenting styles with them having to be able to control and to discipline their child. The reality is, using more control with presence of punitive interactions, often results in retaliation and noncomplaint behavior from the child, especially among adolescents. Many parents are unaware of the importance and the need for them to be equally nurturing and supportive of their children.

Evidence supports findings of reciprocal pathways between child disruptive behavior and parent–child interaction difficulties. Being in a chaotic, harsh, unsupportive or unresponsive family environment exacerbate inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive behaviors [37]. Cunningham and Boyle [20] found mothers with pre-school children with ADHD and oppositional behavior cope with their children’s behaviours using more controlling and negative strategies. The mothers used more reprimands and corporal punishments. Often this does not settle the child. Querido, Warner [142] and Carpenter and Mendez [143] found harsh parenting is predictive of worsening behavior as the presence of punitive interactions and low level of warmth do not offer any comfort, feeling safe, and support to the child [15]. The presence of harsh, punitive, and controlling parenting behaviors as seen in authoritarian parenting styles hinders the development of a child’s social competence. This parenting style is linked to the presence of aggressive and defiant behavior in children [15, 69, 136, 142, 144, 145].

Over the recent years, studies have focussed on the attachment theory specifically on the quality of parenting and understanding how socio-emotional dysfunction impacts children’s behavior and development. Attachment is the deep and lasting affective and close relationship between a child and their care-giver(s), which is established in the early years of a child’s life [100, 101]. The parent child relationship is crucial as it lays the foundation of attachment and socialization which eventually dominates and affects the child’s emotional, interpersonal development, and well-being [146]. Consequently in vulnerable children, the presence of secure attachment provides safety and protection through the existence of a trusting, safe, and secure environment [147, 148]. The presence of a secure, supportive, and trustworthy caregiver allows distressed children to use their care-givers as a secure base to regulate their anxiety and distress; the child finds comfort and support when confronted with stressful stimuli or situations [148].

Growing up with an insensitive and unresponsive, or unavailable caregiver often puts the child at risk for developing an insecure attachment relationship [102]. Alice could not find comfort from her parents as the adults were entrapped in their own burden. Her parents were unable to provide relief and nurturance to their daughter, especially in her times of need. This is not surprising as parents who lack or not able to provide self regulation skills are unable to offer the framework necessary for the development of such skills in their children [20, 137]. Thus, they are less able to support their child, which leaves the child feeling insecure and vulnerable. Insecurely attached individuals are indeed more vulnerable to problems concerning affective and behavioral regulation [149]. Lower levels of conduct problems even in children as young as pre-school-going age has been reported in parents exhibiting parental warmth in combination with other positive parenting behaviors [123, 150]. The presence of a secure attachment and base allows a child with with ADHD the awareness and security they will be supported as they work through their difficulties.

11. What elements constitute negative parenting behaviors and interfere with establishment of a secure family base?

Researchers have shown negative parenting behaviors as:

  1. Over-controlling [151, 152]: This describes the parenting styles which resembles the no-nonsense parenting with decrease in responsiveness and increase in demandingness. In this parenting style, parents are involved in all decision-making, and are overprotective. There is presence of frequent instructions to children, e.g., on how to behave, think, or feel, in view to influence the child. This style of parenting has been shown to mediate higher risk for anxiety and depression [141] and delinquency in children [123, 136].

  2. Harsher discipline characterized by presence of constant yelling, nagging, threatening or the use of physical aggression (hitting, beating). This harsh parenting relates to the emergence and escalation of aggressive and defiant behavior in children [15, 123, 143].

  3. Over-indulgent: This style of parenting reduces the child’s opportunities for learning. There is constant parental interference with parents over doing their role. Their parenting style interferes with the child's attempts at gaining age normative autonomy and emotional independence. There is no restrictions, and no boundaries to what the child wants and desire [94, 153].

  4. Inconsistent parenting [119], often exhibits inconsistent availability and therefore discipline. It is akin to low parental involvement and often may worsen the child's ADHD symptoms [137].

  5. Rejection and hostile parenting characterized by presence of disapproval, and low levels of parental warmth and responsiveness. Parents often exhibit coldness or are unresponsive, dismissive and disapproving of their child. They often respond to their children’s expressions of needs or emotions with criticizing or minimizing and even nagging. This often convinces a child that positives, especially from a significant other, are difficult to obtain and are independent of the child’s actions. Presence of high levels of parental rejection is often associated with poor child emotion regulation [138] and increasing sensitivity to develop anxiety and depression [153].

  6. Negative and unreasonable parenting beliefs [106, 154].

  7. Dissimilarity in parenting [81]: dissimilarities between parents would not only impact on the problems in the child, it will as well cause higher marital conflicts and dissatisfaction between the couple.

  8. Higher levels of parenting stress are often associated with the presence of marital disharmony, divorce, separation, remarriage, parental depression [37, 136]. Stressed parents exhibit either hostility, over-protectiveness or are unavailable when dealing with their children.

The negative parenting behavior as stated above, i.e., hostile, unavailable, inconsistent parenting along with parental stress and psychopathology often influences the parent child interactions and family functioning. In children these circumstances predict treatment outcomes [110].

Parents from every background love their children and want to protect them from all sorts of harm and misfortune. Qualities in parents such as the presence of parental affection and sensitivity, the amount and nature of control strategies, and monitoring are key aspects of healthy child development [104, 155]. The existence of warmth, acceptance, and communication becomes increasingly important during adolescence. Parents are an important source of support, especially among adolescents. They can still exert influence over their children’s behavior by providing the existence of being responsive and sensitive while creating a caring and safe family environment, and not just the presence of strict control. As a matter of fact, strict control, especially during adolescence, is associated with deviance and misconduct [156-158].

The manner in which parents respond to their children’s emotions and behaviors, their perception and managing of their children’s behaviors impacts the outcomes of the difficulties, the child’s self-image and problem-solving skills. Bowlby [159] hypothesized early experiences with primary caregivers are internalized by the child as generalized mental representations or internal working models i.e. the child’s image of the self as well as the image of others. These cognitive representations of early relationships serve as templates for functioning in future relationships [100, 103] and shapes how the child responds to external events [102, 160]. These mental representations (organize a person’s adults’ later attachment-related representations and) play a key role in guiding interpersonal behavior and regulating affect during adolescence and adulthood [161, 162].

In positive parenting, parents create an environment of secure attachment by balancing giving the child their attention while creating the presence of a nurturing environment. In this style of parenting, appropriate attention is given, and there is often positive affect felt through the expression presence of positive emotions. Communication is encouraged; there is presence of proper discipline and structure, with clear rules, instructions. There are, and consistent monitoring of how things are balanced with use of praises [163, 164]. Parents react positively, allowing their children to learn to control their impulses using their cognition [149]. This style of parenting serves as protective factor that results in and facilitates the development of proper self-regulation [149].

In dealing with children with ADHD, parents need loads of patience and consistency as the case demonstrates. It is not easy dealing with a child who is active, has difficulties to stay focus to listen to parents, to follow as parents want them to. It is not surprising that parents with ADHD children tend to be more controlling and disapproving of their children. They frequently give their attention to their child’s overactive and impulsive behaviors. They invariably repeat their commands, and become increasingly impatient with little reaction from their child. More verbal commands follows accompanied by them attempting to correct their child’s behavior and subsequently trailed by verbal reprimands. This is a common scene with parents of children with ADHD.

Positive family environments are crucial in promoting children’s emotional and behavioral wellbeing. Positive and secure bonding the child’s trust in themselves and others, while inadequate and defective bonding results in patterns of insecurity and self-doubt. Being in a positive family environment also buffers the difficulties associated with the disorder. The authoritative parenting style has been shown to be associated with better social competence, fewer behavioral problems [142, 143, 165], decreases the development of conduct problems [20, 37, 136], and even has impact on aspects of children’s school readiness [165, 166]. Parental warmth, in combination with other positive parenting behaviors, has been associated with lower levels of conduct problems [150] even in kindergarten and first grade children [20].

Johnston [125] found among parents with older ADHD children with higher oppositional behaviors, report of feeling less competent as parents than those of ADHD children without or exhibiting less oppositional behaviors. This has been seen in other studies [87, 110, 116]. This is not surprising as it is indeed difficult handling a child with ADHD, and when stressed, parents are often left feeling frustrated or irritable and accompanied by feelings of being powerless and insufficiency. Being in this state often leads to ineffective parenting and often has negative consequences the child.

Qualities in parents such as the presence of parental affection and sensitivity with the existence of warmth, acceptance, and appropriate involvement are key aspects of healthy child development. Appropraite parenting behaviors result in a positive interaction with the child, such that the child feel safe and reassured. There are more active listening, expressions of encouragement, with opportunities and experiences for the child by allowing them to learn through trial and error, while tolerating their child’s negative affect.

12. Role of professionals

The families of children with ADHD experience difficulties in many areas of functioning as illustrated with Alice. The presence of the difficulties in the child as well as comorbidities signifies risk factors for insecure attachment with impact on the parent child relationship. The existence of these factors and its consequences must be recognized.

ADHD creates a huge impact not only on the child alone but also upon the whole family. From the very initial consultation, parental factors, such as perception of parents/caregivers, the dynamics within the family, emotional difficulties of parents themselves, and their parenting skills, areas 
of concernin the family that needs consideration.

In pharmacological treatment of ADHD, the effectiveness of medication has been well established. However, medication alone cannot and should not serve to be the sole modality of treatment. Of recent, increasing evidence has demonstrated the role of multi-modal treatment for effectively addressing the diverse difficulties of children with ADHD [167].

To be most effective in helping children and their families, it is commended that health care professionals have a good understanding of the individual and their family development. Family difficulties are common as discussed in Alice’s family, i.e., parental depression, aggression, marital discord, and hostile parent child interactions. While child characteristics are important, the discussion emphasizes on the need to look at what other factors contribute to attachment difficulties and family destabilization. Thus, the assessment should include family factors that may have an impact on the child and their family functioning, which is often related to the origins of behavior problems in the child [135, 136].

Understanding family dynamics is most essential, in order to examine the interactions among family members, and identify factors that are triggering or maintaining undesirable behaviors. These dynamic interactions between social, biological, and psychological factors of the child often lead to longstanding distress in the child and their family. The family environment if often viewed as the earliest setting for dysfunctional attitudes, behaviors and interactional patterns which often results in self-esteem issues, symptoms of depression and anxiety [94, 153, 168] as well as learning antisocial behaviors [169]. In order to facilitate the child’s progress towards recovery, positive changes within the child’s family 
must be addressed.

Positive parenting styles are significantly associated with development of more appropriate behavior in children including their inhibition capacities [164]. Parents often misunderstand the use of punishment in changing a child’s behavior. It has well been demonstrated that once punishment ceases, children often return to their previous behavior(s). Using harsh punishment does not help establish new and wanted behaviors; in fact, it is linked to the presence of more undesired behavior, including withdrawal of the child from their parents. Additionally, children often model their parents’ behavior(s). In clinical setting it is common parents report their children hitting back their parents when in anger or frustrated.

Much of the evidence indicates family therapy being efficacious for children with ADHD refers to multimodal forms of family therapy. This often includes pharmacological treatment along with family therapy or parent training, and individual therapy for children [170-172]. Though further research is still necessary examining the effectiveness of family therapy as an relevant intervention for children with ADHD [173], other clinicians and researchers emphasize the need to routinely focus on children’s attachment and attachment difficulties in clinical settings and to incorporate it in the treatment option [149, 172].

There is now increasing evidence of the implication of parent training programs, with results showing the improvement of the child’s behavior [170]. In working with children like Alice, parent work and individual therapy with the parent(s), are essential. A broad-based psychodynamic approach was taken working with Alice’s mother. To begin with, a client-centered approach was initiated. It was discovered Alice’s mother was vulnerable and needed emotional support. Alice’s mother needed to work through her own challenging childhood experiences and a conflictual marriage with an over controlling husband. With psychotherapy, Alice’s mother was able to mourn her losses she had sustained since her childhood. It was through reflection that she was finally able to view herself, her needs and the needs of her child, and how pathological her responses to Alice had been. With the employment of object relations theory in therapy, Alice’s mother was able to view that she was parenting Alice similarly, to her own mother, whom she had vowed never to become.

Clinicians work to facilitate changes in the internal working model of many of their clients. After several sessions, Alice’s mother no longer perceived Alice negatively. Alice too was able to form a more trusting and comfortable relationship with her mother. Parenting skills were later introduced. Alizadeh, Applequist [87] further emphasize the usefulness to educate parents in their recognition that ADHD is not their fault, nor is it a consequence of something that they have done in the past.

The clinician had hoped to engage Alice’s father into therapy however, the huge resistance that Alice’s father demonstrated made it difficult. Father was unhappy that his wife was attending therapy, and made it apparent. Alice’s father’s own difficulty in managing his emotions, his own psychological issues and immense need for control, and most immediate, a very high likelihood of Adult ADHD, would need to be addressed at some point.

Current progress:

Alice still attends treatment, where she now is on daily long-acting stimulant, and doing well in school. Her much improved relationship with mum at times does have difficult phases, where she struggles to communicate and at times hides the truth from her mother. Overall their relationship had improved significantly. The difficulties with dad remain.

Alice was noted to be less impulsive, she was more able to think through things carefully, and was able to make wiser choices on her own. One of them was her choosing to end the strained relationship with her boyfriend, who himself had significant emotional difficulties. The triumph for the year for Alice was she was awarded a prize of being the student with the most improvement shown in the year

The purpose of this chapter was to illustrate the magnitude of complexity in dealing with a child with ADHD. The interplay of roles within their families, and the huge impact that family difficulties have on a child with ADHD warrants the need for mental health professionals to look beyond the core symptoms of the disorder. In recognizing, assessing and treating family difficulties of children with ADHD, clinicians often need to incorporate several modalities of treatment demonstrated. This is to increase the likelihood. This brings us back to the very core hallmarks of child psychiatry, which serves to remind us that one cannot treat children without treating their families. There is no denying that the mental well-being of parents is utmost important; the captain of the ship has to be working well to maintain the mental health and well-being of the members of the ship (called family).

In the best attempt to maintain confidentiality, the real name of the child was not used. Her ethnicity, place of residence, the name of her parents, and socio-demographic details have been intentionally omitted. This was in order to preserve, in the best interest of the child and her family, to disguise her identity. This is also in accordance to adhere to the ethics of publishing.


1 - Wehmeier, P.M., A. Schacht, and R.A. Barkley, Social and emotional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact on quality of life. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2010. 46(3): p. 209-217.
2 - Barkley, R.A., Major life activity and health outcomes associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002. 63 (Suppl 12): p. 10-5.
3 - Nijmeijer, J.S., et al., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning. Clinical Psychology Review, 2008. 28: p. 692-708.
4 - Cho, S.C., et al., Associations between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents. Depression And Anxiety, 2008. 25(11): p. E142-E146.
5 - Mrug, S., et al., Peer rejection and friendships in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: contributions to long-term outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2012. 6(6): p. 1013-1026.
6 - Narkunam, N., et al., Stress among parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a Malaysian experience. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 2012(Aug): p. 1-10.
7 - Coghill, D., et al., Impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on the patient and family: results from a European survey. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2008. 2(31): p. BioMed Central: Open Access.
8 - Froehlich, T.E., et al., Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2007. 161: p. 857-864.
9 - Barkley, R.A., Taking charge of ADHD.The complete, authoritative guide for parents. Vol. Revised Edition. 2005, New York/London: The Guilford Press
10 - Faraone, S.V. and J. Biederman, Neurobiology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 1998. 44: p. 951-958.
11 - Rubia, K., A. Smith, and E. Taylor, Performance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on a test battery of impulsiveness. Child Neuropsychology, 2007. 13(3): p. 276-304.
12 - Barkley, R.A., Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 1997. 121(1): p. 65-94.
13 - Walcott, C.M. and S. Landau, The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2004. 33(4): p. 772-782.
14 - Wu, K.K., V. Anderson, and U. Castiello, Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for adhd children with or without learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 2002. 22(2): p. 501-531.
15 - Stormshak, E.A., et al., Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2000. 29(1).
16 - Barkley, R.A., Deficient emotional self-regulation: a core component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of ADHD Related Disorder, 2010. 1: p. 1-30.
17 - American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5). 2013, Washington, DC.
18 - Mrug, S., B. Hoza, and A.C. Gerdes, Children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder:Peer relationships and peer-oriented interventions New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2001. 91: p. 51-77.
19 - Hoza, B., et al., What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2005. 73(3): p. 411-423.
20 - Cunningham, C.E. and M.H. Boyle, Preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: family, parenting, and behavioral correlates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2002. 30(6): p. 555-569.
21 - Brook, U. and M. Boaz, Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): Parental characterization and perception Patient Education and Counseling, 2005. 57(1): p. 96-100.
22 - Wells, K.C., et al., Parenting and family stress treatment outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an empirical analysis in the MTA study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2000. 28(6): p. 543-553.
23 - DuPaul, G.J., et al., Preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impairments in behavioral, social, and school functioning. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2001. 40(5): p. 508-515.
24 - Nigg, J.T., Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder? Psychological Bulletin, 2001. 127(5): p. 571-598.
25 - Nigg, J.T., H.H. Goldsmith, and J. Sachek, Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the development of a multiple pathway model. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescence Psychology, 2004. 33(1): p. 42-53.
26 - Pliszka, S. and AACAP Work Group on Quality Issues, Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Jounal of American Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007. 46: p. 894-921.
27 - Fell, C.T., Crying out for change: A call for a new child abuse hearsay exception in New York state. Albany Law Review, 2013. 76(3): p. 1853-1889.
28 - Thompson, R.A., Emotion and emotion regulation: Two sides of the developing coin. Emotion Review, 2011. 3(1): p. 53-61.
29 - Thompson, R.A., Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. Monographs for the Society of Research in Child Development 1994. 59(2-3): p. 25-52.
30 - Shaw, P., et al., Emotion dysregulation in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder American Journal of Psychiatry, 2014. 171: p. 276-293.
31 - Vidal, R., et al., Emotional lability: The discriminative value in the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2014. 55(7): p. 1712-1719.
32 - Maedgen, J.W. and C.L. Carlson, Social functioning and emotional regulation in the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder subtypes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 2000. 29(1): p. 30-42.
33 - Biederman, J., et al., Deficient emotional self-regulation and pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a family risk analysis. Psychological Medicine, 2012. 42: p. 639-646.
34 - Spencer, T.J., et al., Toward defining deficient emotional self-regulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Child Behavior Checklist: a controlled study. Postgraduate Medicine, 2011. 123(5): p. 50-59.
35 - Stringaris, A. and R. Goodman, Mood lability and psychopathology in youth. Psychological Medicine, 2009. 39: p. 1237-1245
36 - Biederman, J., et al., Longitudinal course of deficient emotional self-regulation CBCL profile in youth with ADHD: Prospective controlled study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2012. 8(Open Access): p. 267-276.
37 - Johnston, C. and E.J. Mash, Families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2001. 4(3): p. 183-207.
38 - Cunningham, C.E., A family-centered approach to planning and measuring the outcome of interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2007. 7(1 Supplementary): p. 60-72.
39 - Sobanski, E., et al., Emotional lability in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): clinical correlates and familial prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2010. 51: p. 915-923
40 - Surman, C.B., et al., Deficient emotional self-regulation and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a family risk analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2011. 168: p.:617-623
41 - Taylor, E., Developmental neuropsychopathology of attention deficit and impulsiveness. Development and Psychopathology, 1999. 11: p. 607-628
42 - Peris, T.S. and B.L. Baker, Applications of the expressed emotion construct to young children with externalizing behavior: stability and prediction over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2000. 41(4): p. 457-462.
43 - Berndt, T.J., Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2002. 11: p. 7–10.
44 - Harris, J.R., Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development Psychological Review, 1995. 102(3): p. 458–489.
45 - Poulin, F. and A. Chan, Friendship stability and change in childhood and adolescence Developmental Review 2010. 30: p. 257–272.
46 - Chiang, H.-L. and S.S. Gau, Impact of executive functions on school and peer functions in youths with ADHD Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2014. 35: p. 5963-5972.
47 - Hoza, B., Peer functioning in children with ADHD. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2007. 7(1 Supplement): p. 101-106.
48 - Barkley, R.A., Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. 3rd Edition ed. 2006, New York: Guilford Press.
49 - Hoza, B., et al., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disordered and control boys' responses to social success and failure. Child Development, 2000. 71(2): p. 432-446.
50 - Kawabata, Y., W.L. Tseng, and S.S.S. Gau, Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: The moderating roles of age and parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2012. 40: p. 177–188.
51 - Subcommittee On Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, et al., ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 2011. 128(5): p. 1007-1022.
52 - Brook, U. and M. Boaz, Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective. Patient Education and Counseling 2005. 58: p. 187–191.
53 - Pastor, P.N. and C.A. Reuben, Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004-2006. Vital Health Statistics 2008. 10(237): p. 1-14.
54 - Ohan, J.L., et al., Teachers' and education students' perceptions of and reactions to children with and without the diagnostic label “ADHD” Journal of School Psychology, 2011. 49(1): p. 81-105.
55 - Muhammad, N.A., et al., Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 2011. 8(4): p. 249–254.
56 - Heiligenstein, E., et al., Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health, 1999. 47(4): p. 181-185.
57 - Classi, P., et al., Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2012. 6(33): p. Open Access.
58 - DuPaul, G.J., et al., Elementary school students with AD/HD: predictors of academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology 2004. 42: p. 285–301.
59 - Batzle, C.S., et al., Potential impact of ADHD with stimulant medication label on teacher expectations. Journal of Attention Disorder 2010. 14(2): p. 157-166.
60 - Eisenberg, D. and H. Schneider, Perceptions of academic skills of children diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders 2007. 10(4): p. 390-397.
61 - Greene, R.W., et al., Are students with ADHD more stressful to teach? Patterns of teacher stress in an elementary school sample. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2002. 10(2): p. 79-89
62 - Milberger, S., et al., Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disorders: issues of overlapping symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 1995. 152(12): p. 1793-1799.
63 - Spencer, T.J., J. Biederman, and E. Mick, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis, Lifespan, Comorbidities, and Neurobiology Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2007. 7(1): p. 73-81.
64 - Adesman, A., A diagnosis of ADHD? Don't overlook the probability of comorbidity. Contemporary Pediatrics 2003. 20(12): p. 91-115.
65 - Biederman, J., et al., The long-term longitudinal course of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in ADHD boys: findings from a controlled 10-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Psychological Medicine 2008. 38: p. 1027-1036.
66 - Wilens, T.E., et al., Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred preschool children and school-age youths with ADHD. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2002. 41: p. 262-268.
67 - Nevels, R.M., et al., Psychopharmacology of aggression in children and adolescents with primary neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of current and potentially promising treatment options. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2010. 18(2): p. 184-201.
68 - Waschbusch, D.A., et al., Reactive aggression in boys with disruptive behavior disorders: behavior, physiology, and affect. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2002. 30(6): p. 641-656.
69 - Bauermeister, J.J., et al., ADHD correlates, comorbidity, and impairment in community and treated samples of children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2007. 35(6): p. 883-898.
70 - Angold, A., E.J. Costello, and A. Erkanli, Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1999. 40: p. 57-87.
71 - Meinzer, M.C., J.W. Pettit, and C. Viswesvaran, The co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and unipolar depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review Clinical Psychology Review, 2014. 34(8): p. 595-607.
72 - Biederman, J., E. Mick, and S.V. Faraone, Depression in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children: ‘‘True’’ depression or demoralization? Journal of Affective Disorders 1998. 47: p. 113–122.
73 - Meinzer, M.C., et al., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood. Depression And Anxiety, 2013. 30(6): p. 546-553.
74 - Van Eck, K., et al., ADHD and suicidal ideation: The roles of emotion regulation and depressive symptoms among college students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2014: p. 1-12.
75 - Turgay, A. and R. Ansari, Major depression with ADHD: In children and adolescents. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 2006. 3(4): p. 20-32.
76 - Yen, J.Y., et al., The Comorbid psychiatric symptoms of internet addiction: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility Journal of Adolescent Health, 2007. 41(1): p. 93-98.
77 - Yoo, H.J., et al., Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 2004. 58: p. 487-494.
78 - Greene, R.W., et al., Psychiatric comorbidity, family dysfunction, and social impairment in referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 2002. 159 I(7): p. 1214-1224.
79 - Danckaerts, M., et al., The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010. 19(2): p. 83-105.
80 - Modesto-Lowe, V., J.S. Danforth, and D. Brooks, ADHD: Does Parenting Style Matter? Clinical Pediatrics, 2008. 47(9): p. 865-871.
81 - Harvey, E.A., Parenting smilarity and children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 2000. 22(3): p. 39-54.
82 - Harty, S.C., et al., Adolescents with childhood ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders: aggression, anger, and hostility. Child Psychiatry Human Development 2009. 40(1): p. 85-97.
83 - Lee, P.C., et al., Parent-child interaction of mothers with depression and their children with ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2013. 34(1): p. 656-668.
84 - Pianta, R.C. and R.S. Marvin, Mothers' resolution of their children's diagnosis: organized patterns of caregiving representations. Infant Mental Health Journal, 1996. 17(3): p. 239-256.
85 - Sheeran, T., R.S. Marvin, and R.C. Pianta, Mothers' resolution of their child's diagnosis and self-reported measures of parenting stress, marital relations, and social support Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 1997. 22: p. 197–212.
86 - Johnston, C. and J.L. Ohan, The importance of parental attributions in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2005. 8(3): p. 167-182.
87 - Alizadeh, H., K.F. Applequist, and F.L. Coolidge, Parental self-confidence, parenting styles, and corporal punishment in families of ADHD children in Iran Child Abuse & Neglect, 2007. 31(5): p. 567-572.
88 - Chronis, A.M., et al., Psychopathology and substance abuse in parents of young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2003 12(12): p. 1424-1432.
89 - Ghanizadeh, A., M.R. Mohammadi, and R. Moini, Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and parental psychiatric disorders in a sample of Iranian children with ADHD. Journal of Attentional Disorder 2008. 12(2): p. 149-155.
90 - Bowen, M., Family therapy in clinical practice 1978, New York Jason Aronson.
91 - Harvey, E., B. Stoessel, and S. Herbert, Psychopathology and parenting practices of parents of preschool children with behavior problems. Parenting, 2011. 11(4): p. 239-263.
92 - Whalen, C.K., et al., Dissecting daily distress in mothers of children with ADHD: an electronic diary study. Journal of Family Psychology 2011. 25(3): p. 402-411.
93 - Darling, N. and L. Steinberg, Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 1993. 113: p. 487–496.
94 - Wood, J.J., et al., Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2003. 44(1): p. 134-151.
95 - Bois, J.E., J. Lalanne, and C. Delforge, The influence of parenting practices and parental presence on children's and adolescents' pre-competitive anxiety. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2009. 27(10): p. 995-1005.
96 - Belsky, J., The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development 1984. 55: p. 83-96.
97 - Paidipati, C.P. and J.A. Deatrick, The role of family phenomena in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 2015. 28(1): p. 3–13.
98 - Hollenstein, T., et al., Rigidity in parent—child interactions and the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2004. 32(6): p. 595-607.
99 - Barkley, R.A., et al., The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990. 29(4): p. 546-557.
100 - Bowlby, J., A secure base: clinical applications of attachment theory 1988, Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
101 - Bowlby, J., The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. 1989, New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
102 - Ainsworth, M.D., Attachments across the life span. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 1985 61(9): p. 792-812.
103 - Bowlby, J., A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. 1988, New York: Basic Books.
104 - Maccoby, E.E., The role of parents in the socialization of children: A historical review. Developmental Psychology, 1992. 28: p. 1006−1017.
105 - Baurain, C. and N. Nader-Grosbois, Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children in interactive contexts. ALTER, European Journal of Disability Research 2012. 6: p. 75-93.
106 - Reder, P. and C. Lucey, Significan issues in parenting assessment, in Assessment of parenting: Psychiatric and psychological contributions P. Reder and C. Lucey, Editors. 2004, Brunner-Routledge: New York. p. 3-17.
107 - Gau, S.S., Parental and family factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwanese children. Australian New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry., 2007. 41(8): p. 688-696.
108 - Margari, F., et al., Parents psychopathology of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2011. 32(1): p. 1036–1043.
109 - Chao, R.K., Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Developement 1994. 65(4): p. 1111-1119.
110 - Gau, S.S. and J.P. Chang, Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2013. 34(5): p. 1581-1594.
111 - Faraone, S., et al., A family study of psychiatric comorbidity in girls and boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Biological Psychiatry, 2001. 50(8): p. 586-592.
112 - Faraone, S.V., et al., Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 2005. 57(11): p. 1313-1323.
113 - Chronis-Tuscano, A., et al., Associations between maternal Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2008. 36(8): p. 1237-1250.
114 - Lui, J.H.L., C.M. Lee, and S.C. Lee-Flynn, Parental ADHD symptoms and self-reports of positive parenting Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2013. 81(6): p. 988-998.
115 - Chen, V.C., et al., Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and quality of life of mothers of school-aged children: the roles of child, mother, and family variables. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 2014. 30(12): p. 631-638.
116 - Chronis-Tuscano, A., et al., The relation between Maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2011. 39(7): p. 1047-1057.
117 - Kendziora, K. and S. O’Leary, Dysfunctional parenting as a focus for prevention and treatment of child behavior problems. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1993. 15: p. 175-206.
118 - Harvey, E., et al., Parenting of children with attention-defecit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of parental ADHD symptomatology. Journal of Attention Disorders 2003. 7: p. 31–42.
119 - Chang, L.-R., et al., Father's parenting and father–child relationship among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 2013. 54(2): p. 128-140.
120 - Gerdes, A.C., et al., Child and parent predictors of perceptions of parent–child relationship quality. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2007. 11: p. 37-48.
121 - Amato, P.R. and F. Rivera, Paternal involvement and children's behavior problems. Journal of Marriage and Family 1999. 61: p. 375-384.
122 - Coley, R.L. and B.L. Medeiros, Reciprocal longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement and adolescent delinquency. Child Development 2007. 78(1): p. 132-147.
123 - Rinaldi, C.M. and N. Howe, Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and associations with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2012. 27(2): p. 266-273.
124 - Flouri, E., Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 2010. 30(3): p. 363-369.
125 - Johnston, C., Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1996. 24(1): p. 85-104.
126 - Buhrmester, D., et al., Mothers and fathers interacting in dyads and triads with normal and hyperactive sons. Development & Psychopathology, 1992. 28: p. 500-509.
127 - Grenwald-Mayes, G., Relationship between current quality of life and family of origin dynamics for college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Attentional Disorder, 2002. 5(4): p. 211-222.
128 - Buschgens, C.J., et al., Differential family and peer environmental factors are related to severity and comorbidity in children with ADHD. Journal of Neural Transmission 2008. 115(2): p. 177-186.
129 - Schachar, R.J. and R. Wachsmuth, Family dysfunction and psychosocial adversity: Comparison of attention deficit disorder, conduct disorder, normal and clinical controls. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement,, 1991. 23(3): p. 332-348.
130 - Foley, M., A comparison of family adversity and family dysfunction in families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and families of children without ADHD. Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2011. 16(1): p. 39-49.
131 - Biederman, J., S.V. Faraone, and M.C. Monuteaux, Impact of exposure to parental attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on clinical features and dysfunction in the offspring. Psychological Medicine 2002. 32(5): p. 817-827.
132 - Bloch, S., et al., The Family in Clinical Psychiatry. 1994, Oxford, New York: Oxford Medical Publications.
133 - Chronis, A.M., et al., Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Psychology 2007. 43(1): p. 70-82.
134 - Agha, S.S., et al., Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD? Europen Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2013. 22(6): p. 369-377.
135 - Roelofs, J., et al., On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2006. 15(3): p. 331-345.
136 - Schroeder, R.D. and T.J. Mowen, Parenting Parenting style transitions and delinquency. Youth and Society, 2014. 46(2): p. 228-254.
137 - Johnston, C., et al., Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 2012. 32(4): p. 215-228.
138 - Havighurst, S.S., A. Harley, and M. Prior, Building preschool children's emotional competence: A parenting program. Early Education and Developmen, 2004. 15(4): p. 423-448.
139 - Baumrind, D., Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 1971. 4: p. 1-103.
140 - Baumrind, D., The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use Journal of Early Adolescence 1991. 11(1): p. 56-95.
141 - Rapee, R.M., Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression Rapee RM1. Clinical Psychology Review, 1997. 17(1): p. 47-67.
142 - Querido, J.G., T.D. Warner, and S.M. Eyberg, Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2002. 31: p. 272-277.
143 - Carpenter, J.L. and J. Mendez, Adaptive and challenged parenting among African American mothers: Parenting profiles relate to head start children's aggression and hyperactivity. Early Education and Development, 2013. 24: p. 233–252.
144 - Rothbaum, F. and J.R. Weisz, Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis Psychological Bulletin, 1994. 116: p. 55-74.
145 - Webster-Stratton, C. and D.L. Deborah Woolley, Social competence and conduct problems in young children: issues in assessment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1999. 28(1): p. 25-43.
146 - Reder, P. and C. Lucey, Assessment of Parenting: psychiatric and psychological contributions 1995, Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
147 - Levy, T.M. and M. Orlans, Attachment, trauma and healing: Understanding and treating attachment disorder in children and families. 1998, Washington, DC: CWLA Press.
148 - Muris, P., et al., Self-reported attachment style, attachment quality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences 2001. 30: p. 809-818.
149 - Clarke, L., et al., Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with attachment insecurity. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2002. 7(2): p. 179-198.
150 - Patrick, M.R., et al., The joint contribution of early parental warmth, communication and tracking, and early child conduct problems on monitoring in late childhood. Child Development, 2005. 76(5): p. 999-1014.
151 - Beck, A.T., Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. 1976 International Universities Press
152 - Lewinsohn, P.M., et al., Theoretical issues in behavior therapy in An integrated theory of depression, S. Reiss and R. Bootzin, Editors. 1985, Academic Press: New York. p. 331-359.
153 - McLeod, B.D., J.J. Wood, and J.R. Weisz, Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 2007. 27: p. 155-172.
154 - Robin, A. and S.L. Foster, Theoretical orientation, in Negotiating parent-adolescent conflict: A behavioral-family systems approach, A. Robin and S.L. Foster, Editors. 2003, The Guildford Press New York. p. 7-30.
155 - Maccoby, E.E. and J.A. Martin, Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (4th edition) ed. P.H.M.E.M. Hetherington. Vol. 4. 1983, New York Wiley.
156 - Loeber, R., Development and risk factors for juvenile antisocial behaviour and delinquency Clinical Psychology Review, 1990. 10: p. 1-41.
157 - Loeber, R. and M. Stouthamer-Loeber, Development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist, 1998. 53: p. 242-259.
158 - Hill, N.E., et al., Developmental commentary: Ecological perspectives on parental influences during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 2007. 36(3): p. 367-377.
159 - Bowlby, J., Attachment and loss. Second ed. Attachment, ed. T.I.o.H. Relations. Vol. 1. 1969, New York: Basic Books.
160 - Ainsworth, M.S., et al., Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. 1978, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
161 - Colonnesi, C., et al., The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2011. 40(4): p. 630-45.
162 - Jones, J.D., J. Cassidy, and P.R. Shaver, Parents’ self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2015. 19(1): p. 44-76.
163 - Forehand, R., et al., Is parenting the mediator of change in behavioral parent training for externalizing problems of youth? Clinical Psychology Review, 2014. 34(8): p. 608-619.
164 - Roskam, I., et al., The development of children’s inhibition: Does parenting matter? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2014. 122: p. 166-182.
165 - Fantuzzo, J., et al., Multiple dimensions of family involvement and their relations to behavioral and learning competencies for urban, low-income children. School Psychology Review, 2004. 33: p. 467-480.
166 - Gest, S.D., et al., Shared book reading and children’s language comprehension skills: The moderating role of parental discipline practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 2004. 19: p. 319-336.
167 - MTA Cooperative Group, National Institute of Mental Health Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD follow-up: Changes in effectiveness and growth after the end of treatment. Pediatrics 2004. 113(4): p. 762-769.
168 - Lee, A. and B.J. Hankin, Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2009. 38(2): p. 219-231.
169 - Desbiens, N. and M.-H. Gagné, Profiles in the development of behavior disorders among youths with family maltreatment histories. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 2007. 12(3): p. 215-240.
170 - Carr, A., Evidence-based practice in family therapy and systemic consultation: Child-focused problems Journal of Family Therapy, 2000. 22: p. 29-60.
171 - McMahon, R.J. and J.S. Kotler, Treatment of conduct problems in children and adolescents in Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents prevention and treatment, P.M. Barrett and T.H. Ollendick, Editors. 2004, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: England. p. 396-424.
172 - Zeanah, C.H., L.J. Berlin, and N.W. Boris, Practitioner Review: Clinical applications of attachment theory and research for infants and young children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 2011. 52(8): p. 819–833.
173 - Bjornstad, G. and P. Montgomery, Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005. 18(2).