Engineering » Environmental Engineering » "Air Quality", book edited by Ashok Kumar, ISBN 978-953-307-131-2, Published: August 18, 2010 under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. © The Author(s).

Chapter 17

Fungal Air Quality in Medical Protected Environments

By Ricardo Araujo and João P. Cabral
DOI: 10.5772/9766

  1. Salam. Z. H. Abdul, R. B. Karlin, M. L. Ling, K. S. Yang, 2010 The impact of portable high-efficiency particulate air filters on the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in a large acute tertiary-care hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, 38, 4, e1 -e7.

  2. C. Alberti, A. Bouakline, P. Ribaud, C. Lacroix, P. Rousselot, T. Leblanc, F. Derouin, AspergillusStudy.Group 2001 Relationship between environmental fungal contamination and the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in haematology patients. Journal of Hospital Infection, 48 3 198 206 .

  3. E. J. Anaissie, S. L. Stratton, M. C. Dignani, C. K. Lee, R. C. Summerbell, J. H. Rex, T. P. Monson, T. J. Walsh, 2003 Pathogenic molds (including Aspergillus species) in hospital water distribution systems: a 3-year prospective study and clinical implications for patients with hematologic malignancies. Blood, 101 7 2542 2546 .

  4. A. A. Andersen, 1958 New sampler for the collection, sizing, and enumeration of viable airborne particles. Journal of Bacteriology, 76 5 471 484 .

  5. L. T. Angenent, S. T. Kelley, Amand. A. St, N. R. Pace, M. T. Hernandez, 2005 Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 13 4860 4865 .

  6. R. Araujo, A. Amorim, L. Gusmão, 2010 Genetic diversity of Aspergillus fumigatus in indoor hospital environments. Medical Mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, doi: 10.3109/13693780903575360.

  7. R. Araujo, J. P. Cabral, A. G. Rodrigues, 2008a Air filtration systems and restrictive access conditions improve indoor air quality in clinical units: Penicillium as a general indicator of hospital indoor fungal levels. American Journal of Infection Control, 36 2 129 134 .

  8. R. Araujo, A. Carneiro, S. Costa-Oliveira, C. Pina-Vaz, A. G. Rodrigues, J. E. Guimaraes, 2008b Fungal infections after haematology unit renovation: evidence of clinical, environmental and economical impact. European Journal of Haematology, 80 5 436 443 .

  9. R. Araujo, Rodrigues. A. Gonçalves, C. Pina-Vaz, 2006 Susceptibility pattern among pathogenic species of Aspergillus to physical and chemical treatments. Medical Mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 44 5 439 443 .

  10. R. Araujo, A. G. Rodrigues, 2004 Variability of germinative potential among pathogenic species of Aspergillus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42 9 4335 4337 .

  11. A. P. Bellanger, G. Reboux, S. Roussel, F. Grenouillet, E. Didier-Scherer, J. C. Dalphin, L. Millon, 2009 Indoor fungal contamination of moisture-damaged and allergic patient housing analysed using real-time PCR. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49 2 260 266 .

  12. S. J. Bent, J. D. Pierson, L. J. Forney, R. Danovaro, G. M. Luna, A. Dell’anno, B. Pietrangeli, 2007 Measuring species richness based on microbial community fingerprints: the emperor has no clothes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73 7 2399 2401 .

  13. P. Berthelot, P. Loulergue, H. Raberin, M. Turco, C. Mounier, Manh. Tran, R. Sung, F. Lucht, B. Pozzetto, D. Guyotat, 2006 Efficacy of environmental measures to decrease the risk of hospital-acquired aspergillosis in patients hospitalised in haematology wards. Clinical Microbiology and Infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 12 8 738 744 .

  14. T. C. Boswell, P. C. Fox, 2006 Reduction in MRSA environmental contamination with a portable HEPA-filtration unit. Journal of Hospital Infection, 63 1 47 54 .

  15. A. Bouakline, C. Lacroix, N. Roux, J. P. Gangneux, F. Derouin, 2000 Fungal contamination of food in hematology units. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38 11 4272 4273 .

  16. R. R. Bourdillon, O. M. Lidwell, J. C. Thomas, 1941 A slit sampler for collecting and counting air-borne bacteria. Journal of Hygiene, 41 2 197 224 .

  17. E. Bouza, T. Peláez, J. Pérez-Molina, M. Marín, L. Alcalá, B. Padilla, P. Muñoz, P. Adán, B. Bové, M. J. Bueno, F. Grande, D. Puente, M. P. Rodríguez, M. Rodríguez-Créixems, D. Vigil, O. Cuevas, Study. Aspergillus, Team, 2002 Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air. Journal of Hospital Infection, 52 4 234 242 .

  18. M. P. Brenier-Pinchart, B. Lebeau, J. L. Quesada, M. R. Mallaret, J. L. Borel, A. Mollard, F. Garban, J. P. Brion, L. Molina, J. L. Bosson, J. Y. Cahn, R. Grillot, H. Pelloux, 2009 Influence of internal and outdoor factors on filamentous fungal flora in hematology wards. American Journal of Infection Control, 37 8 631 637 .

  19. H. A. Burge, W. R. Solomon, 1987 Sampling and analysis of biological aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 21 2 451 456 .

  20. E. Carreras, 2006 Preventing exposure to moulds. Clinical Microbiology and Infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 12 77 83 .

  21. H. J. Chao, D. K. Miltom, J. Schwartz, H. A. Burge, 2001 Dustborne fungi in large office buildings. Mycopathologia, 154 2 93 106 .

  22. M. D. Chapman, A. Tsay, L. D. Vailes, 2001 Home allergen monitoring and control--improving clinical practice and patient benefits. Allergy, 56 7 604 610 .

  23. A. Claeson, S. , J. Levin, O. , G. Blomquist, A. L. Sunesson, 2002 Volatile metabolites from microorganisms grown on humid building materials and synthetic media. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4 5 667 672 .

  24. R. P. Clark, M. L. de Calcina-Goff, 2009 Some aspects of the airborne transmission of infection. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society, 6, 6, S767 -S782.

  25. E. E. Cooper, M. A. O’Reilly, D. I. Guest, S. C. Dharmage, 2003 Influence of building construction work on Aspergillus infection in a hospital setting. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 24 7 472 476 .

  26. K. J. Cortez, E. Roilides, F. Quiroz-Telles, J. Meletiadis, C. Antachopoulos, T. Knudsen, W. Buchanan, J. Milanovich, D. A. Sutton, A. Fothergill, M. G. Rinaldi, Y. R. Shea, T. Zaoutis, S. Kottilil, T. J. Walsh, 2008 Infections caused by Scedosporium spp. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 21 1 157 197 .

  27. R. Crameri, K. Blaser, 2002 Allergy and immunity to fungal infections and colonization. The European Respiratory Journal: official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology, 19 1 151 157 .

  28. L. Curtis, S. Cali, L. Conroy, K. Baker, C. H. Ou, R. Hershow, F. Norlock-Cruz, P. Scheff, 2005 Aspergillus surveillance project at a large tertiary-care hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 59 3 188 196 .

  29. C. Dacarro, A. M. Picco, P. Grisoli, M. Redolfi, 2003 Determination of aerial microbiological contamination in scholastic sports environment. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95 5 904 912 .

  30. C. Dassonville, C. Demattei, B. Detaint, S. Barral, V. Bex-Capelle, I. Momas, 2008 Assessment and predictors determination of indoor airborne fungal concentrations in Paris newborn babies’ homes. Environmental research, 108 1 80 85 .

  31. R. R. Davies, 1971 Air sampling for fungi, pollens and bacteria, In: Methods in Microbiology, 4 Booth. C., 367-404, Academic Press, London.

  32. G. R. De La Rosa, R. E. Champlin, D. P. Kontoyiannis, 2002 Risk factors for the development of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients. Transplant Infectious Disease: an official journal of the Transplantation Society, 4 1 3 9 .

  33. J. Douwes, 2009 Building dampness and its effect on indoor exposure to biological and non-biological pollutants, In: Dampness and Mould, 7 29 , WHO Europe, 978-9-28904-168-3 Copenhagen.

  34. T. Eckmanns, H. Rüden, P. Gastmeier, 2006 The influence of high-efficiency particulate air filtration on mortality and fungal infection among highly immunosuppressed patients: a systematic review. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193 10 1408 1418 .

  35. W. Eduard, D. Heederik, 1998 Methods for quantitative assessment of airborne levels of noninfectious microorganisms in highly contaminated work environments. Journal of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, 59 2 113 127 .

  36. W. Eduard, 2009 Fungal spores: a critical review of the toxicological and epidemiological evidence as a basis for occupational exposure limit setting. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 39 10 799 864 .

  37. S. Engelhart, J. Hanfland, A. Glasmacher, L. Krizek, I. G. Schmidt-Wolf, M. Exner, 2003 Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of haematology-oncology patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. Journal of Hospital Infection, 54 4 300 304 .

  38. D. G. Falvey, A. J. Streifel, 2007 Ten-year air sample analysis of Aspergillus prevalence in a university hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 67 1 35 41 .

  39. G. Fischer, R. Schwalbe, M. Möller, R. Ostrowski, W. Dott, 1999 Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a composto facility. Chemosphere, 39 5 795 810 .

  40. G. Fischer, T. Müller, R. Schwalbe, R. Ostrowski, W. Dott, 2000 Exposure to airborne fungi, MVOC and mycotoxins in biowaste-handling facilities. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 203 2 97 104 .

  41. B. Flannigan, 1997 Air sampling for fungi in indoor environments. Journal of Aerosol Science, 28 3 381 392 .

  42. S. M. Flappan, J. Portnoy, P. Jones, C. Barnes, 1999 Infant pulmonary hemorrhage in a suburban home with water damage and mold (Stachybotrys atra). Environmental Health Perspectives, 107 11 927 930 .

  43. S. K. Fridkin, W. R. Jarvis, 1996 Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 9 4 499 511 .

  44. J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, D. A. Pickersgill, V. R. Després, U. Pöschl, 2009 High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 31 12814 12819 .

  45. J. P. Gangneux, L. Noussair, A. Bouakline, N. Roux, C. Lacroix, F. Derouin, 2004 Experimental assessment of disinfection procedures for eradication of Aspergillus fumigatus in food. Blood, 104 7 2000 2002 .

  46. R. L. Górny, T. Reponen, K. Willeke, D. Schmechel, E. Robine, M. Boissier, S. A. Grinshpun, 2002 Fungal fragments as indoor air biocontaminants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68 7 3522 3531 .

  47. B. J. Green, D. Schmechel, J. K. Sercombe, E. R. Tovey, 2005a Enumeration and detection of aerosolized Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum conidia and hyphae using a novel double immunostaining technique. Journal of Immunological Methods, 307, 1-2, 127-134.

  48. B. J. Green, J. K. Sercombe, E. R. Tovey, 2005b Fungal fragments and undocumented conidia function as new aeroallergen sources. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115 5 1043 1048 .

  49. B. J. Green, E. R. Tovey, J. K. Sercombe, F. M. Blachere, D. H. Beezhold, D. Schmechel, 2006 Airborne fungal fragments and allergenicity. Medical Mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 44, Suppl 1, S245 -S255.

  50. R. A. Haugland, M. Varma, L. J. Wymer, S. J. Vesper, 2004 Quantitative PCR analysis of selected Aspergillus, Penicillium and Paecilomyces species. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 27 2 198 210 .

  51. E. W. Henningson, M. S. Ahlberg, 1994 Evaluation of microbiological aerosol samplers: a reviewJournal of Aerosol Science, 25 8 1459 1492 .

  52. E. Hintikka, L. , M. Nikulin, 1998 Airborne mycotoxins in agricultural and indoor environments. Indoor Air, 8, suppl. 4 66 70 .

  53. J. M. Hirst, 1952 An automatic volumetric spore trap. The Annals of Applied Biology, 39 2 257 265 .

  54. W. E. Horner, A. G. Worthan, P. R. Morey, 2004 Air-and dustborne mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70 11 6394 6400 .

  55. R. Houba, D. Heederik, G. Doekes, 1998 Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 158, 5 Pt 1 1499 1503 .

  56. M. Jain, L. Miller, D. Belt, D. King, D. M. Berwick, 2006 Decline in ICU adverse events, nosocomial infections and cost through a quality improvement initiative focusing on teamwork and culture change. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 15 4 235 239 .

  57. M. Jantunen, J. J. K. Jaakola, M. Krzyzanowski, 1997 Assessment of exposure to indoor air pollutants, WHO Regional Publications, European Series, 78 Copenhagen.

  58. W. K. Jo, Y. J. Seo, 2005 Indoor and outdoor bioaerosol levels at recreation facilities, elementary schools, and homes. Chemosphere, 61 11 1570 1579 .

  59. J. Kildesø, H. Würtz, K. F. Nielsen, P. Kruse, K. Wilkins, U. Thrane, S. Gravesen, P. A. Nielsen, T. Schneider, 2003 Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials. Indoor Air, 13 2 148 155 .

  60. C. Lass-Flörl, P. Rath, D. Niederwieser, G. Kofler, R. Würzner, A. Krezy, M. P. Dierich, 2000 Aspergillus terreus infections in haematological malignancies: molecular epidemiology suggests association with in-hospital plants. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46 1 31 35 .

  61. S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. M. Lee, H. Kang, Y. P. Kim, 2010 Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal community structures in an urban area by T-RFLP analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Science of the Total Environment, 408 6 1349 1357 .

  62. U. Lignell, T. Meklin, H. Rintala, A. Hyvärinen, A. Vepsäläinen, J. Pekkanen, A. Nevalainen, 2008 Evaluation of quantitative PCR and culture methods for detection of house dust fungi and streptomycetes in relation to moisture damage of the house. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 47 4 303 308 .

  63. A. Lupetti, A. Tavanti, P. Davini, E. Ghelardi, V. Corsini, I. Merusi, A. Boldrini, M. Campa, S. Senesi, 2002 Horizontal transmission of Candida parapsilosis candidemia in a neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40 7 2363 2369 .

  64. B. D. Lutz, J. Jin, M. G. Rinaldi, B. L. Wickes, M. M. Huycke, 2003 Outbreak of invasive Aspergillus infection in surgical patients, associated with a contaminated air-handling system. Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 37 6 786 793 .

  65. J. E. Malligo, L. S. Idoine, 1964 Single-stage impaction device for particle sizing biological aerosols. Applied Microbiology, 12 1 32 36 .

  66. K. F. Martinez, C. Y. Rao, N. C. Burton, 2004 Exposure assessment and analysis for biological agents. Grana, 43 4 193 208 .

  67. K. R. May, G. J. Harper, 1957 The efficiency of various liquid impinger samplers in bacterial aerosols. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 14 4 287 297 .

  68. K. R. May, 1945 The cascade impactor: an instrument for sampling coarse aerosols. Journal of Scientific Instruments, 22 10 187 195 .

  69. K. R. May, 1966 Multistage liquid impinger. Bacteriological Reviews, 30 3 559 570 .

  70. T. Meklin, R. A. Haugland, T. Reponen, M. Varma, Z. Lummus, D. Bernstein, L. J. Wymer, S. J. Vesper, 2004 Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 6 7 615 620 .

  71. M. A. Mendell, A. G. Mirer, K. Cheung, J. Douwes, T. Sigsaard, J. Bønløkke, H. W. Meyer, M. Hirvonen, R. , M. Roponen, 2009 Building dampness and its effect on indoor exposure to biological and non-biological plollutants, In: Dampness and Mould, 63 92 , WHO Europe, 978-9-28904-168-3 Copenhagen.

  72. J. Menotti, J. Waller, O. Meunier, V. Letscher-Bru, R. Herbrecht, E. Candolfi, 2005 Epidemiological study of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a haematology unit by molecular typing of environmental and patient isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Hospital Infection, 60 1 61 68 .

  73. J. Morrison, C. Yang, K. T. Lin, R. A. Haugland, A. N. Neely, S. J. Vesper, 2004 Monitoring Aspergillus species by quantitative PCR during construction of a multi-storey hospital building. Journal of Hospital Infection, 57 1 85 87 .

  74. S. Moularat, E. Robine, O. Ramalho, M. A. Oturan, 2008a Detection of fungal development in a closed environment through the identification of specific VOC: demonstration of a specific VOC fingerprint for fungal development. Science of the Total Environment, 407 1 139 146 .

  75. S. Moularat, E. Robine, O. Ramalho, M. A. Oturan, 2008b Detection of fungal development in closed spaces through the determination of specific chemical targets. Chemosphere, 72 2 224 232 .

  76. P. Muñoz, J. Guinea, T. Peláez, C. Durán, J. L. Blanco, E. Bouza, 2004 Nosocomial invasive aspergillosis in a heart transplant patient acquired during a break in the HEPA air filtration system. Transplant Infectious Disease: an official journal of the Transplantation Society, 6 1 50 54 .

  77. A. N. Neely, M. M. Orloff, 2001 Survival of some medically important fungi on hospital fabrics and plastics. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39 9 3360 3361 .

  78. R. Newson, D. Strachan, J. Corden, W. Millington, 2000 Fungal and other spore counts as predictors of admissions for asthma in the Trent region. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57 11 786 792 .

  79. K. F. Nielsen, 2003 Mycotoxin production by indoor molds. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 39 2 103 177 .

  80. S. M. Nieminen, R. Kärki, S. Auriola, M. Toivola, H. Laatsch, R. Laatikainen, A. Hyvärinen, Wright. A. von, 2002 Isolation and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus mycotoxins on growth medium and some building materials. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68 10 4871 4875 .

  81. L. Pagano, M. Caira, A. Candoni, M. Offidani, L. Fianchi, B. Martino, D. Pastore, M. Picardi, A. Bonini, A. Chierichini, R. Fanci, C. Caramatti, R. Invernizzi, D. Mattei, M. E. Mitra, L. Melillo, F. Aversa, M. T. Van Lint, P. Falcucci, C. G. Valentini, C. Girmenia, A. Nosari, 2006 The epidemiology of fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies: the SEIFEM-2004 study. Haematologica, 91 8 1068 1075 .

  82. P. Panagopoulou, J. Filioti, G. Petrikkos, P. Giakouppi, M. Anatoliotaki, E. Farmaki, A. Kanta, H. Apostolakou, A. Avlami, G. Samonis, E. Roilides, 2002 Environmental surveillance of filamentous fungi in three tertiary care hospitals in Greece. Journal of Hospital Infection, 52 3 185 191 .

  83. A. Pasanen, L. , P. Pasanen, M. J. Jantunen, P. Kalliokski, 1991 Significance of air humidity for fungal spore release into the air. Atmospheric Environment, 25 2 459 462 .

  84. A. L. Pasanen, H. Heinonen-Tanski, P. Kalliokoski, M. J. Jantunen, 1992a Fungal microcolonies on indoor surfaces- an explanation for the base-level fungal spore counts in indoor air. Atmospheric Environment, 26B, 1 117 120 .

  85. A. L. Pasanen, T. Juutinen, M. J. Jantunen, P. Kalliokoski, 1992b Occurrence and moisture requirements of microbial growth in building materials. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 30 4 273 283 .

  86. C. Pasquarella, O. Pitzurra, A. Savino, 2000 The index of microbial air contamination. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46 4 241 256 .

  87. J. K. Peat, J. Li, 1999 Reversing the trend: reducing the prevalence of asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 103, 1 Pt 1 1 10 .

  88. D. A. Pegues, B. A. Lasker, M. M. Mc Neil, P. M. Hamm, J. L. Lundal, B. M. Kubak, 2002 Cluster of cases of invasive aspergillosis in a transplant intensive care unit: evidence of person-to-person airborne transmission. Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 34 3 412 416 .

  89. V. M. Pietarinen, H. Rintala, A. Hyvärinen, U. Lignell, P. Kärkkäinen, A. Nevalainen, 2008 Quantitative PCR analysis of fungi and bacteria in building materials and comparison to culture-based analysis. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 10 5 655 663 .

  90. G. Pini, R. Donato, E. Faggi, R. Fanci, 2004 Two years of a fungal aerobiocontamination survey in a Florentine haematology ward. European Journal of Epidemiology, 19 7 693 698 .

  91. J. M. Portnoy, C. S. Barnes, K. Kennedy, 2004 Sampling for indoor fungi. Current Reviews of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113 2 189 198 .

  92. C. Potera, 2001 Clothing spreads spores. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 8, A365.

  93. I. Raad, H. Hanna, C. Osting, R. Hachem, J. Umphrey, J. Tarrand, H. Kantarjian, G. P. Bodey, 2002 Masking of neutropenic patients on transport from hospital rooms is associated with a decrease in nosocomial aspergillosis during construction. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 23 1 41 43 .

  94. R. C. Radin, P. A. Greenberger, R. Patterson, A. Ghory, 1983 Mould counts and exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clinical Allergy, 13 3 271 275 .

  95. L. Ranjard, F. Poly, J. C. Lata, C. Mougel, J. Thioulouse, S. Nazaret, 2001 Characterization of bacterial and fungal soil communities by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis fingerprints: biological and methodological variability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67 10 4479 4487 .

  96. W. J. Rea, N. Didriksen, T. R. Simon, Y. Pan, E. J. Fenyves, B. Griffiths, 2003 Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illness. Archives of Environmental Health, 58 7 399 405 .

  97. J. S. Remington, S. C. Schimpff, 1981 Occasional notes. Please don’t eat the salads. The New England Journal of Medicine, 304 7 433 435 .

  98. P. Ren, D. G. Ahearn, S. A. Crow, 1999 Comparative study of Aspergillus mycotoxin production on enriched media and construction material. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 23 3 209 213 .

  99. T. Reponen, S. Seo, C. , F. Grimsley, T. Lee, C. Crawford, S. A. Grinshpun, 2007 Fungal fragments in moldy houses: a field study in homes in New Orleans and Southern Ohio. Atmospheric Environment, 41 37 8140 8149 .

  100. G. Richardson, S. Eick, R. Jones, 2005 How is the indoor environment related to asthma?: literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52 3 328 339 .

  101. M. Sautour, N. Sixt, F. Dalle, C. L’Ollivier, V. Fourquenet, C. Calinon, K. Paul, S. Valvin, A. Maurel, S. Aho, G. Couillault, C. Cachia, O. Vagner, B. Cuisenier, D. Caillot, A. Bonnin, 2009 Profiles and seasonal distribution of airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor environments at a French hospital. Science of the Total Environment, 407 12 3766 3771 .

  102. H. Schleibinger, D. Laussmann, C. Brattig, M. Mangler, D. Eis, H. Ruden, 2005 Emission patterns and emission rates of MVOC and the possibility for predicting hidden mold damage? Indoor Air, 15, Suppl 9 98 104 .

  103. S. Schuchardt, H. Kruse, 2009 Quantitative volatile metabolite profiling of common indoor fungi: relevancy for indoor air analysis. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 49 4 350 362 .

  104. U. M. Schütte, Z. Abdo, S. J. Bent, C. Shyu, C. J. Williams, J. D. Pierson, L. J. Forney, 2008 Advances in the use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes to characterize microbial communities. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80 3 365 380 .

  105. L. Sehulster, R. Y. Chinn, CDC &,HICPAC 2003 Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control, 52, RR-10 1 42 .

  106. S. C. Seo, T. Reponen, L. Levin, S. A. Grinshpun, 2009 Size-fractionated (1 → 3)- β-D-glucan concentrations aerosolized from different moldy building materials. Science of the Total Environment, 407 2 806 814 .

  107. B. G. Shelton, K. H. Kirkland, W. D. Flanders, G. K. Morris, 2002 Profiles of airborne fungi in building and outdoor environments in the United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68 4 1743 1753 .

  108. R. J. Sherertz, A. Belani, B. S. Kramer, G. J. Elfenbein, R. S. Weiner, M. L. Sullivan, R. G. Thomas, G. P. Samsa, 1987 Impact of air filtration on nosocomial Aspergillus infections. Unique risk of bone marrow transplant recipients. The American Journal of Medicine, 83 4 709 718 .

  109. N. V. Sipsas, D. P. Kontoyiannis, 2008 Occupation, lifestyle, diet, and invasive fungal infections. Infection, 36 6 515 525 .

  110. A. Srinivasan, C. Beck, T. Buckley, A. Geyh, G. Bova, W. Merz, T. M. Perl, 2002 The ability of hospital ventilation systems to filter Aspergillus and other fungi following a building implosion. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 23 9 520 524 .

  111. L. D. Stetzenbach, M. P. Buttner, P. Cruz, 2004 Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 15 3 170 174 .

  112. D. A. Stevens, R. B. Moss, V. P. Kurup, A. P. Knutsen, P. Greenberger, M. A. Judson, D. W. Denning, R. Crameri, A. S. Brody, M. Light, M. Skov, W. Maish, G. Mastella, in. Participants, Cystic. the, Foundation. Fibrosis, Conference. Consensus, 2003 Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis--state of the art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 37, Suppl 3, S225 -S264.

  113. J. C. Venter, K. Remington, J. F. Heidelberg, A. L. Halpern, D. Rusch, J. A. Eisen, D. Wu, I. Paulsen, K. E. Nelson, W. Nelson, D. E. Fouts, S. Levy, A. H. Knap, M. W. Lomas, K. Nealson, O. White, J. Peterson, J. Hoffman, R. Parsons, H. Baden-Tillson, C. Pfannkoch, Y. H. Rogers, H. O. Smith, 2004 Environmental genome shotgun sequencing of the Sargasso Sea. Science, 304 5667 66 74 .

  114. M. C. Verdenelli, C. Cecchini, C. Orpianesi, G. M. Dadea, A. Cresci, 2003 Efficacy of antimicrobial filter treatments on microbial colonization of air panel filters. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94 1 9 15 .

  115. A. Verhoeff, 1993 Biological particles in indoor environments, European collaborative action, Indoor Air Quality & its impact on man, report 12 EUR 14988 EN, Commission of The European Communities, Luxembourg.

  116. P. E. Verweij, J. J. Kerremans, A. Voss, J. F. Meis, 2000 Fungal contamination of tobacco and marijuana. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 22, 2875 EOF EOF .

  117. R. P. Vonberg, P. Gastmeier, 2006 Nosocomial aspergillosis in outbreak settings. Journal of Hospital Infection, 63 3 246 254 .

  118. M. C. Vos, H. P. Endtz, D. Horst-Kreft, J. Doorduijn, E. Lugtenburg, H. A. Verbrugh, B. Löwenberg, S. de Marie, C. van Pelt, A. van Belkum, 2006 Candida krusei transmission among hematology patients resolved by adapted antifungal prophylaxis and infection control measures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44 3 1111 1114 .

  119. A. Warris, C. H. Klaassen, J. F. Meis, M. T. De Ruiter, H. A. De Valk, T. G. Abrahamsen, P. Gaustad, P. E. Verweij, 2003 Molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from water, air, and patients shows two clusters of genetically distinct strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41 9 4101 4106 .

  120. S. C. Wilson, T. L. Brasel, C. G. Carriker, G. D. Fortenberry, M. R. Fogle, J. M. Martin, C. Wu, L. A. Andriychuk, E. Karunasena, D. C. Straus, 2004 An investigation into techniques for cleaning mold-contaminated home contents. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 1 7 442 447 .

  121. A. A. Woodcock, N. Steel, C. B. Moore, S. J. Howard, A. Custovic, D. W. Denning, 2006 Fungal contamination of bedding. Allergy, 61 1 140 142 .