Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Pesticides in the Modern World - Effects of Pesticides Exposure

Edited by Margarita Stoytcheva, ISBN 978-953-307-454-2, 388 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published September 12, 2011 under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license
DOI: 10.5772/943

The introduction of the synthetic organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticides by 1950's marked the beginning of the modern pesticides era and a new stage in the agriculture development. Evolved from the chemicals designed originally as warfare agents, the synthetic pesticides demonstrated a high effectiveness in preventing, destroying or controlling any pest. Therefore, their application in the agriculture practices made it possible enhancing crops and livestock's yields and obtaining higher-quality products, to satisfy the food demand of the continuously rising world's population. Nevertheless, the increase of the pesticide use estimated to 2.5 million tons annually worldwide since 1950., created a number of public and environment concerns. This book, organized in two sections, addresses the various aspects of the pesticides exposure and the related health effects. It offers a large amount of practical information to the professionals interested in pesticides issues.

Prof. Margarita Stoytcheva

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico

Professor Margarita Stoytcheva graduated from the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia, Bulgaria, with titles of Chemical Engineer and Master of Electrochemical Technologies. She has a Ph.D. and DSc. degrees in chemistry and technical sciences. She has acted in research and teaching in several Universities in Bulgaria, Algeria and France. From 2006. to the present she has participated in activities of scientific research, technological development and teaching in Mexico at the University of Baja California, Institute of Engineering, Mexicali, as a full time researcher. Since 2008. she has been a member of the National System of Researchers of Mexico. Her interests and areas of research are analytical chemistry and biotechnology.

Experience

Education

  • 1969 - 1979

    Inorganic Technologies, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia

    Inorganic Technologies

  • 1975 – 1979

    Inorganic Technologies, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia

    Elechtrochemistry

  • 2006 – 2006

    Technological, University of Food Technology, Plovdiv

    Biotechnology

Edited Books

  • Pesticides - Strategies for Pesticides Analysis

    This book provides recent information on various analytical procedures and techniques, representing strategies for reliability, specificity, selectivity and sensitivity improvements in pesticides analysis. The volume covers three main topics: current trends in sample preparation, selective and sensitive chromatographic detection and determination of pesticide residues in food and environmental samples, and the application of biological (immunoassays-and biosensors-based) methods in pesticides analysis as an alternative to the chromatographic methods for "in situ" and "on line" pesticides quantification. Intended as electronic edition, providing immediate "open access" to its content, the book is easy to follow and will be of interest to professionals involved in pesticides analysis.

  • Pesticides - Formulations, Effects, Fate

    This book provides an overview on a large variety of pesticide-related topics, organized in three sections. The first part is dedicated to the "safer" pesticides derived from natural materials, the design and the optimization of pesticides formulations, and the techniques for pesticides application. The second part is intended to demonstrate the agricultural products, environmental and biota pesticides contamination and the impacts of the pesticides presence on the ecosystems. The third part presents current investigations of the naturally occurring pesticides degradation phenomena, the environmental effects of the break down products, and different approaches to pesticides residues treatment. Written by leading experts in their respective areas, the book is highly recommended to the professionals, interested in pesticides issues.

  • Pesticides - The Impacts of Pesticides Exposure

    Pesticides are supposed to complete their intended function without "any unreasonable risk to man or the environment". Pesticides approval and registration are performed "taking into account the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide". The present book documents the various adverse impacts of pesticides usage: pollution, dietary intake and health effects such as birth defects, neurological disorders, cancer and hormone disruption. Risk assessment methods and the involvement of molecular modeling to the knowledge of pesticides are highlighted, too. The volume summarizes the expertise of leading specialists from all over the world.

  • Pesticides in the Modern World - Effects of Pesticides Exposure

    The introduction of the synthetic organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticides by 1950's marked the beginning of the modern pesticides era and a new stage in the agriculture development. Evolved from the chemicals designed originally as warfare agents, the synthetic pesticides demonstrated a high effectiveness in preventing, destroying or controlling any pest. Therefore, their application in the agriculture practices made it possible enhancing crops and livestock's yields and obtaining higher-quality products, to satisfy the food demand of the continuously rising world's population. Nevertheless, the increase of the pesticide use estimated to 2.5 million tons annually worldwide since 1950., created a number of public and environment concerns. This book, organized in two sections, addresses the various aspects of the pesticides exposure and the related health effects. It offers a large amount of practical information to the professionals interested in pesticides issues.

  • Pesticides in the Modern World - Pests Control and Pesticides Exposure and Toxicity Assessment

    The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects. Second section provides recent information on biomarkers currently used to evaluate pesticide exposure, effects, and genetic susceptibility of a number of organisms. Some antioxidant enzymes and vitamins as biochemical markers for pesticide toxicity are examined. The inhibition of the cholinesterases as a specific biomarker for organophosphate and carbamate pesticides is commented, too. The third book section addresses to a variety of pesticides toxic effects and related issues including: the molecular mechanisms involved in pesticides-induced toxicity, fish histopathological, physiological, and DNA changes provoked by pesticides exposure, anticoagulant rodenticides mode of action, the potential of the cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, the effects of pesticides on bumblebee, spiders and scorpions, the metabolic fate of the pesticide-derived aromatic amines, etc.

  • Pesticides in the Modern World - Risks and Benefits

    This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination. The second book section is dedicated to the effects of pesticides on the non-target organisms and the environment such as: effects involving pollinators, effects on nutrient cycling in ecosystems, effects on soil erosion, structure and fertility, effects on water quality, and pesticides resistance development. The third book section furnishes numerous data contributing to the better understanding of the pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The addressed in this book issues should attract the public concern to support rational decisions to pesticides use.

  • Pesticides in the Modern World - Pesticides Use and Management

    This book brings together issues on pesticides and biopesticides use with the related subjects of pesticides management and sustainable development. It contains 24 chapters organized in three sections. The first book section supplies an overview on the current use of pesticides, on the regulatory status, on the levels of contamination, on the pesticides management options, and on some techniques of pesticides application, reporting data collected from all over the world. Second section is devoted to the advances in the evolving field of biopesticides, providing actual information on the regulation of the plant protection products from natural origin in the European Union. It reports data associated with the application of neem pesticides, wood pyrolysis liquids and bacillus-based products. The third book section covers various aspects of pesticides management practices in concert with pesticides degradation and contaminated sites remediation technologies, supporting the environmental sustainability.

  • Pesticides in the Modern World - Trends in Pesticides Analysis

    The book offers a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in pesticides analysis, including pesticides identification and characterization. The 20 chapters are organized in three sections. The first book section addresses issues associated with pesticides classification, pesticides properties and environmental risks, and pesticides safe management, and provides a general overview on the advanced chromatographic and sensors- and biosensors-based methods for pesticides determination. The second book section is specially devoted to the chromatographic pesticides quantification, including sample preparation. The basic principles of the modern extraction techniques, such as: accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, matrix solid phase dispersion extraction, cloud point extraction, and QuEChERS are comprehensively described and critically evaluated. The third book section describes some alternative analytical approaches to the conventional methods of pesticides determination. These include voltammetric techniques making use of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, and solid-phase spectrometry combined with flow-injection analysis applying flow-based optosensors.

  • Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies

    The book "Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies" is intended to provide a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel production. It includes 22 chapters, organized in two sections. The first book section: "Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production" covers issues associated with the utilization of cost effective non-edible raw materials and wastes, and the development of biomass feedstock with physical and chemical properties that facilitate it processing to biodiesel. These include Brassicaceae spp., cooking oils, animal fat wastes, oleaginous fungi, and algae. The second book section: "Biodiesel Production Methods" is devoted to the advanced techniques for biodiesel synthesis: supercritical transesterification, microwaves, radio frequency and ultrasound techniques, reactive distillation, and optimized transesterification processes making use of solid catalysts and immobilized enzymes. The adequate and up-to-date information provided in this book should be of interest for research scientist, students, and technologists, involved in biodiesel production.

  • Agricultural Chemistry

    The present book is a collection of ten original research articles and reports, associated with selected topics in agricultural chemistry. The discussed issues are organized in four sections: Classification and labeling of active substances in plant protection products, Environmental and stress plant physiology and behavior, Antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of plant extracts, and Pollutants analysis and effects. The information provided in this book should be of interest for academic researchers and for agriculturalists.

Publications